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ward the Austrian positions on the heights, tactics re- graphic factor in human affairs. For there are still sembling those of the Japanese at Port Arthur, the those who, like Langlois and Seignobos, think it difcbjectives were gradually approached. Finally in ficult to find that a professor of history or an August of 1916, more than a year after crossing the historian is much the better for a knowledge of Isonzo, the Italians were ready for the second offen- geology, oceanography and climatology and the sive against the Austrian positions. Success crowned whole group of geographical sciences. The unfairtheir efforts, and at the time of Professor Johnson's ness as well as the unscientific nature of this attitude writing they had by "more than two years of almost must appear patent to every one who reads Professor superhuman efforts” succeeded in forcing the ap Johnson's book. Military history cannot be treated proaches to Trieste. Then came the counter blow without constant reference to topography; nor can that had all along threatened the eastward advance political and international relations in these days of the Italian armies. A powerful flank attack without an understanding of the raw materials and launched from the highlands of the Alps along the resources of the earth. north, forced a general retreat. A glance at the map On the other hand there is an equal danger in going on page 10 will make plain the topographical ele too far in the other direction. Specialists are apt to ments in the success of the enemy's counter offensive overemphasize their own particular subject, and in the late fall of 1917.

so there are men who pompously explain the whole The text is illustrated by numerous photographs course of human history by general references to geoand a series of excellent topographical plans and graphical conditions. Human progress is too complex maps. The work is done so thoroughly and the re- to be explained by any single set of factors. Buckle's lationship of inanimate nature to the military develop- brilliant effort to account for the civilization of Engment of the war presented in so appreciative and in- land on purely economic grounds is familiar to all teresting a manner, that it is safe to predict a lasting students of history. To apply it in the present world and permanent place for the little volume in the vast crisis would be to omit, for example, from among the bulk of the literature of this great war. In view of causes of the war the very pernicious educational this, it is unfortunate that the author did not add sev- propaganda toward the creation of a war psychology eral chapters on the geography of the influence of sea among the German people. power. Since the sea power promises to become the “An equal mind” is a first essential of the hisdetermining factor in this war, as in the Napoleonic torian; he must take his facts in whatever domain of wars, there are more than the usual reasons for a study the activities of man or of nature he finds them. of the geographical factors underlying England's con- Among these facts the geographical will always control of ocean commerce. We need a semi-popular tinue of great importance. Not that they are immustudy of the geography of the long distance block- table, for in their relation to history they are conade; of the peculiar geography of the coast of Ger- stantly changing. A topographical or climatic fact many with its “ Watten” or shallows, making it well- remains the same, but its influence in this war may be nigh impregnable against attack by sea; of the great very different from its influence in the Civil War. strategic importance of Heligoland and the Kiel Man in his conquest of nature is constantly forcing Canal, and of the land-locked Baltic. For the same changes in the operation of geographic cinditions, reasons we hope the author will some time give us a causing the appearance of new factors or the operation study of the topography of the Black Sea ard the of the old in a new and different manner. In its outStraits, and of the Asia Minor and Mesopotamian ward appearance the stage of the great human drama theatres of the war.

remains the same but in reality it differs radically To some this close articulation of geography and with each new advance in the application of science history will appear as an overemphasis of the geo- to man's natural needs.

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Diagrammatic view of the western theater of war, showing the principal plateaus and plains, mountains and lowlands, cliff scarps and river trenches

which have influenced military operations. The underground rock structure is shown in the front edge of the block.

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Diagrammatic view of the eastern theater of war, showing the Carpathian Mountains and their chief passes, the plain of Poland, the hill and lake country of East Prussia, the river trenches and marshes, and other features of the terrain which have influenced military operations in the east.

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Map showing barriers and trenches of the Balkan Peninsula.
Abbreviations. (1) In northern Serbia, etc.: Lo, for Losnitza; Ma, for Malyen Ridge; Mi, for Mitrovitza (on the Save); 0, for Orsova; Ob, for Obrenovatz; S, for Shabatz;
Se, for Semendria; Ù, for Uzhitze; Va, for Valyevo; Vi, for Vishegrad; 2, for Žaietchar. (2) Along the Morava-Vardar trench; D, for Demir Kapu gorge; Ku, for Kumanovo;
1, for Leskovatz; Ve, for Veles; Vr, for Vranye. (3) Elsewhere; Du, for Durazzo (on the Adriatic); I, for Ipek (4212° N. and 20° E.); K, for Katchanik (421/4° N. and 21° E.).

From Johnson's Topographyand Strategy in the War, p. 144.

wing the nrinoinal mountain and plateau barriers, river trenches and marshes, affecting the Italian campaigns.

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