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What about the benefits of modern Christian govern

ment? Account for the mutual jealousies among the Balkan

states. Explain the phenomenon of Albania.

4. The Near East.

2. Turkey and the Eastern Question.
(1) The position of Turkey in Europe.

(a) Record of Turkey as an European power.
(b) Present status of Turkey.

(c) Relations of Turkey and the Great Powers. (2) The Eastern Question.

(a) Its definition.
(b) Reasons for ending Turkish rule.

i. The Armenian situation.
ii. Failure of Turkish administration.
iii. No justification for existence.
(c) Importance of the war's outcome.
(3) Turkish claims to consideration.

(a) Record for fairness and dependability.
(b) Frequent impositions of Christian peoples.

(c) Recent tendencies toward progress. References:

Davis, chaps. IV, V, XIII. *Powers, chap. 8.
*Hazen, pp. 540, 546-548, 555-557, 594-595, 613.
West, pp. 715, 736-737.
Rose, pt. 1, chap. 7.
War Cyclopedia, “ Young Turks,” etc.
National Geographic Magazine, vol. 26, map of Balkan

Explain Turkey's entrance into the war on the side of

the Central Powers. Has Turkey any claim for existence as an European

power? What has preserved her existence thus far? Have we misjudged the Turk? In what light do we

judge the American Indian? Does the Turk give sufficient promise of eventually be

coming a useful citizen of the world ?
b. The problem of Constantinople.
(1) The strategic position of Constantinople.

(a) Dominance of all the Near East.
(b) Its historic significance.
(c) The strategic center of the world.

(d) Natural military strength.
(2) Commercial significance of the location.
(a) The gateway to the Black Sea region.

i. Size and nature of the territory dominated.
(b) Potential rival of the world's greatest cities.
(3) Its importance in the war.

(a) The Gallipoli campaign.
(b) Its relation to the final terms of peace.

(c) Importance of its future control. References:

*Powers, chap. 5, p. 349, map p. 119.
*National Geographic Magazine, vol. 27,“ Gates to the

Black Sea."
Hazen, pp. 172, 603.
War Cyclopedia, “Gallipoli,” etc.
What importance did Napoleon attach to Constantino

ple, and why? Note the territory controlled by Constantinople in agri.

cultural and commercial respects. What further

strategic value has the city? What appears to be the inevitable future of the loca



1. Review of Conflicting Interests. a. Aims of Austria. (1) Nature of the Dual Monarchy.

(a) Historical sketch.

(b) The present constitution. (2) The question of races.

(a) The racial kaleidoscope in Hungary.
(b) National aspirations.

(c) Connection with the Balkan problems.
(3) Question of the state's continued existence.

(a) Austrian vs. Balkan government.
(b) Plans for a Balkan federation.

i. Austria's desire for a "free hand” in the Balkans ii. The idea of “ Pan-Slavism." (c) Need for larger integration in Europe. References:

Davis, chap. XIV.
*Powers, chaps. 4, 9; maps, pp. 61, 177.
Hazen, chap. 24.
West, chap. 60.
National Geographic Magazine, vol. 26, pp. 311-393,

War Cyclopedia, “Austria and Serbia," etc.

Robinson and Beard, Readings, II, Nos. 262-266.
Is a union of distinct races or peoples under one arti-

ficial government justifiable ? Which are the only permanent boundaries? To what

extent should racial boundaries be considered in map

changes ? What appears to be the best solution of the problem

of races and nationalities in Austria-Hungary and

the Balkan states ? Note the instances where national aspirations have

been modified or extinguished by continued enforced

union with foreign governments.
b. The situation of
(1) Geographical conditions of Russia.

(a) Relative size.
(b) The question of outlets.

i. Problem of the Pacific.
ii. Problem of the Baltic.

iii. Problem of the Mediterranean. (2) Conflicting foreign interests.

(a) Territorial interests.

(b) Problem of races and population. (3) Inevitable future of Russia.

(a) Necessity for expansion.
(b) Pressure on the Central Powers.

(c) Russia's relation to the War. References:

Davis, chap. XXI.
* Powers, chap. 11; sketch, chaps. 5, 7; map, p. 191.
West, pp. 699-709.
Harding, pp. 707-711.
Rose, pt. I, chap. 11; pt. II, chap. 9.

