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What about the benefits of modern Christian govern
ment? Account for the mutual jealousies among the Balkan
states. Explain the phenomenon of Albania.
4. The Near East.
2. Turkey and the Eastern Question.
(a) Record of Turkey as an European power.
(c) Relations of Turkey and the Great Powers. (2) The Eastern Question.
(a) Its definition.
i. The Armenian situation.
(a) Record for fairness and dependability.
(c) Recent tendencies toward progress. References:
Davis, chaps. IV, V, XIII. *Powers, chap. 8.
the Central Powers. Has Turkey any claim for existence as an European
power? What has preserved her existence thus far? Have we misjudged the Turk? In what light do we
judge the American Indian? Does the Turk give sufficient promise of eventually be
coming a useful citizen of the world ?
(a) Dominance of all the Near East.
(d) Natural military strength.
i. Size and nature of the territory dominated.
(a) The Gallipoli campaign.
(c) Importance of its future control. References:
*Powers, chap. 5, p. 349, map p. 119.
ple, and why? Note the territory controlled by Constantinople in agri.
cultural and commercial respects. What further
strategic value has the city? What appears to be the inevitable future of the loca
II. CONDITIONS RESULTING IN THE WAR.
1. Review of Conflicting Interests. a. Aims of Austria. (1) Nature of the Dual Monarchy.
(a) Historical sketch.
(b) The present constitution. (2) The question of races.
(a) The racial kaleidoscope in Hungary.
(c) Connection with the Balkan problems.
(a) Austrian vs. Balkan government.
i. Austria's desire for a "free hand” in the Balkans ii. The idea of “ Pan-Slavism." (c) Need for larger integration in Europe. References:
Davis, chap. XIV.
Robinson and Beard, Readings, II, Nos. 262-266.
ficial government justifiable ? Which are the only permanent boundaries? To what
extent should racial boundaries be considered in map
changes ? What appears to be the best solution of the problem
of races and nationalities in Austria-Hungary and
the Balkan states ? Note the instances where national aspirations have
been modified or extinguished by continued enforced
union with foreign governments.
(a) Relative size.
i. Problem of the Pacific.
iii. Problem of the Mediterranean. (2) Conflicting foreign interests.
(a) Territorial interests.
(b) Problem of races and population. (3) Inevitable future of Russia.
(a) Necessity for expansion.
(c) Russia's relation to the War. References:
Davis, chap. XXI.
Robinson and Beard, Readings, II, Nos. 327-341.
was against Russia ? Was it true!
Russia and Japan?
has to solve? Do they involve wars, or rumors of
What Russian problems depend on the war's outcome! c. The Case of Germany. (1) German national policies after 1871.
(a) The policy of Bismarck.
(c) Pan-German expansionist policy. (2) Obstacle to these policies.
(a) Russian growth and expansion.
(b) Rapid recovery of France.
(a) Checkmate in South America.
(c) Morocco incidents.
(a) Preparation for the use of force.
(c) Certain trend toward war. References:
Davis, chaps. IX, X, XVII, XIX. *Powers, chap. 12.
II,” * Place in the Sun,” “ Pan-Germanism,” etc.
“ The German Nation.”
and Blue Series.
Robinson and Beard, Readings, II, Nos. 274-280.
(a) Unconscious growth of the Empire.
(c) Outstanding benefits of British rule. (2) British dependence on sea power.
(a) Necessity for constant food supply.
(c) Natural danger of foreign expansionist policies. (3) Conflict of British and German interests.
(a) The question of national existence.
i. Competition in naval construction.
ii. The coming of the submarine. References:
Davis, chap. XVIII. *Powers, chap. 13. Hazen, review of chap. 27, noting maps. West, chaps. 55, 56. Harding, chap. 33. National Geographic Magazine, vol. 29, pp. 217-273, • “Great Britain's Bread Upon the Waters,” W. H.
expansion of national interests? Is this always ex
pedient? In any event, how will the war affect the British Em
pire? e. The Case of France. (1) Influence of geography on French history.
(a) Unique and enviable position.
(b) Sketch of French territorial history. (2) Forces making for permanent peace.
(a) Decline in the population.
