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FEB. 24, 1830.]

Mr. Foot's Resolution.

(SENATE.

Instead of laughing at the calamities of the South, and “Gentlemen tell us they are in favor of domestic in. mucking their complaints, God knows we have of late dustry; so am I. They would give it protection; so would sufficient reasons at the East to make us feel, in com- 1. But then all domestic industry is not confined to manumon suffering, common sympathies; and to cast about, if factures. The employments of agriculture, commerce, possible, for the consideration of any measures likely to and navigation, are all branches of the same domestic bring relief and harmony. The very Executive who industry; they all furnish employment for American signed the last tariff bill officially declared it, “in its de capital and American labor. And when the question is, tails, not acceptable to the great interests of any portion whether new duties shall be laid, for the purpose of giving of the Union, not even to the interests which it was further encouragement to particular manufactures, every specially intended to subserve.” (Sce President's message, reasonable man must ask himself, both whether the proDecember, 1828. ]

posed new encouragement be necessary, and whether Among the merchants and manufacturers, tire wide and it can be given without injustice to other branches of indesolating failures at the East, since that declaration, bare dustry.”--(26 Niles' Register, 412.) more than verified the evils naturally to be anticipated Entertaining such notions on these topics, I must be from a bill of that character. The present Executive pardoned if, as one of the majority, I decline to accept also, has declarecl, that “ some of its provisions require the invitation of the gentleman on my right, from Missouri, modification.” (See President's message, 1829.) (Mr. Banton] to stand on his new political platform,

The gentleman before me [Mr. Silsker can testify, whether of nine or thirty-nine articles, of opposition to that nothing like a parallel to those failures has occured the present administration. Without claiming for this in the East for a quarter of a century. How much of administration infallibility, I still believe its general course this deep distress there has been caused by our present of policy democratic and constitutional; and my friend unequal tarift, I, and my constituents, I am satisfied, wish from Louisiana can inform him or the gentleman from to inquire, not from hostility to the protecting principle, Maine of as severe Jeremiads for the loss of office in as an incident to raising revenue, or as countervailing 1800, as now: can inform him that, on the principle of legislation against oppresive foreign measures, or in some rotation in office for even political motives, this policy cases as a means of preparation in peace for the wants of only follows up the doctrines of the great revolution of war on that point most of us harmonize-but to see whe- 1800; and that, since, it has in pratice had the sanction ther any just and equal legislation requires, in profound of the people and the States in every quarter of the Union. pe ace, and with a prosperous revenue, that the people of Even in Maine, “ without respect to sex, age, or conNew Hampshire alone should pay more than their State dition,” to use its Senator's language, when parties tax yearly, as a duty on salt-on a single article of the are strongly divided, the same policy has been pushed first necessity of life; should pay over one hundred per through, to the removal of doorkeepers. cent. tax on molasses and other great necessaries; and It is the true republican doctrine. A rotation first should be taxed most expensively for every nail driven in made by the people themselves, in the highest office in a farmer's door, every bolt in a vessel, every yard of can- the land the Chief Executive of the Union; and made rass spread on the ocean, and every pound of sugar, for political cause, for probala as well as allegata, accordcoffee, or tea, that brings comfort to the domestic fireside. ing to the verdict returned. Does not the same cause I wish to inquire whether this is to be persisted in, after affect most of the active deputies and subordinates as well the impost will not be needed for either revenue or pro- as the principal? Whatever disappointment and suffering tection, but merely to enable this or any other adminis- by removal some individuals may sustain-deserving and tration to dole out sops or bribes to win States that hold receiving in many respects my private sympathy--yet they the balance of political power, or who give signs of in- know the legal tenure of their offices, and, if violent subordination to the powers that be. They do not wish partisans, should disdain to hold them under men and an to attempt any thing but equal justice between the three administration they have wantonly calumniated. Hence, great branches of industry, but agree with the Executive the agents of the people cannot fear the cry of cruelty, of New Hampshire, in 1822, that,

persccution, or Neroism, when following calmly the cx“No policy can be more obviously unsound than that ample set by the people themselves; when, at the worst, of creating manufactures, urconnected with national de- if the power of removal be discrectly exercised, doing fence, or important to national interest, at the public ex. no injury to the public, but to change one good man for pense, to be permanently supported by the same means. another good one; and when teaching to many the salu. However disguised such procedure might be, it would be, tary lesson in a republic, that office holders have no proin its effects, the imposition of a perpetual tax upon the perty in their offices, and that liability to removal tends to productive branches of national industry, to be applied to increase industry and fidelity. Nor need thosc agents the support of an unproductive one.” (19 Niles' Register, dread the discussion of the constitutionality of the expage 262.]