Robinson and Beard, Readings, II, Nos. 327-341.
Why did the Germans say, as war was declared, that it

was against Russia ? Was it true!
Did the Russo-Japanese War settle the conflict between

Russia and Japan?
What are some of the gravest problems future Russia

has to solve? Do they involve wars, or rumors of


What Russian problems depend on the war's outcome! c. The Case of Germany. (1) German national policies after 1871.

(a) The policy of Bismarck.
(b) Policy of peaceful commercial expansion.

(c) Pan-German expansionist policy. (2) Obstacle to these policies.

(a) Russian growth and expansion.

(b) Rapid recovery of France.
(c) Foreign monopoly of colonial and commercial in-

(3) Failures of German plans for expansion.

(a) Checkmate in South America.
(b) Forestalling in South Africa.

(c) Morocco incidents.
(4) Changes in German policy.

(a) Preparation for the use of force.
(b) Mitteleuropa project.

(c) Certain trend toward war. References:

Davis, chaps. IX, X, XVII, XIX. *Powers, chap. 12.
Hazen, chap. 21.
West, chap. 58.
Harding, pp. 630-636.
War Cyclopedia, “Autocracy,” “ Kaiserism,” “ William

II,” * Place in the Sun,” “ Pan-Germanism,” etc.
National Geographic Magazine, vol. 26, pp. 275-311,

“ The German Nation.”
President's Flag Day Address, Red, White and Blue

Conquest and Kultur, sections 6, 13, 16, Red, White

and Blue Series.

Robinson and Beard, Readings, II, Nos. 274-280.
d. The Case of Britain.
(1) Nature of the British Empire.

(a) Unconscious growth of the Empire.
(b) Indispensability to British life.

(c) Outstanding benefits of British rule. (2) British dependence on sea power.

(a) Necessity for constant food supply.
(b) Sole means of protection for the Empire.

(c) Natural danger of foreign expansionist policies. (3) Conflict of British and German interests.

(a) The question of national existence.
(b) Danger of Germany's foreign policy.
(c) The natural question of naval supremacy.

i. Competition in naval construction.

ii. The coming of the submarine. References:

Davis, chap. XVIII. *Powers, chap. 13. Hazen, review of chap. 27, noting maps. West, chaps. 55, 56. Harding, chap. 33. National Geographic Magazine, vol. 29, pp. 217-273, “Great Britain's Bread Upon the Waters,” W. H.

Robinson and Beard, Readings, II, Nos. 312-326.
Explain Britain's interest in Bagdad, Morocco and

Does every nation have a right to adopt a policy of

expansion of national interests? Is this always ex

pedient? In any event, how will the war affect the British Em

pire? e. The Case of France. (1) Influence of geography on French history.

(a) Unique and enviable position.

(b) Sketch of French territorial history. (2) Forces making for permanent peace.

(a) Decline in the population.
(b) Peculiar commercial and financial relations.

(c) Growing reconciliation over Alsace-Lorraine. (3) Causes leading to conflict of interests.

(a) Desire for national expansion.
(b) Growing hostility of Germany.
(c) Nature of colonial holdings.

i. Forces producing the entente cordiale.
(4) Future position of France.

*Powers, chap. 14.
Hazen, review of chap. 22.

West, chap. 57.
Harding, pp. 592-598.
National Geographic Magazine, vol. 26, pp. 193-223,

“The France of To-day."
War Cyclopedia, “ Alsace-Lorraine,” “Franco-German

Rivalry,” etc. Robinson and Beard, Readings, II, Nos. 288, 289. Problems: Has France made the most of her fortunate position in

the past?
Compare the German victories in 1870-71 with the

French in the Moroccan case.
Note the advantages of an entente cordiale over an

alliance by treaty.
f. The circumstances of Italy.
(1) Review of Italian history.

(a) Geographical position.

(b) Effect of environment on Italy's career. (2) Reasons for joining the Entente.

(a) Lack of sympathy with Central Powers.
(b) Fear of French and British sea power.

(c) Opportunity to pursue national interests. (3) Italian prospects of gain.

(a) Italia Irredenta.
(b) Territory on Albanian coast.

(c) Portions of Turkish territory. (4) Prospect of the future.

(a) Present colonial possessions.
(b) Further imperial ambitions.
(c) Bad financial condition.

