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1. The action required to carry out the decisions of the
Security Council for the maintenance of international peace and
security shall be taken by all the Members of the United
Nations or by some of them, as the Security Council may
determine.

2. Such decisions shall be carried out by the Members of
the United Nations directly and through their action in the
appropriate international agencies of which they are members.

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1. Nothing in the present Charter precludes the existence
of regional arrangements or agencies for dealing with such
matters relating to the maintenance of international peace and
security as are appropriate for regional action, provided that
such arrangements or agencies and their activities are consistent
with the Purposes and Principles of the United Nations.

2. The Members of the United Nations entering into such
arrangements or constituting such agencies shall make every
effort to achieve pacific settlement of local disputes through
such regional arrangements or by such regional agencies before
referring them to the Security Council.

3. The Security Council shall encourage the development
of pacific settlement of local disputes through such regional
arrangements or by such regional agencies either on the initia.
tive of the states concerned or by reference from the Security
Council.

4. This article in no way impairs the application of
Articles 34 and 35.

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ARTICLE 53

Nothing in the present Charter shall impair the inherent
right of individual or collective self-defence if an armed attack
occurs against a Member of the United Nations, until the
Security Council has taken measures necessary to maintain inter-
national peace and security. Measures taken by Members in
the exercise of this right of self-defence shall be immediately

1. The Security Council shall, where appropriate, utilize
such regional arrangements or agencies for enforcement action
under its authority. But no enforcement action shall be taken
under regional arrangements or by regional agencies without
the authorization of the Security Council, with the exception of

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measures against any enemy state, as defined in paragraph 2 of this Article, provided for pursuant to Article 107 or in regional arrangements directed against renewal of aggressive policy on the part of any such state, until such time as the Organization may, on request of the Governments concerned, be charged with the responsibility for preventing further aggression by such a state.

2. The term enemy state as used in paragraph 1 of this Article applies to any state which during the Second World War has been an enemy of any signatory of the present Charter.

ARTICLE 57

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1. The various specialized agencies, established by inter-
governmental agreement and having wide international respon-
sibilities, as defined in their basic instruments, in economic,
social, cultural, educational, health, and related fields, shall be
brought into relationship with the United Nations in accordance
with the provisions of Article 63.

2. Such agencies thus brought into relationship with the
United Nations are hereinafter referred to as specialized
agencies.

ARTICLE 58
The Organization shall make recommendations for the co-
ordination of the policies and activities of the specialized
agencies.

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ith a view to the creation of conditions of stability and W

well-being which are necessary for peaceful and friendly
relations among nations based on respect for the principle of
equal rights and self-determination of peoples, the United
Nations shall promote:

a. higher standards of living, full employment, and con-
ditions of economic and social progress and development;

b. solutions of international economic, social, health,
and related problems; and international cultural and edu-
cational co-operation; and

c. universal respect for, and observance of, human rights
and fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as
to race, sex, language, or religion.

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1. The Economic and Social Council shall consist of fifty-
four Members of the United Nations elected by the General
Assembly

2. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 3, eighteen mem-
bers of the Economic and Social Council shall be elected each
year for a term of three years. A retiring member shall be
eligible for immediate re-election.

3. At the first election after the increase in the membership
of the Economic and Social Council from twenty-seven to fifty-
four members, in addition to the members elected in place of
the nine members whose term of office expires at the end of
that year, twenty-seven additional members shall be elected. Of
these twenty-seven additional members, the term of office of
nine members so elected shall expire at the end of one year,
and of nine other members at the end of two years, in accord-
ance with arrangements made by the General Assembly.

4. Each member of the Economic and Social Council shall
have one representative.

Functions and Powers

ARTICLE 62
1. The Economic and Social Council may make or initiate
studies and reports with respect to international economic,
'social, cultural, educational, health, and related matters and

may make recommendations with respect to any such matters
to the General Assembly, to the Members of the United
Nations, and to the specialized agencies concerned.

2. It may make recommendations for the purpose of pro

1. The Economic and Social Council may enter into agree-
ments with any of the agencies referred to in Article 57, defin-
ing the terms on which the agency concerned shall be brought
into relationship with the United Nations. Such agreements
shall be subject to approval by the General Assembly.

2. It may co-ordinate the activities of the specialized agen-
cies through consultation with and recommendations to such
agencies and through recommendations to the General Assem-
bly and to the Members of the United Nations.

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ARTICLE 66
1. The Economic and Social Council shall perform such
functions as fall within its competence in connexion with the
carrying out of the recommendations of the General Assembly.

2. It may, with the approval of the General Assembly, per-
form services at the request of Members of the United Nations
and at the request of specialized agencies.

3. It shall perform such other functions as are specified
elsewhere in the present Charter or as may be assigned to it by
the General Assembly.

Voting

ARTICLE 67
1. Each member of the Economic and Social Council shall
have one vote.

2. Decisions of the Economic and Social Council shall be
made by a majority of the members present and voting.

Procedure

ARTICLE 71
The Economic and Social Council may make suitable ar-
rangements for consultation with non-governmental organiza-
tions which are concerned with matters within its competence.
Such arrangements may be made with international organiza-
tions and, where appropriate, with national organizations after
consultation with the Member of the United Nations con-
cerned.

ARTICLE 72
1. The Economic and Social Council shall adopt its own
rules of procedure, including the method of selecting its Presi-
dent.

2. The Economic and Social Council shall meet as required
in accordance with its rules, which shall include provision for
the convening of meetings on the request of a majority of its
members.

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responsibilities for the administration of territories whose
peoples have not yet attained a full measure of self-government
recognize the principle that the interests of the inhabitants of
these territories are paramount, and accept as a sacred trust the
obligation to promote to the utmost, within the system of inter-
national peace and security established by the present Charter,
the well-being of the inhabitants of these territories, and, to this
end:

a. to ensure, with due respect for the culture of the peoples concerned, their political, economic, social, and

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educational advancement, their just treatment, and their protection against abuses;

b. to develop self-government, to take due account of
the political aspirations of the peoples, and to assist them
in the progressive development of their free political in-
stitutions, according to the particular circumstances of each
territory and its peoples and their varying stages of ad-
vancement;

c. to further international peace and security;

d. to promote constructive measures of development, to
encourage research, and to co-operate with one another
and, when and where appropriate, with specialized inter-
national bodies with a view to the practical achievement
of the social, economic, and scientific purposes set forth
in this Article; and

e. to transmit regularly to the Secretary-General for in-
formation purposes, subject to such limitation as security
and constitutional considerations may require, statistical
and other information of a technical nature relating to
economic, social, and educational conditions in the terri-
tories for which they are respectively responsible other
than those territories to which Chapters XII and XIII
apply.

The basic objectives of the trusteeship system, in accordance
with the Purposes of the United Nations laid down in Article
1 of the present Charter, shall be:

a. to further international peace and security;

b. to promote the political, economic, social, and educa-
tional advancement of the inhabitants of the trust terri-
tories, and their progressive development towards self-
government or independence as may be appropriate to the
particular circumstances of each territory and its peoples
and the freely expressed wishes of the peoples concerned,
and as may be provided by the terms of each trusteeship
agreement;

c. to encourage respect for human rights and for funda-
mental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex,
language, or religion, and to encourage recognition of the
interdependence of the peoples of the world; and

d. to ensure equal treatment in social, economic, and
commercial matters for all Members of the United Nations
and their nationals, and also equal treatment for the latter
in the administration of justice, without prejudice to the
attainment of the foregoing objectives and subject to the
provisions of Article 80.

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