ercise of a power of removal, which was legislatively re. i'hey never can agree that the eight-tenths of our po- cognized by the very first Congress under the constitupulation as fariners are not entitled to full consideration tion; was thien advocated by the framers of that constituin tariff legislation; and that our old fashioned fisheries tion; and has been practised on, at pleasure, by cvery and navigation are to be sent to sea adrift, without their Executive, from Wasliington down to the present Chief due proportion of favor and protection. We have lords Magistrate. of the soil as well as lords of the spindle, and I for one, The extent of the exercise has been left to the though friendly to a moderate an equal tariff, on the discretion and policy of that branch of the Government principles before named, can never consent that the whose duty it is “to see the laws faithfully executed;" self-styled American System shall be confined in its and if it was less under one and more under another bounties to spinning jennies alone, and exclude as worth- aclministration, it has always been influenced by the state less and uncieserving our agriculture and our commerce. of that administration, whether coming in as opposed or Much less can I consent that the American System shall hostile to their predecessors, and whether in a minority or he converted into a hobby-horse, on which any aspirant a majority, so as to be able to accomplish their wishes. whatever may ride into political power. “Il vaulting The other doctrine is the doctrine of minorities, and, if ambition doth o'erleap itself.” And the notions of a dis- correct, the tenure of all office might as well be changed tinguished member of the other House, in 1824, on Ameri- to life, and our Government become, in name, as in praccan industry, have ever met with my entire approbation. tice, a monarchy. Then, in carnest, well might we ac(Mr. WEUSTER.)

cept the proposition of the gentleman, to go over to the

SENATE.]
Mr. Foot's Resolution.

[Fer. 25, 26, 1830. minority for greater tranquillity, and, as in other monar- worth preserving for the use of the Government, why chies and despotisms, see how admirably minorities can should you sport away your public land more than your govern.

One accidental instance of such a government, public moneys? For the manner in which it is proposed by way of illustration, may possibly have been given to us to get rid of it, if not sporting it away, is probably as bad. this session, in respect to the printing of the public docu I do not intend to limit my remarks to the subject of the ments; and, I must confess, it has not diminished my public lands, entirely, but, afier I shall have done with aversion to such kind of governments, and especially to that, will take a cursory view of several other topics that their practical doctrines on public economy. If the gentle liave excited much interest; which, perhaps, I may not man from Missouri, on my right, (Mr. Banton] seeks by treat precisely as other gentlemen have done, yet, I will such measures to pull down this administration, he may endeavor to treat them fairly. I have always found that not find it so "downhill a business” as he represented the matters of fact give a fairer view of party subjects than pulling down administrations in this country usually to be your abstract speeches. A gentleman -who speaks abPerhaps it would be well, before further taunts of this stractedly generally does little more than give you what kind arc repeated, to set history right, and to recollect is best suited to his purpose. But if these topics are disthat pulling down administrations in this country has never cussed for public use, the public are entitled to hear all; proved quite so easy and downhill a business as seems to otherwise the public are imposed upon; they are misguidbe supposed, when the administrations have been demo-ed by secing but one side of the question. The public are cratic--not a very downhill concern when it was attenipt- always prepared to judge rightly, and, if correctly informed on either Mr. Jefferson's, Mr. Madison's, or Mr. Mon-ed, will always do so. On the subject of party politicsroe's administration; but rather easier to be sure--rather a subject from which there is more to fear than froin any more of a downhill concern--in the two four-year adminis- other that agitates your Government--the truth has not trations in this country, suspected, at least, of no very been half told; and when I reach it, I may perhaps differ great devotion to some of the leading principles of de- from other gentlemen in the view that I may take of it. mocracy.

