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financial and budgetary arrangements with specialized agencies referred to in Article 57 and shall examine the administrative budgets of such specialized agencies with a view to making recommendations to the agencies concerned.

Voting

ARTICLE 18

in the realization of human rights and fundamental free-
doms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language,
or religion.

2. The further responsibilities, functions and powers of the
General Assembly with respect to matters mentioned in para-
graph 1(b) above are set forth in Chapters IX and X.

ARTICLE 14
Subject to the provisions of Article 12, the General Assem-
bly may recommend measures for the peaceful adjustment of
any situation, regardless of origin, which it deems likely to
impair the general welfare or friendly relations among nations,
including situations resulting from a violation of the provisions
of the present Charter setting forth the Purposes and Principles
of the United Nations.

ARTICLE 15
1. The General Assembly shall receive and consider annual
and special reports from the Security Council; these reports
shall include an account of the measures that the Security Coun-
cil has decided upon or taken to maintain international peace
and security.

2. The General Assembly shall receive and consider reports
from the other organs of the United Nations.

1. Each member of the General Assembly shall have one vote.

2. Decisions of the General Assembly on important
questions shall be made by a two-thirds majority of the members
present and voting. These questions shall include: recommenda-
tions with respect to the maintenance of international peace

and
security, the election of the non-permanent members of the
Security Council, the election of the members of the Economic
and Social Council, the election of members of the Trusteeship
Council in accordance with paragraph 1(c) of Article 86, the
admission of new Members to the United Nations, the suspen-
sion of the rights and privileges of membership, the expulsion
of Members, questions relating to the operation of the trustee-
ship system, and budgetary questions.

3. Decisions on other questions, including the determina-
tion of additional categories of questions to be decided by a
two-thirds majority, shall be made by a majority of the members
present and voting.

ARTICLE 16

ARTICLE 19

The General Assembly shall perform such functions with
respect to the international trusteeship system as are assigned to
it under Chapters XII and XIII, including the approval of the
trusteeship agreements for areas not designated as strategic.

ARTICLE 17

1. The General Assembly shall consider and approve the
budget of the Organization.

2. The expenses of the Organization shall be borne by the Members as apportioned by the General Assembly.

· 3. The General Assembly shall consider and approve any

A Member of the United Nations which is in arrears in the payment of its financial contributions to the Organization shall have no vote in the General Assembly if the amount of its arrears equals or exceeds the amount of the contributions due from it for the preceding two full years. The General Assembly may, nevertheless, permit such a Member to vote if it is satisfied that the failure to pay is due to conditions beyond the control of the Member.

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the non-permanent members after the increase of the member-
ship of the Security Council from eleven to fifteen, two of the
four additional members shall be chosen for a term of one year.
A retiring member shall not be eligible for immediate re-
election.

3. Each member of the Security Council shall have one
representative.

Functions and Powers

ARTICLE 24
1. In order to ensure prompt and effective action by the
United Nations, its Members confer on the Security Council
primary responsibility for the maintenance of international
peace and security, and agree that in carrying out its duties
under this responsibility the Security Council acts on their
behalf.

2. In discharging these duties the Security Council shall act
in accordance with the Purposes and Principles of the United
Nations. The specific powers granted to the Security Council
for the discharge of these duties are laid down in Chapters VI,
VII, VIII, and XII.

3. The Security Council shall submit annual and, when
necessary, special reports to the General Assembly for its con-
sideration.

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ARTICLE 25

1. The Security Council shall consist of fifteen Members
of the United Nations. The Republic of China, France, the
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom of
Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of
America shall be permanent members of the Security Council.
The General Assembly shall elect ten other Members of the
United Nations to be non-permanent members of the Security
Council, due regard being specially paid, in the first instance
to the contribution of Members of the United Nations to the
maintenance of international peace and security and to the other
purposes of the Organization, and also to equitable geographi-
cal distribution.

2. The non-permanent members of the Security Council shall be elected for a term of two years. In the first election of

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47, plans to be submitted to the Members of the United Nations for the establishment of a system for the regulation of arma

ARTICLE 31 Any Member of the United Nations which is not a member of the Security Council may participate, without vote, in the discussion of any question brought before the Security Council whenever the latter considers that the interests of that Member

are specially affected.

ARTICLE 27 1. Each member of the Security Council shall have one vote.

2. Decisions of the Security Council on procedural matters
shall be made by an affirmative vote of nine members.

3. Decisions of the Security Council on all other matters
shall be made by an affirmative vote of nine members including
the concurring votes of the permanent members; provided that,
in decisions under Chapter VI, and under paragraph 3 of
Article 52, a party to a dispute shall abstain from voting.

ARTICLE 32 Any Member of the United Nations which is not a member of the Security Council or any state which is not a Member of the United Nations, if it is a party to a dispute under consideration by the Security Council, shall be invited to participate, without vote, in the discussion relating to the dispute. The Security Council shall lay down such conditions as it deems just for the participation of a state which is not a Member of the United Nations.

399

ments.

Voting

Procedure

ARTICLE 28

CHAPTER VI
PACIFIC SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES

ARTICLE 33

1. The Security Council shall be so organized as to be able
to function continuously. Each member of the Security Council
shall for this purpose be represented at all times at the seat of
the Organization.

2. The Security Council shall hold periodic meetings at
which each of its members may, if it so desires, be represented
by a member of the government or by some other specially
designated representative.

3. The Security Council may hold meetings at such places
other than the seat of the Organizati as in its judgment will
best facilitate its work.

