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7. To give something of the philosophy of history, the causes and effects of events, and, in the case of great battles, the objects sought to be attained ; ihus leading pupils to a thoughtful study of history, and to · an appreciation of the fact that events hinge upon each other.

8. To insert, in foot-notes, sketches of the more im. portant personages, especially the presidents, and thus to enable the student to form some estimate of their character.

9. To use language, a clause or sentence of which cannot be selected or committed as an answer to a question, but such as, giving the idea vividly, will yet compel the pupil to express it in his own words.

10. To assign to each Epoch its fair proportion of space; not expanding the earlier ones at the expense of the later; but giving due prominence to the events nearer our own time, especially to the Civil War.

11. To write a National history by carefully avoiding all sectional or partisan views.

12. To give the new States the attention due to their importance by devoting space to each one as it is admitted into the Union, and becomes a feature in the grand national development.

13. To lead to a more independent use of the book, and the adoption of the topical mode of recitation and study, as far as possible, by placing the questions at the close of the work, rather than at the bottom of each page.

14. To furnish, under the title of Historical Recreations, a set of review questions which may serve to

awaken an interest in class and induce a more comprehensive study of the book.

Finally—this work is offered to American youth in the confident belief that as they study the wonderful history of their native land, they will learn to prize their birthright more highly, and treasure it more carefully. Their patriotism must be kindled when they come to see how slowly, yet how gloriously, this tree of liberty has grown, what storms have wrenched its boughs, what sweat of toil and blood has moistened its roots, what eager eyes have watched every out-springing bud, what brave hearts have defended it, loving it even unto death. A heritage thus sanctified by the heroism and devotion of the fathers can but elicit the choicest care and tenderest love of the sons.

The following authorities, among many others, have been used in the preparation of this work : Hildreth's, Bancroft's, Tucker's, Sears's, Goodrich's, and Spencer's Histories of the United States; Barber's and Palfrey's Histories of New England ; Parkman's works; Moore's Diary; Lossing's Field-Books; Sparks's Biographies ; Irving's Lives of Columbus and Washington ; Lives of the Presidents; Histories of the States ; Draper, Greeley, Abbott, Headley, Pollard, and Swinton on the Civil War; Haydn's Dictionary of Dates, etc.

The publishers will be very grateful for the criticisms of teachers upon the early editions of this work, that the public may benefit, at the earliest moment, by any correction or improvement of which it may be susceptible.

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A SUGGESTION TO TEACHERS.

THE following method of using this work has been devised by 1 0 . R. SMITH, A.M., Principal of High School, Sparta, Wis., and lias been successfully employed by many teachers. At the commence. ment of the study let each pupil be required to draw an outline map of North America, at least 18 x 24 inches in size. This should contain only physical features, viz., coast-line, mountains, lakes, and rivers. If desired, they may be marked very faintly at first, and shaded and darkened when discovered in the progress of the history. As the pupils advance in the text let them mark on their maps, day by day, the places discovered, the settlements, battles, political divisions, etc., with their dates. They will thus see the country growing afresh under their hand and eye, and the geography and the history will be indis. solubly linked. At the close of the term their maps will show what they have done, and each name, with its dates, will recall the history which clusters around it.

Recitations and examinations may be conducted by having a rap drawn upon the blackboard with colored crayons, and requiring the class to fill in the names and dates, describing the historical facts as they proceed.

Entered according to Act of Congress, A. D. 1872, by A. S. BARNES & Co., in the

Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.

A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE

UNITED STATES

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HO first settled America ?-It

was probably first peopled from Asia, the birth-place of man. In what way

this happened, we do not know. Chinese vessels, coasting along the shore according to the custom of early voyagers, may have been driven by storms to cross the Pacific Ocean, while the crews were thankful to escape a watery grave by settling an unknown country: or, parties wandering across Behring Strait in search of adventure, and finding here a pleasant land, may have resolved to make it their home.

American Antiquities.-In various parts of the continent remains are found of the people which settled the country in prehistoric times. Through the Mississippi valley, from the lakes to the Gulf, extends a succession of de

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