On the subject of the public lands, their importance, But i shat neither vaunt nor prophesy; but only express which seems to be overlooked, and the manner in which a doubt that, if the presentadministration may yet be as easily the gentleman from New Hampshire [Mr. Woonburyad pulled down, it will not be pulled down by such measures my colleague [Mr. Harne]propose to dispose of them, their as the printing resolution, nor exactly by stich politicians as views are so totally different from my own, as to require my now lead in the attack on that administration. If beaten first attention. And believing, as I do, that they have not ever in that way for a few days, the friends of it probably treated that subject as its importance requires, I will first nohave Antäan vigor enough to rise stronger from the fall. if tice what they have respectively said on that question, and the administration, relying upon its real friends, and on then give my reasons, founded on facts, why i differ from the true principles of democracy, is still occasionally them. beaten, whether in fact, or only on paper and in party

The gentleman from New Hampshire says, in addition credulity, the opposition may find it will not long stay to doing justice to the people of the Western States, it is beaten. And this “ downhill business” may prove an accessary to accelerate the sales of your public lands, as uphill job to the undertakers. At least if this adminis-fast as possible, lest you cirive your citizens to foreign tration is ever, by such leaders, and in this way, rolled to countries, to seek for lands and comfortable homes. In the bottom of the hill, I may, as a Yankee, be allowed to support of this opinion, that gentleman informs us that guess, that these leaders, like Sisyphus, will find it must the British Government is now selling lands at reduced prispeedily be rolled back again.

ces, not only in their colonies in New Holland, but in the I have thus finished (said Mr. W.] what my sense of Canadas, and are thereby holding out inducements to your duty, painfully, in some respects, has urged me to say on citizens to emigrate thither. That other European nations this occasion; and if, in the cause of my political friends, have adopted the same seductive policy. Even Persia I may have flung myself on the spears of my eneinies to holds out inducements to emigrants, by selling her lands perislı, I shall be content to perish in a cause which my and this liberal policy of other nations, your citizens, we

In consequence of your own delays, 'heart loves, and my judgment approves. [Here the debate closed for this day.)

are told, are actually departing tiom the United States;

by which we are to understand, your States are to be deTHURSDAY, FEBRUARY 25, 1830.

populated, and your physical strength transferred to other The Senate resumed the consideration of the resolu. countries, and to foreign enemies. This would be an intion offered by Mr. FOOT.

judicious policy, indeed, on the part of our Government, Mr. SMITH, of South Carolina, addressed the Senate lucement could an American citizen have to break up his

could we assent to the premises. But what possible inuntil three o'clock, when he gave way for a motion to household, sell off every thing, and transport himself to acljourn.

New Holland--a country that not cre American in twenty

thousand ever heard of-there to speculate upon a quarter FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 26, 1830.

section of land, when there are millions of acros lying at his Mr. SMITH, of South Carolina, addressed the Senate own door, at one dollar and twenty-five cents per acre Of in continuation and conclusion of the speech which he can we imagine that any motive whatever cculd induce an commenced yesterday.

American to forego all the comforts held out at home, to He remarked that the debate had assumed a wide range, look for better times in Persia? and encircled almost every political subject that had agi What is the fact [Mr. S. inquired) as regards the tated the Government for the last forty years, and more. Canadas? In 1825 I visited that country, and whilst Although about to give my own view's to the Senate, (said at Quebec, and elsewhere, was informed, from high Mr. S.]I do not aspire to ornament, but to illustrate what authority, that their Government imported from Ireland, I may say. This debate has been one of feeling; and es- annually, ten thousand people, and that another ten thoupecially as it related to the disposition, by the General Go- sand, at least, came of their own accord, or were brought vernment, of the public lands. And if i am to judge from from that country by their wealthy friends. That most of the manner in which it has been treated by gentlemen who these people went to Upper Canada, being esteemed the have said a great deal concerning it, I should suppose they best portion of the British possessions in America, and had examined but superficially its extent and importance there received a bounty in lands, farming utensils, and to the people of the United States. If your treasure is provisions, by the Government, and were there kept un

FEB. 26, 1830.]

Mr. Foot's Resolution.

(SENATE.

He further says:

der some kind of guard, to prevent them from emigrating. have been paid, if he should not give them away, he would Notwithstanding all those attentions, and all this vigilance at least sell them to the States in which they lie, for a mere on the part of Government, one-half of them, at least, nominal sum, and of that nominal sum he would not put male their escape to the United States. The reasons why one cent into the public treasury; and that he would now they should do so are obvious. Whilst this country, sir, begin with the State of Ohio, as he considered that State continues to present so many and such strong inducements ready for such a change in our policy.)" to the enterprising, as well as the oppressed of other na In discussing subjects of public concern, (said Mr. S.] tions, we have none of the perils, which that gentleman has I will always go with my colleague, whensoever good reabrought to our view, to fear.