(c) Growing reconciliation over Alsace-Lorraine. (3) Causes leading to conflict of interests.
(a) Desire for national expansion.
i. Forces producing the entente cordiale.
*Powers, chap. 14.
West, chap. 57.
“The France of To-day."
Rivalry,” etc. Robinson and Beard, Readings, II, Nos. 288, 289. Problems: Has France made the most of her fortunate position in
French in the Moroccan case.
alliance by treaty.
(a) Geographical position.
(b) Effect of environment on Italy's career. (2) Reasons for joining the Entente.
(a) Lack of sympathy with Central Powers.
(c) Opportunity to pursue national interests. (3) Italian prospects of gain.
(a) Italia Irredenta.
(c) Portions of Turkish territory. (4) Prospect of the future.
(a) Present colonial possessions.
(d) Probable foreign conflicts. References:
Davis, chap. VIII. *Powers, chap. 15 and map.
Italian Frontier; ” vol. 30, “ Italy."
Are Italy's aspirations based on a sound knowledge! g. Situation of the Minor Powers. ° w Position of the Minor Powers.
(a) Four distinct groups.
(a) Review of their relation to the war. (3) Spain and Portugal.
(a) Forces for consolidation and separation.
(b) Relation to the present struggle. (4) The Scandinavian countries.
(a) Precarious geographical positions.
(c) Vital importance of the war's outcome. (5) The Low Countries.
(a) Strategic positions.
(c) Fate determined by the war. References:
*Powers, chap. 16.
559-577. Problems: What has long been the relation between the great and
the minor powers of Europe ? Where in Europe is the war not a vital matter, and
Have these Minor Powers followed the wisest courses
under the circumstances ! Note each case separately. Also note that the state of political equilibrium in
Europe is largely determined by the status of these groups of minor powers.
2. Late Diplomatic History.
(a) Purpose of the Alliance.
i. Internal discords.
ii. Its dominance in European affairs.
i. Reasons for its formation.
i. Removal of previous causes of discord.
ii. Establishment of the “ entente cordiale." (3) The alignment of the Minor Powers. References:
Davis, chap. XV. Hazen, pp. 374-376.
C. Recent diplomatic crises.
(a) Suspicion caused by conflicting interests. (2) First Moroccan crisis, 1905-6.
(a) French vs. German interests in Morocco.
(e) Testing of the Triple Entente. (3) Crisis over the annexation of Bosnia and Herzo
(c) Attitude of Russia.
(a) Agadir affair.
(d) Bitter resentment of German militarists. (5) Outcome of diplomatic clashes.
(a) Definite diplomatic defeat of Germany.
(b) German resolve to adopt new tactics. References:
Davis, chap. XIX. *Powers, p. 229, chap. 3.
“ Congress of Berlin,” “ Pan-Slavism,” “ Slavs,” etc.,
Rose, pt. II, chap. 1.
“Willy and Nicky Correspondence," " Encirclement,”
etc. Problems: Note where the proposal for the Triple Alliance
originated. It was founded in the interests of what policy? What were the definite objects of this al
liance? In what respects was Italy inconsistent in joining Aus
tria and Germany ? What is the nature of the Triple Entente? Was this
alliance the result of choice or necessity ? b. The Hague Peace Conferences. (1) History of the Hague Conferences. (a) Agency of the United States and Russia for arbi.
tration. (b) Positive services rendered at the Hague. (2) Plans for arbitration and disarmament.
(a) Hostile attitude of Austria and Germany alone. (3) Policy of Germany concerning arbitration.
(a) Negative attitude toward permanent peace.
(b) Refusal to enter into arbitration treaties. (4) Conflicting views on the freedom of the seas.
(a) British view.
(b) Unusual German view. (5) Failure of conciliatory movements.
(a) Final attempts to adjust international differences.
(b) Refusal of Germany to make negotiations. References:
Davis, chap. XVI. *Hazen, pp. 591-594.
ventions," "Hague Regulations,” “ Hague Tribunal,”
“Arbitration," etc. Robinson and Beard, Readings, II, Nos. 383, 384. Problems: What did the Hague Conferences accomplish of lasting
value? Why did they fail in their main objects ?
Austro-German policies long ago?
with previously admitted policies ?