(d) Probable foreign conflicts. References:

Davis, chap. VIII. *Powers, chap. 15 and map.
Hazen, review of chap. 23.
West, chap. 59.
Harding, pp. 617-618.
War Cyclopedia, “ Italia Irredenta," etc.
National Geographic Magazine, vol. 27, “The Austro-

Italian Frontier; ” vol. 30, “ Italy."
Robinson and Beard, Readings, II, Nos. 247-249.
Explain the phenomenal success of the new Italian

What will the war mean to Italy?

Are Italy's aspirations based on a sound knowledge! g. Situation of the Minor Powers. ° w Position of the Minor Powers.

(a) Four distinct groups.
(b) Varying racial, geographical and political condi-

(2) The Balkan States.

(a) Review of their relation to the war. (3) Spain and Portugal.

(a) Forces for consolidation and separation.

(b) Relation to the present struggle. (4) The Scandinavian countries.

(a) Precarious geographical positions.
(b) Reasons for their present independence.

(c) Vital importance of the war's outcome. (5) The Low Countries.

(a) Strategic positions.
(b) Basis of their guaranteed neutrality.

(c) Fate determined by the war. References:

*Powers, chap. 16.
*Hazen, sketch of chaps. 29, 30, 31, 32.
West, chap. 61.
Seignobos, Europe Since 1814, pp. 238-244, 257-284,

559-577. Problems: What has long been the relation between the great and

the minor powers of Europe ? Where in Europe is the war not a vital matter, and


Have these Minor Powers followed the wisest courses

under the circumstances ! Note each case separately. Also note that the state of political equilibrium in

Europe is largely determined by the status of these groups of minor powers.

2. Late Diplomatic History.
&. The Triple Entente and the Triple Alliance.
(1) The Triple Alliance.

(a) Purpose of the Alliance.
(b) Reasons for the attachment of Italy.
(c) Breaches of earlier alliances.
(d) History of the Alliance.

i. Internal discords.

ii. Its dominance in European affairs.
(2) Formation of the Triple Entente.
(a) The Dual Alliance.

i. Reasons for its formation.
(b) Creation of the Triple Entente.

i. Removal of previous causes of discord.

ii. Establishment of the “ entente cordiale." (3) The alignment of the Minor Powers. References:

Davis, chap. XV. Hazen, pp. 374-376.
West, pp. 741-743.
Harding, pp. 676-677.
Powers, preface, sketch of chap. 18.
Robinson, The Last Decade and the Great War, xxvii.

C. Recent diplomatic crises.
(1) Recent tense international feeling. .

(a) Suspicion caused by conflicting interests. (2) First Moroccan crisis, 1905-6.

(a) French vs. German interests in Morocco.
(b) The Tangier incident.
(c) Dismissal of French ambassador on German de-

(d) Conference of Powers at Algeciras.

(e) Testing of the Triple Entente. (3) Crisis over the annexation of Bosnia and Herzo

(a) Status as left by the Congress of Berlin.
(b) Annexation by Austria without cause.

(c) Attitude of Russia.
(4) Second Moroccan crisis.

(a) Agadir affair.
(b) Attitude of Britain.
(c) Adjustment of the question by conference.

(d) Bitter resentment of German militarists. (5) Outcome of diplomatic clashes.

(a) Definite diplomatic defeat of Germany.

(b) German resolve to adopt new tactics. References:

Davis, chap. XIX. *Powers, p. 229, chap. 3.
Rose, pt. II, chaps. 10, 11.
War Cyclopedia, “Morroco Question,” “Bosnia,”

“ Congress of Berlin,” “ Pan-Slavism,” “ Slavs,” etc.,


Rose, pt. II, chap. 1.
War Cyclopedia, “ Triple Alliance,” “ Triple Entente,”

“Willy and Nicky Correspondence," " Encirclement,”

etc. Problems: Note where the proposal for the Triple Alliance

originated. It was founded in the interests of what policy? What were the definite objects of this al

liance? In what respects was Italy inconsistent in joining Aus

tria and Germany ? What is the nature of the Triple Entente? Was this

alliance the result of choice or necessity ? b. The Hague Peace Conferences. (1) History of the Hague Conferences. (a) Agency of the United States and Russia for arbi.

tration. (b) Positive services rendered at the Hague. (2) Plans for arbitration and disarmament.

(a) Hostile attitude of Austria and Germany alone. (3) Policy of Germany concerning arbitration.

(a) Negative attitude toward permanent peace.

(b) Refusal to enter into arbitration treaties. (4) Conflicting views on the freedom of the seas.

(a) British view.

(b) Unusual German view. (5) Failure of conciliatory movements.