sons exist to justify me in doing so. But, upon this occaMy colleague (Mr. Harxa) had been still more importu- sion, my views are essentially different from his. He thinks nate; and would induce a belief that this Government the people of the Western States are excessively oppresswould be overwhelmeil, if you do not forth with dispose of ed and borne down by the exactions of the General Goyour public lands, and that to the Western States; and re-vernment. I & tertain a contrary opinion. I think the proaches the General Government for selling, instead of Government has been more than lenient to the people of giving them to the Western people. Before I offer my the West. He has given his reasons for the opinions he own opinion, I will give his, in his own words, as far as he entertains. I beg leave to give mine why I am opposed to has published what he expressed. He says:

his propositions. He says the people of the West are "No gentleman can fail to perceive that this is a ques- hardly dealt with: the profits of their labor were annually tion no longer to be evaded: it must be met-fairly and drawn off to fill the coffers of the treasury, and to be exfearlessly met A question that is pressed upon us in so pended elsewhere; that the amount of their debts exceedmany ways, that intrudes in such a variety of shapes, in- cd their ability to pay: that, under a system by which a volving so deeply the feelings and interests of a large por- drain like this is constantly operating upon the wealth of tion of the Union, camot be put aside, or laid to sleep. the whole community, the country may truly be said to be We cannot long avoid it--we must meet and overcome it, afHicted with a curse, &c. or it will overcome us. Let us, then, Mr. President, be pre It is not from any unkind feelings towards the people of pared to encounter it, in a spirit of wisdom and of justice.” the West (said Mr. S.] that I am induced to differ from

my colleague. On the contrary, I shall always rejoice in “I believe that, out of the Western country, there is no their prosperity. An overgrown prosperity, however, subject in the whole range of our legislation, less under- was not to be cherished, at the entire expense of the rest stood, and in relation to which there exists so many errors, of the Union. I will endeavor to ascertain if these comand such unhappy prejudices and misconceptions. There plaints, which seem to grate with such severity upon our is a marked difference observable between our policy and feelings, were well founded, or imaginary only; The that of every other nation that has attempted to establish Western States are compared to the colonies of the mocolonies, or create new States. The English, the French, narchical Governments of Europe, and their policy had and the Spaniards, have, successively, planted their colonies been urged by my colleague as worthy our imitation. The here, and have all adopted the same policy, which, from colonies of monarchical Governments, and the new States the very beginning of the world, had always been found adopted into this Union, are totally different in their chanecessary in the settlement of new countries, viz: a free racter. A colony founded by a monarch is never with a grant of lands, without money and without price. The view to promote human happiness, or the private interest payment of a penny, or a peppercorn, was the stipulated of the subject, but for the aggrandizement of the monarch price.”

himself

. "He does it to augment his power. He gives Here he contrasts the policy of these foreign Govern- his domain to his subjects, without money and without ments with the policy of our own Government, it being price;” “ for a penny or a peppercorn.". But he can their policy to give away their lands, and ours to sell then strip them of every vestige of civil and religious liberty, for a fair price. And says of our policy:

if he chooses to do so. The lands composing the West“It would seem that the cardinal point of our policy ern States do not belong to Congress; they belong to the was not to settle the country, and facilitate the formation of people of the United States; not obtained by conquest, new States, but to fill our coffers by coining our lands into but purchased with their money. Congress is nothing gold. Let is now consider for a moment, Mr. President, more than their agent to dispose of them upon fair terms, the effect of these two opposite systems on the condition and for a price, and that price to be placed in the public of a new State. I will take the state of Missouri

, by way treasury; not for the benefit of any particular portion of of example. The inhabitants of this new State, under such the States, but for the benefit of the Union, in which the a system, it is most obvious, must have commenced their Western States enjoy a full participation. These lands operations under a load of debt, the annual payment of are not sold to, or forced upon, any portion of your which must necessarily drain their country of the whole citizens, who had no alternative. They were the comprofits of their labor, just so long as this system shall last. mon property of the people. They were sold at auction Sir, the amount of this debt has, in every one of the new to the highest bidder. Those who chose to buy, and States, actually constantly exceeded the ability of the peo- every one had their option, bought with a view of going ple to pay. What has been the consequence, sr? Almost there to better their condition. They did not buy until the universal poverty. Sir, under a system by which a drain country was conquered and at peace. They were at no like this is constantly operating upon the wealth of the Expense in conquering the country. It was conquered whole community, the country may be truly said to be af- by the Government, and the lands surveved, ready for the Aicted with a curse.