1. The parties to any dispute, the continuance of which is
likely to endanger the maintenance of international peace and
security, shall, first of all, seek a solution by negotiation, en-
quiry, mediation, conciliation, arbitration, judicial settlement,
resort to regional agencies or arrangements, or other peaceful
means of their own choice.

2. The Security Council shall, when it deems necessary,
call

upon the parties to settle their dispute by such means.

ARTICLE 29

ARTICLE 34

The Security Council may establish such subsidiary organs as it deems necessary for the performance of its functions.

ARTICLE 30

The Security Council may investigate any dispute, or any situation which might lead to international friction or give rise to a dispute, in order to determine whether the continuance of the dispute or situation is likely to endanger the maintenance of international peace and security.

The Security Council shall adopt its own rules of proce-
dure, including the method of selecting its President.

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gression and shall make recommendations, or decide what measures shall be taken in accordance with Articles 41 and 42, to maintain or restore international peace and security.

ARTICLE

In order to prevent an aggravation of the situation, the Security Council may, before making the recommendations or deciding upon the measures provided for in Article 39, call upon the parties concerned to comply with such provisional measures as it deems necessary or desirable. Such provisional measures shall be without prejudice to the rights, claims, or position of the parties concerned. The Security Council shall duly take account of failure to comply with such provisional

ARTICLE 35

1. Any Member of the United Nations may bring any
dispute, or any situation of the nature referred to in Article 34,
to the attention of the Security Council or of the General
Assembly

2. A state which is not a Member of the United Nations
may bring to the attention of the Security Council or of the
General Assembly any dispute to which it is a party if it accepts
in advance, for the purposes of the dispute, the obligations of
pacific settlement provided in the present Charter.

3. The proceedings of the General Assembly in respect of
matters brought to its attention under this Article will be sub-
ject to the provisions of Articles 11 and 12.

action under Article 36 or to recommend such terms of settle-
ment as it

may consider appropriate.

ARTICLE 38
Without prejudice to the provisions of Articles 33 to 37,
the Security Council may, if all the parties to any dispute so
request, make recommendations to the parties with a view to a
pacific settlement of the dispute.

CHAPTER VII
ACTION WITH RESPECT TO THREATS TO THE PEACE,
BREACHES OF THE PEACE,
AND ACTS OF AGGRESSION

ARTICLE 39

ARTICLE 36

1. The Security Council may, at any stage of a dispute of
the nature referred to in Article 33 or of a situation of like
nature, recommend appropriate procedures or methods of ad-
justment.

2. The Security Council should take into consideration any
procedures for the settlement of the dispute which have already
been adopted by the parties.

3. In making recommendations under this Article the
Security Council should also take into consideratfon that legal
disputes should as a general rule be referred by the parties to
the International Court of Justice in accordance with the provi-
sions of the Statute of the Court.

ARTICLE 37
1. Should the parties to a dispute of the nature referred to
in Article 33 fail to settle it by the means indicated in that
Article, they shall refer it to the Security Council.

2. If the Security Council deems that the continuance of
the dispute is in fact likely to endanger the maintenance of
international peace and security, it shall decide whether to take

measures.

ARTICLE 41

The Security Council may decide what measures not involving the use of armed force are to be employed to give effect to its decisions, and it may call upon the Members of the United Nations to apply such measures. These may include complete

or partial interruption of economic relations and of rail, sea, air, postal, telegraphic, radio, and other means of communication, and the severance of diplomatic relations.

under Article 43, invite that Member, if the Member so desires, to participate in the decisions of the Security Council concerning the employment of contingents of that Member's armed

forces.

ARTICLE 42

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Should the Security Council consider that measures pro-
vided for in Article 41 would be inadequate or have proved to
be inadequate, it may take such action by air, sea, or land forces
as may be necessary to maintain or restore international peace
and security. Such action may include demonstrations, blockade,
and other operations by air, sea, or land forces of Members of
the United Nations.

ARTICLE 43
1. All Members of the United Nations, in order to con-
tribute to the maintenance of international peace and security,
undertake to make available to the Security Council, on its call
and in accordance with a special agreement or agreements,
armed forces, assistance, and facilities, including rights of
passage, necessary for the purpose of maintaining international
peace and security.

2. Such agreement or agreements shall govern the numbers
and types of forces, their degree of readiness and general loca-
tion, and the nature of the facilities and assistance to be pro-
vided.

3. The agreement or agreements shall be negotiated as
soon as possible on the initiative of the Security Council. They
shall be concluded between the Security Council and Members
or between the Security Council and groups of Members and
shall be subject to ratification by the signatory states in ac-
cordance with their respective constitutional processes.

ARTICLE 44
When the Security Council has decided to use force it
shall, before calling upon a Member not represented on it to
provide armed forces in fulfilment of the obligations assumed

Plans for the application of armed force shall be made by
the Security Council with the assistance of the Military Staff
Committee.

ARTICLE 47
1. There shall be established a Military Staff Committee
to advise and assist the Security Council on all questions relat-
ing to the Security Council's military requirements for the main-
tenance of international peace and security, the employment
and command of forces placed at its disposal, the regulation
of armaments, and possible disarmament.

2. The Military Staff Committee shall consist of the Chiefs
of Staff of the permanent members of the Security Council or
their representatives. Any Member of the United Nations not
permanently represented on the Committee shall be invited by
the Committee to be associated with it when the efficient dis-
charge of the Committee's responsibilities requires the partici-
pation of that Member in its work.

3. The Military Staff Committee shall be responsible under the Security Council for the strategic direction of any armed

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