(a) Final attempts to adjust international differences.

(b) Refusal of Germany to make negotiations. References:

Davis, chap. XVI. *Hazen, pp. 591-594.
West, pp. 743-747.
*Powers, pp. 340-347.
Harding, pp. 732-734.
War Cyclopedia, “ Hague Conferences," “ Hague Con-

ventions," "Hague Regulations,” “ Hague Tribunal,”

“Arbitration," etc. Robinson and Beard, Readings, II, Nos. 383, 384. Problems: What did the Hague Conferences accomplish of lasting

value? Why did they fail in their main objects ?
Why did not the world become more suspicious of

Austro-German policies long ago?
Has German practice during this war been inconsistent

with previously admitted policies ?

*Collected Diplomatic Documents, pp. 136-142. Problems: Note the Powers, which, by aggressive action, produced

these crises. On what ground did Germany interfere in Moroccan

affairs? Why were the diplomatic settlements con

sidered unsatisfactory? What reasons were given by Austria for the annexation

of Bosnia and Herzogovina? Why should Russia be concerned ?

3. Preparation for War.
a. Objects of War.
(1) The tangible objects of war.
(a) Defense of soil.

i. Different phases of this question.
(b) Protection of independence.
(c) Commerce.

i. Freedom of the seas.

ii. Colonies. (d) Comparison with the objects of the past. (2) Intangible objects. (a) Race unity,

i. Blood relationship.

ii. Unity of language.
(b) Religion.
(c) Nationality.

i. Complex elements of nationality.
ii. Cf. German “ Kultur.”
(d) Struggles for national existence.

i. Dangers of peaceful growth of peoples.

ii. Possibilities of biological defeat. (3) Objects of the present struggle.

(a) Many forms of each problem.

(b) Review of chief objects of each Power. References:

Davis, chap. XXII. *Powers, chaps. 1, 2, p. 358.
*Conquest and Kultur, sections I, VI, X, XI, XVII.
A War of Self-Defense, War Information Series.
National Geographic Magazine, vol. 31, pp. 287-382,

articles by President Wilson, Asquith, Viviani, Bal

four. Problems: Which causes of war are the more potent; the tangible

or the intangible !

How many of these objects are considered justifiable

causes of war by nations? Note the different proportions in which the various

tangible and intangible objects concern the powers

now at war.

Note especially the German idea of the perils of peace. b. Militarism and armaments.

(1) Definition of militarism.
(2) Military dominance in Germany.

(a) History of German militarism.

(b) Practical examples. (3) International competition in armaments; armies. (a) Europe as an “armed camp.”

i. Comparative statistics.

ii. History of universal service. (4) Naval rivalries. (a) Britain's policy.

i. Motives; national necessity.

ii. Shipbuilding program. (b) German competition.

i. Reasons.

ii. Degree of success.
(5) Extraordinary military measures in Germany.

(a) Army and navy increases.
(b) Construction of strategic railways.
(c) Recall of reservists abroad.

(d) Spread of German propaganda. References:

Gerard, chap. 4.
Hazen, pp. 590-592.
West, pp. 661-662.
Harding, pp. 675-677.
Powers, Things Men Fight For.
National Geographic Magazine, vol. 26, pp. 191-193,

“Statistics of Populations, Armies and Navies of
Europe; ” vol. 28, pp. 503-511, “Citizen Army of
Switzerland; ” vol. 29, pp. 609-623, “Citizen Army

of Holland.” War Cyclopedia, “Militarism,” “ Prussianism," “ Za

bern,” “Conquest,” “ Luxemburg, Rosa," “ Propa

ganda for War,” etc. Problems: How do you account for the growth of militarism in

Europe in a time when peace was thought to be as

sured ? Explain the necessity of England's naval policy. When and why did Germany change her naval policy

and give up the attempt to overtake England ?

Note that England had no army when the war began. €. Austro-German war preparations. (1) Change in German plans for expansion.

(a) Announcement after the Morocco incidents.

(b) Change in the nature of German diplomacy. (2) Indications of plans for aggression.

(a) Crises in 1912.
(b) Other incidents prior to June, 1914.

i. Austrian proposals to Italy, 1913.
ii. Strengthening of German army, 1913.
iii. German propaganda at home and abroad.

iv. Variety of other military plans.
(3) Changed attitude of the Kaiser.
(4) Change in German public opinion.

(a) German philosophy.
(bi Parties in Germany.