highest bidder to take possession immediately. Is it right, My colleague, (said Mr. S.) after passing a high eulo-sir, because a sinall portion of the people have, as a matter gium on the English, French, and Spanish inonarchies, for of free choice, bid off a small portion of your public lands, giving away their public lands - without money and with-that you should surrender to them four or five hundred out price, for a penny or a peppercorn,” and a censure millions of acres for a mere nominal sum, for no other reaupon our own Government, for its oppresssion upon the son than because it is said they cannot pay their debts? people of the West, for selling, instead of giving them all Sir, there are other insuperable objections to disposing the lands, has declared, (that after the public debt shall of your lands in this way: for, suppose you were to sell

The part marked with double commas contains verbatim what lie * The part printed in brack: ts is what Mr. Hayne expressed, verbasaid in his prinud speech, as corrected by himself, and published in tim, in his first speech, but which bas been umiltu ii hii spetch as the Daily National Intelligencer, of January 29th.

printed.-- Notes by Mris.

"*

SENATE.]

Mr. Foot's Resolution.

(FEB. 26, 1830.

to the State of Ohio all the public lands that lie within its roads; lands for colleges, lands for every other public inchartered limits, for a mere nominal sum, could you ex-stitution for which they have asked it; lands in great pect thereby to purify the political morals of the commu- abundance for making roads and canals--half a million, nity, or stay the importunities of the people of the West and a million of acres at a time, have been given. When will not every other Western State demand the same in- times grew hard, and they could not pay, without great dulgence? Then, sir, instead of being “lashed round the inconvenience, for these over purchases, Congress enactmiserable circle of occasional argument,” by a few indied laws authorizing every purchaser to relinquish to the vidual debtors, you will be doubly - lashed” by the whole Government any portion of the lands he had purchased, people of the West. They will at once ask you to remit and transfer the moneys paid therefor to the payment of that nominal sum; and if there be not virtue and firmness such lands as he thought fit to retain. These laws had enough in Congress to resist the “lashings” and importu- been re-enacted whenever asked for. All moneys that nities of a few public debtors, how are you to calculate had been forfeited for not complying with the stipulated upon such delicate statesmen, as this argument would im- conditions of sales of lands, were returned. Sir, Misply Congress to consist of, to resist the pressure of the souri

, which my colleague had selected as a State on whole Western States, united in one common cause, and which the oppression of the General Government had fall. propelled by the same common interest? If we have not en with a heavy hand, had received all those indulgences, firmnesss enough to listen to the arguments of two or privileges, and donations, with the other Western States. three gentlemen from the West, without being subdued, They had, morcover, been peculiarly cherished by the against the convictions of our own minds, we ought to say General Government.

The public laws, uncler which the so at once, and tell the people of the West, we know you trial of title to lands claimed by that State, and also by ought not to have these lands, because they are the com- the United States, were to be decided, had been modelled mon property of us all; but we have po firmness to resist and rernodelled to suit the wishes of her citizens, when. your importunities; therefore, take them, and save Con ever her Senators have said to Congress that a change of gress from corruption* Can any thing be more degrad- the law was desired by their constituents. An army had ing? What can be more humiliating to a public assembly been sent there expressly to guard her frontier. A school than to be informed it must prepare to get rid of an im: of army discipline had been established at St. Louis, for portant public question, for it will overcome us?"no obvious reason but to scatter the public moneys for the Such a prostration of your independence will put an end benefit of her citizens. A military force is kept up for to your powers, and fit you solely for ministering to the the express purpose of escorting her Mexican traders vices and intrigues of all who may discover your imbe through a wide wilderness, and kept up at a great escility. Sir, this is the argument with which Congress has pense to this Government; and at this time it is about to more than once been assailed upon this question--the cor- be augmented by adding a corps of United States' cavalry ruption it tended to introduce into Congress. Nothing can of five hundred, that will cost this Government one hunlead so directly to corruption as too great an imbecility dred thousand dollars per annum. Yet it is urged by the in Congress to resist its approaches. If corruption can- Senator from that State [Mr. BENTON] and my colleague, not be met and resisted here, how is it to be resisted in that she is borne down and stript of her hard earnings, for the States, suppose you sell them the lands, where the no other reason than because the General Government State Legislatures can more easily be approached, and will not surrender to her the vast domains, as a prey to where there would be a more immediate access for the inordinate speculation. The other Western States do not whole community? It is by no means my intention to im- complain. They ask indulgences, and receive them; but pute corruption to the people of the West, or, in the they, with very few exceptions, believe that such a surleast degree, to diminish their standing in this Union. 1 render would be destructive to their morals and barmony. am proud to say I believe there does not exist a finer Besides, sir, there were other considerations to be repopulation in any State, in this or any other country, than garded. The United States had purchased those lands at the population of the Western States. The reasons were a great expense. The original cost paid to France, Spain, obvious, and which I will not stop here to render. It has to Georgia, and to the Indian tribes, amounts to more been those who have been yielding to their importunities than thirty millions of dollars. There are also a vast numthat have given rise to this imputation. I have found no ber of Indian annuities, arising from Indian purchases, as difficulty in resisting those importunities myself; nor do 1 a part of the price: some of them to terminate at a given fear the influence of corruption from that source. period; more than fifty of them, however, are permanent