*Collected Diplomatic Documents, pp. 136-142. Problems: Note the Powers, which, by aggressive action, produced
these crises. On what ground did Germany interfere in Moroccan
affairs? Why were the diplomatic settlements con
sidered unsatisfactory? What reasons were given by Austria for the annexation
of Bosnia and Herzogovina? Why should Russia be concerned ?
3. Preparation for War.
i. Different phases of this question.
i. Freedom of the seas.
ii. Colonies. (d) Comparison with the objects of the past. (2) Intangible objects. (a) Race unity,
i. Blood relationship.
ii. Unity of language.
i. Complex elements of nationality.
i. Dangers of peaceful growth of peoples.
ii. Possibilities of biological defeat. (3) Objects of the present struggle.
(a) Many forms of each problem.
(b) Review of chief objects of each Power. References:
Davis, chap. XXII. *Powers, chaps. 1, 2, p. 358.
articles by President Wilson, Asquith, Viviani, Bal
four. Problems: Which causes of war are the more potent; the tangible
or the intangible !
How many of these objects are considered justifiable
causes of war by nations? Note the different proportions in which the various
tangible and intangible objects concern the powers
now at war.
Note especially the German idea of the perils of peace. b. Militarism and armaments.
(1) Definition of militarism.
(a) History of German militarism.
(b) Practical examples. (3) International competition in armaments; armies. (a) Europe as an “armed camp.”
i. Comparative statistics.
ii. History of universal service. (4) Naval rivalries. (a) Britain's policy.
i. Motives; national necessity.
ii. Shipbuilding program. (b) German competition.
ii. Degree of success.
(a) Army and navy increases.
(d) Spread of German propaganda. References:
Gerard, chap. 4.
“Statistics of Populations, Armies and Navies of
of Holland.” War Cyclopedia, “Militarism,” “ Prussianism," “ Za
bern,” “Conquest,” “ Luxemburg, Rosa," “ Propa
ganda for War,” etc. Problems: How do you account for the growth of militarism in
Europe in a time when peace was thought to be as
sured ? Explain the necessity of England's naval policy. When and why did Germany change her naval policy
and give up the attempt to overtake England ?
Note that England had no army when the war began. €. Austro-German war preparations. (1) Change in German plans for expansion.
(a) Announcement after the Morocco incidents.
(b) Change in the nature of German diplomacy. (2) Indications of plans for aggression.
(a) Crises in 1912.
i. Austrian proposals to Italy, 1913.
iv. Variety of other military plans.
(a) German philosophy.
(c) Forces for peace and for war.
(a) New inclusive military laws.
(e) Intensive preparations of all kinds.
Hazen, pp. 608-609.
Kahn, Otto H., The Poison Growth of Prussianism.
“Neutralized State,” “Netherlands, German View," “ Kiel Canal,” « Sinn Fein,” “Egypt,” “ South Africa," “German Intrigue,” “Mobilization Contro
versy," etc. Robinson and Beard, Readings, II, Nos. 381, 382, 405. Problems: Are there definite proofs that this war was intended
before July, 19147 Why did it not come sooner? Explain the changed attitude of the Kaiser after 1912. What has been the nature of German propaganda ? Why has the war been well supported by the German
people? What is the only possible interpretation of Germany's
unusual military measures prior to 1914 ? d. The German idea of war. (1) Summary of German reasons for entering the war. (a) Profit derived from war.
i. Increase of rich territory.
i. Right of national expansion.
ii. Necessity of creating room by force.
i. Darwinian theory.
i. Belief in the superiority of the German race.
ii. Idea of German destiny in the world. (2) German conduct of the war. (a) Influence of war philosophy.
i. Justification of any means in war.
ii. “Necessity knows no law.”
i. Violations of international law.
iii. Unheard-of methods in actual warfare. (3) Summary of German policy: conclusions. References:
*Conquest and Kultur, Red, White and Blue Series.
“Treitschke,” “Notwendigkeit,” “Kriegs-Raison," “War-Ruthlessness,” “Frightfulness,” « Pillages," “Family Rights and Honor,” “Hostages,” “Noncombatants," “ Deportations," “ Destruction,” “Louvain,” “Rheims," “ Forbidden Weapons," “Gas Warfare,” “ Prisoners of War," “ Spurlos versenkt," “Armenian Massacres," " Der Tag,” “Kultur," etc.,
etc. Problems: What part does morality play in German plans? What
is the German standard of morals?