(c) Forces for peace and for war.
(5) Extraordinary German military measures.

(a) New inclusive military laws.
(b) Canals and railways.
(c) Increase in munitions.
(d) Recall of reservists.

(e) Intensive preparations of all kinds.
(6) Conclusions.

Hazen, pp. 608-609.
Powers, chaps. 10, 12.

Kahn, Otto H., The Poison Growth of Prussianism.
Conquest and Kultur, sections II, III, XVI.
*Collected Diplomatic Documents, pp. 131, 132, 133,

32, 142-143.
*War Cyclopedia, “Kultur," “Pan-Germanism,”

“Neutralized State,” “Netherlands, German View," “ Kiel Canal,” « Sinn Fein,” “Egypt,” “ South Africa," “German Intrigue,” “Mobilization Contro

versy," etc. Robinson and Beard, Readings, II, Nos. 381, 382, 405. Problems: Are there definite proofs that this war was intended

before July, 19147 Why did it not come sooner? Explain the changed attitude of the Kaiser after 1912. What has been the nature of German propaganda ? Why has the war been well supported by the German

people? What is the only possible interpretation of Germany's

unusual military measures prior to 1914 ? d. The German idea of war. (1) Summary of German reasons for entering the war. (a) Profit derived from war.

i. Increase of rich territory.
ii. Indemnities.
iii. Increased prestige and influence.
(b) Need of a "place in the sun."

i. Right of national expansion.

ii. Necessity of creating room by force.
(c) Biological argument for war.

i. Darwinian theory.
ii. War as a requirement for national health.
iii. Nature of German philosophy.
(d) Estimation of German “Kultur.”

i. Belief in the superiority of the German race.

ii. Idea of German destiny in the world. (2) German conduct of the war. (a) Influence of war philosophy.

i. Justification of any means in war.

ii. “Necessity knows no law.”
(b) Examples of German ruthlessness.

i. Violations of international law.
ii. Treatment of civilian populations.

iii. Unheard-of methods in actual warfare. (3) Summary of German policy: conclusions. References:

*Conquest and Kultur, Red, White and Blue Series.
*German War Practices, Red, White and Blue Series.
The Great War, from Spectator to Participant, War

Information Series.
A War of Self-Defense, War Information Series.
*War Cyclopedia, “ War, German View,” “ Bernhardi,”

“Treitschke,” “Notwendigkeit,” “Kriegs-Raison," “War-Ruthlessness,” “Frightfulness,” « Pillages," “Family Rights and Honor,” “Hostages,” “Noncombatants," “ Deportations," “ Destruction,” “Louvain,” “Rheims," “ Forbidden Weapons," “Gas Warfare,” “ Prisoners of War," “ Spurlos versenkt," “Armenian Massacres," " Der Tag,” “Kultur," etc.,

etc. Problems: What part does morality play in German plans? What

is the German standard of morals?
Have the German leaders any religious convictions!

What is the nature of the Prussian “Gott”!
How do the Germans explain their war atrocities?
What is the attitude of the German people on these

matters? Why?



1. The Austro-Serbian Controversy. a. Review of Austro-Serbian relations.

(1) Previous history of Serbia. (2) Russian interest in Serbia.

How must we explain the failure of Austria and Ger

many to agree to mediation at the same time? Why did Russia mobilize? Was this directed against

Germany? After Austria's declaration of war on Serbia, why was

it impossible to avoid a general conflict ?

b. The assassination at Serajevo.

(1) Murder of the Austrian Crown Prince.

(2) Convenience of the crime for Austrian purposes. C. Austrian note to Serbia.

(1) Secret investigation of the crime by Austria.
(2) Conference at Potsdam.
(3) Character of the note to Serbia.
(4) Continued hostile attitude of Austria.

(5) Anxiety of the other Powers.
d. Serbian reply to the Austrian note.

(1) Unselfish concessions by Serbia.
(2) Rejection of the reply by Austria.

(3) Attitude of the Prussian War Party. e. Austrian declaration of war on Serbia.

(1) Efforts by the Powers for mediation.
(2) German refusal to negotiate.
(3) Conclusions.