Sir, as I believe all the declamation that we have heard annuities, and must endure as long as the tribes to which uttered against the General Government, for its unrelent. they are payable shall endure. This perpetual yearly ing rigor in its exactions from the Western States, and drain upon your treasury will be felt, if your public lands the oppression and distress which they have fallen under, are to be sold to the Western States for a mere nominal by the misguided policy of Congress, to be totally un- sum, and not a cent of that sum put into the treasury. founded, I will here inquire what had been the policy to-There are a vast many other incidental expenses, for rewards the new States, and if not distinguished by its fa- moving Indians, for Indian treaties, and Indian agents. vors conferred on the Western people Among the fa- This is all to be left for the General Government to pay. vors gratuitously bestowed, was the setting apart every

Sir, amidst all the ardor to relieve the Western States sixteenth section of the public lands for the use of public from the oppression of the General Government, neither schools, which amounts to the thirty-sixth part of all the my colleague (Mr. Harne) nor the Senator from Missouri public lands owned by the Government. They have also (Nr. Buxton) had taken any notice of the interest which five per cent. of all the public moneys arising from the the United States have in this question. They have not sales of all public lands sold within their respective States, referred to the vast quantity of lands which have been to be paid out of the public treasury of the United States, purchased by the General Government, nor to the conand to be applied in the States, respectively, to make dition of those lands. It would seem, from the views they

have taken of the public lands, that they consider them of • It is this casy yielding, which is so ofu n submitted 10, that has subery little consequence, further than as a peace offering jecteil us to the almost total annihilation of Southern influence in the from the General Government to the Western States. councils of our country. To be called magnanimous, is but a poor But those who have examined the question more at large, amount of our portion is the benefit of the General Government. We consider the sacrifice too great. It had been requirhave shared this largely. For it, we gave our control over the tariffe and internal improvement.-Note by Mr. S.

• See Senate Documents, 2d session 10th Congress, vol. 1, No. 14

FEB. 26, 1830.]

Mr. Foot's Resolution.

(SENATE.

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soever.

ed, in order to ascertain the precise State of the public Before one thirty-fifth part of the public lands within lands, that is, what quantity of acres had been purchased her limits are sold, we are asked to withdraw the oppresfrom the Indians by the Government; what portion of that sive hand we are imposing upon Missouri, and forbear to had been surveyed by your public surveyors; what por- draw from her people the

whole profits of their labor. tion of it had been sold; what portion of the lands survey. We have come now (said Mr. S.] to the last view of this ed still remained to be sold; and what was the quantity of land question; one of much magnitude, and one that seems unsold lands, including what was unsurveyed as well as to have entirely escaped the observation of those gentlewhat was surveyed: also, the amount of moneys for the men. During the Revolutionary war, in which all the lands sold; the amount paid, and the amount then due from States were engaged, it was suggested by some of them, purchasers: a return of which had been made by the Trea- that the wild lands of the West, although within the charsury Department, as found recorded in the Senate docu- tered limits of some of the States; yet lying beyond ments, 2d session, 19th Congress, vol. 3d, No. 63, where the limits of the population, and unappropriated, ought there will be seen the following statement:

of right to belong to the Union. And whether this A Statement of the Public Lands, 1st January, 1826."

was a correct or an incorrect principle, so it was, that,

when that immense tract of country lying northwest ACRES.