What is the nature of the Prussian “Gott”!
C. THE WAR.
I. OPENING EVENTS.
1. The Austro-Serbian Controversy. a. Review of Austro-Serbian relations.
(1) Previous history of Serbia. (2) Russian interest in Serbia.
How must we explain the failure of Austria and Ger
many to agree to mediation at the same time? Why did Russia mobilize? Was this directed against
Germany? After Austria's declaration of war on Serbia, why was
it impossible to avoid a general conflict ?
b. The assassination at Serajevo.
(1) Murder of the Austrian Crown Prince.
(2) Convenience of the crime for Austrian purposes. C. Austrian note to Serbia.
(1) Secret investigation of the crime by Austria.
(5) Anxiety of the other Powers.
(1) Unselfish concessions by Serbia.
(3) Attitude of the Prussian War Party. e. Austrian declaration of war on Serbia.
(1) Efforts by the Powers for mediation.
Davis, chap. XXIII. *Powers, pp. 152-163.
70, 406, 452, 469-471, 506-514.
“ Potsdam Conference,” “Serbia, Austrian Ultima
tum,” etc. Problems: What are the conclusions as to the guilt of Serbia for
the assassination? Explain the nature and object of Austria's ultimatum?
Why was it delayed so long after the assassination ? Where does Serbia's reply place the burden of guilt ? Why?
2. Failure of Diplomacy.
(1) Diplomatic attitude of Serbia.
(a) Serbia's concessions.
(c) German ultimatum to Russia.
(a) Suggestions for a London Conference.
(b) Second proposal for mediation.
(a) For localization of the conflict.
(c) Results and logical inferences.
(a) For Hague Conferences.
(c) For a conference of the Powers.
(a) Mobilization of armies.
(b) Declarations of war. (5) Responsibility for the war. References: *Collected Diplomatic Documents, pp. 107, 117, 223,
276, 288-291, 409, 431-434, 539, etc. Davis, chap. XXIII. Hazen, pp. 612-613. *Gerard, chap. VIII. Robinson, The Last Decade and the Great War, xxxvi.
xl. War Cyclopedia, “War, Responsibility for,” “German
Diplomacy,” “Mobilization Controversy," “ Junkers," “ German Government,” “Moral Bankruptcy,"
“ Liebknecht,” “Grey, Viscount,” etc.
On what grounds did Austria take action against Ser
3. Violation of Belgian Neutrality. a. Circumstances favoring British neutrality.
(1) Party differences in England.
(6) Peaceful character of the British people. b. British war diplomacy. (1) Conferences between English and German statesmen.
(a) German bids for British neutrality.
(c) Entente cordiale with France.
(1) Belgian appeals for support.
(a) Plea of necssity.
(c) Charge of Belgian treachery. d. Entry of Great Britain.
(1) German wrath at England's declaration.
Davis, chap. XXIV. Hazen, pp. 616-617.
105, 111, 309-311, 313, 350-367, 410, etc.
“Belgium, the Innocent Bystander." Problems: Compare the strngth of “good understandings" with
“ scraps of paper." Was Britain's attitude honorable and upright? On
what grounds did the Germans denounce it? Tabulate and compare the declared objects of Germany
and England in entering the war. Why was the violation of Belgium's neutrality the
worst international crime in the history of modern times, if not in the world ?
4. Spread of the War. a. Entrance of other states into the war.
(1) Entrance of Montenegro.
(a) Alliance with Great Britain.
(c) Further reasons (?).
(a) Actions producing allied declarations of war. (4) Italy's action against Austria.
(a) Italia Irredenta.
(c) Austrian violation of the Triple Alliance. (5) Entrance of Bulgaria.
(a) Alliance with Germany and Austria.
(b) Hostility to aims of Serbia and Romania. (6) Portugal's declaration of war. (7) The war interests of Romania. (8) Declarations of war by other minor states.
(9) Entrance of the United States. b. Universal character of the war.
(1) Great amount of life and wealth involved.