Davis, chap. XXIII. *Powers, pp. 152-163.
Hazen, pp. 609-612.
Rose, pt. II, chap. 12.
Atlantic Monthly, February, 1915, p. 234.
*Collected Diplomatic Documents, pp. 4, 5-12, 31-37,

70, 406, 452, 469-471, 506-514.
Gerard, chaps. VI, VIII, XI.
War Cyclopedia, “Kingdom of the Serbs," “ Sera jevo,"

“ Potsdam Conference,” “Serbia, Austrian Ultima

tum,” etc. Problems: What are the conclusions as to the guilt of Serbia for

the assassination? Explain the nature and object of Austria's ultimatum?

Why was it delayed so long after the assassination ? Where does Serbia's reply place the burden of guilt ? Why?

2. Failure of Diplomacy.
&. Attempts to adjust the Austro-Serbian situation.

(1) Diplomatic attitude of Serbia.
(2) Attempts by the Powers to adjust differences.

(a) Serbia's concessions.
(b) Austria's hesitation.

(c) German ultimatum to Russia.
b. Efforts to avoid a general conflict.
(1) Proposals by the English ministry.

(a) Suggestions for a London Conference.

(b) Second proposal for mediation.
(2) German demands.

(a) For localization of the conflict.
(b) For direct Austro-Russian negotiations.

(c) Results and logical inferences.
(3) Russian proposals.

(a) For Hague Conferences.
(b) For mutual cessation of war preparations.

(c) For a conference of the Powers.
(4) German ultimata.

(a) Mobilization of armies.

(b) Declarations of war. (5) Responsibility for the war. References: *Collected Diplomatic Documents, pp. 107, 117, 223,

276, 288-291, 409, 431-434, 539, etc. Davis, chap. XXIII. Hazen, pp. 612-613. *Gerard, chap. VIII. Robinson, The Last Decade and the Great War, xxxvi.

xl. War Cyclopedia, “War, Responsibility for,” “German

Diplomacy,” “Mobilization Controversy," “ Junkers," “ German Government,” “Moral Bankruptcy,"

“ Liebknecht,” “Grey, Viscount,” etc.

On what grounds did Austria take action against Ser
| bia?
Explain Germany's attempts at pacification.

3. Violation of Belgian Neutrality. a. Circumstances favoring British neutrality.

(1) Party differences in England.
(2) Threatened rebellion in Ireland.
(3) Labor troubles.
(4) Unrest in India.
(5) Lack of military preparedness.

(6) Peaceful character of the British people. b. British war diplomacy. (1) Conferences between English and German statesmen.

(a) German bids for British neutrality.
(b) Clear statement of the British position.

(c) Entente cordiale with France.
c. Invasion of Belgium and Luxemburg.

(1) Belgian appeals for support.
(2) English ultimatum to Germany.
(3) German attempts at justification of action.

(a) Plea of necssity.
(b) Military expediency.

(c) Charge of Belgian treachery. d. Entry of Great Britain.

(1) German wrath at England's declaration.
(2) Britain's announced war policies.
(3) Review of the basis of British entrance.

Davis, chap. XXIV. Hazen, pp. 616-617.
*Collected Diplomatic Documents, pp. 43, 77, 86, 92-93,

105, 111, 309-311, 313, 350-367, 410, etc.
Gibbons, H. A., The Nw Map of Europe, chap. 20.
Beck, J. M., The Evidence in the Case.
National Geographic Magazine, vol. 26, pp. 223-265,

“Belgium, the Innocent Bystander." Problems: Compare the strngth of “good understandings" with

“ scraps of paper." Was Britain's attitude honorable and upright? On

what grounds did the Germans denounce it? Tabulate and compare the declared objects of Germany

and England in entering the war. Why was the violation of Belgium's neutrality the

worst international crime in the history of modern times, if not in the world ?

4. Spread of the War. a. Entrance of other states into the war.

(1) Entrance of Montenegro.
(2) Reasons for the participation of Japan.

(a) Alliance with Great Britain.
(b) Resentment of German holding in the Far East.

(c) Further reasons (?).
(3) The war operations of Turkey.

(a) Actions producing allied declarations of war. (4) Italy's action against Austria.

(a) Italia Irredenta.
(b) The problem of the Adriatic.

(c) Austrian violation of the Triple Alliance. (5) Entrance of Bulgaria.

(a) Alliance with Germany and Austria.

(b) Hostility to aims of Serbia and Romania. (6) Portugal's declaration of war. (7) The war interests of Romania. (8) Declarations of war by other minor states.

(9) Entrance of the United States. b. Universal character of the war.

(1) Great amount of life and wealth involved.
(2) Disorganization of industry.
(3) Importance of the issues involved.

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