of the Ohio river was ceded to the United States, by The quantity then purchased,

260,000,000 do. surveyed,

the State of Virginia, a provision was made in the act of 138,000,000

cession
do.
sold, only

20,000,000

“That all the lands within the territory so ceded to the The quantity surveyed and then unsold, 118,000,000 United States, and not reserved for, or appropriated to, The quantity surveyed and unsurveyed,

any of the before mentioned purposes, or disposed of in and unsold,

213,000,000 bounties to the officers and soldiers of the American army,

shall be considered as a common fund for the use and ben. Amount of sales of public lands, 1st of Jan

efit of such of the United States as have become, or shall uary, 1826,

$ 39,301,794 become, members of the confederation, or federal alliance Amount of moneys paid by purchasers, 31,345,963 of the said States, Virginia inclusive, according to their Amount due by individuals,

7,955,831 usual respective proportions in the general charge and ex

penditure, and shall be faithfully and bona fide disposed ACRES.

of for that purpose, and for no other use or purpose whatQuantity of lands unsold,

213,000,000 Deduct for barren lands one-half,

107,000,000

The public debt of the United States is now nearly ex

tinguished, and will probably be quite so, without drawwall remain of good lands yet to sell, 106,000,000 ing much more from the public land fund, which has pro

duced a long and ardent discussion in the House of Repre(1.) This, sold at the minimum price, $1 25, will give for revenue,

$ 132,500,000

sentatives, concerning a division of these lands among the several States of the Union, upon the provision in the act

of cession. The proposition by those who are advocates ACRES.

for a division is, that the lands shall be divided among the There yet remain, upon a moderate calculation, 200,000,000 several States, in proportion to representation. This of lands yet in possession of the Indians,

principle, sir, is erroneous. If a division is to take place, the titles to which you are constantly extinguishing. Deduct half for barren lands, 100,0000,00 the act of cession itself, and can admit of no alteration or

the principle upon which it shall be made is laid down in

modification to suit present circumstances. To divide, Leaves of good lands for sale,

100,000,000 according to the ratio of representation, would give to the

State of New York thirty-four two hundred and thirteen Which, sold at minimum price, $1 25, will

thousandths, but would give to South Carolina only nine

- $125,000,000 two hundred and thirteen thousandths; making a differ(a.) Add to this the above $132,500,000,

132,500,000 ence in favor of New York, with her present overgrown

population, of nearly four times as much as that of South Will give a revenue of

$257,500,000 Carolina. But if you take the rule as laid down in the

act of cession itself, it will give a very different result in This, (said Mr. S.) is not a supposed case, gotten up for favor of South Carolina. The plain-and obvious meaning the purpose of argument, that may be true, or may not be of the act cannot be mistaken.' The words which bear true, but is as certain as a mathematical axiom-a conclu

upon this question aresion drawn from established premises, and cannot be con. “Shall be considered a common fund for the use and troverted. And I would ask the Senate if they are pre- benefit of such States, &c. according to their usual repared to sacrifice two hundred and fifty-seven millions five spective proportion in the general charge and expendihundred thousand dollars of revenue, to appease the importunities of two or three members of Congress from the These words are altogether retrospective; and evidently Western States, because this revenue could not be grasped refer to “their usual respective proportions in the genein a moment? Or because it is said, “if we do not over: ral charge and expenditure,” incurred during the revocome the Western importunities, they will overcome us?"

lutionary war. To arrive at that conclusion, it is only neOr why, sir, should Missouri, already gorged with the cessary to ascertain why this cession was made by Virginia bounties and privileges of this Government, be selected by to the United States; and at what time it was made, and the gentleman (Mr. Harne) as an example by which to illus-what purposes it was to accomplish. It was entered into trate the oppression of the General Government upon the whilst the Union was under the articles of the ConfederaWestern States? That Government has “ drained" from tion. And the purposes it was intended to accomplish Missouri but very little of the profits of her labor, as yet, sir. were, to indemnify the several States for what they had

How stands the account between Missouri and the Gen- respectively expended in support of that war. eral Government?

ACRES.

plain as the English language can convey it to our senses, In Missouri there had been sold, only

980,282 that the “respective proportions of the general charge There yet remains to be sold in that State, 34,000,000 and expenditure,” expressed in that cession, can attach to Of this, there have been surveyed and ready to sell,

21,000,000 *See Laws of the United States, vol. 1, page 474.

ture.”

It is as

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