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National scores-Cumulative results

70 85 55 73 85 70 95 80 83 75 78 70 83 60 80 78 58 78 55 78

Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
Argentina
Australia
Austria
Bahamas
Bahrain
Bangladesh
Barbados
Belgium
Bhutan
Bolivia
Botswana
Brazil
Bulgaria
Burma
Burundi
Byelorussian S.S.R.
Canada
Central African Republic-
Chad
Chile
China
Colombia
Congo
Costa Rica
Cuba
Cyprus
Czechoslovakia
Dahomey
Democratic Yemen.
Denmark
Dominican Republic--
Ecuador
Egypt
El Salvador..
Equatorial Guinea-
Ethiopia
Fiji
Finland
France
Gabon
Gambia
German Democratic Republic -
Germany, Federal Republic of -
Ghana
Greece
Grenada
Guatemala
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Guyana
Haiti
Honduras
Hungary
Iceland
India
Indonesia
Iran

83 Iraq 53 Ireland 75 | Israel 78 Italy 95 Ivory Coast-80 Jamaica 38 Japan 80 Jordan 73 Kenya 53 Khmer Republic_63 Kuwait 55 Laos 65 Lebanon 78 Lesotho 80 Liberia 43 Libyan Arab Republic80 Luxembourg 68 Madagascar 43 Malawi 78 Malaysia 68 Maldives (absent). 53) Mali 80 Malta 58 Mauritania 90 Mauritius 70 Mexico 90 Mongolia 49 Morocco 78 Nepal 43 Netherlands 73 New Zealand 65 Nicaragua 70 Niger 58 Nigeria 90 Norway 75 Oman 70 | Pakistan 43 Panama 78 Paraguay 78 Peru 90 Philippines 49 Poland 40 Portugal 65 Qatar 43 Romania 65 Rwanda 78 Saudi Arabia. 83 Senegal 60 Sierra Leone80 Singapore 63 Somalia 53 South Africa (suspended) 78 Spain 80 Sri Lanka.. 70 Sudan 43 Swaziland 78 Sweden 70 Syrian Arab Republic_ 83 Thailand 88 Togo

65 63 75 58 95 43 60 78 83 98 68 85

65 90 88 43 73 70 68 83 49 80 80 85

National scores-Cumulative results—Continued Trinidad and Tobago..

85, United Republic of Tanzania-Tunisia

83 United States-Turkey

80 Upper Volta-Uganda

78 Uruguay Ukrainian S.S.R.-

43 Venezuela Union of Soviet Socialist

Yemen Republics

43 Yugoslavia United Arab Emirates_

75 Zaire United Kingdom---

53 Zambia United Republic of Cameroon --

70 45 75 75 83 78 75 65 65

80

How ISSUES WERE SCORED

DESCRIPTIONS OF RESOLUTIONS

1. Cyprus: Yes-right; Against-wrong; Abstain--wrong. Unanimously adopted.

Urges speedy withdrawal of all foreign armed forces and the cessation of all foreign interference in its affairs. Calls for the return of all refugees to their homes in safety, provides for negotiations, and for strengthening of Un peacekeeping force. Unusually strong resolution and vote on an issue many had been avoiding.

2. Cambodia: Yes—no score; No—no score; Abstain-right.

Vote is on priority for the Western resolution on who represents Cambodia at the UN: the incumbent Lon Nol government or Prince Sihanouk. On the one hand the UN cannot afford to get into the business of deciding between incumbent and exile governments. On the other hand, anger and frustration at the US for involving Cambodia in war, and at the long effort of the US to upset Sihanouk were surely justified. Therefore, no score either way.

Vote: 58 in favor, 56 against, 20 abstentions.

3. Palestine: Invitation to the Palestine Liberation Front to address UN Assembly. Yes—right; No-wrong; Abstain-no score.

Customarily groups of individuals who are necessary to the discussion of an issue are invited to appear. Representatives of Palestine have appeared in the past. Their presence cannot be considered a judgment on the substance. Therefore, the invitation in itself was appropriate.

Vote: 105 in favor, 4 against (Bolivia, Dominican Republic, US, Israel) 20 abstentions.

4. Palestine: Resolution on the future of the Palestinians. Yes—no score; Nono score; Abstain-right. While the rights of the Palestinians is a proper matter and a badly neglected one, the resolution was out of the context of previous resolutions on the Middle East, contained some dangerously ambiguous elements.

Vote: 89 in favor, 8 against, 37 abstentions.

5. Palestine: Observer status for the PLO. Yes—no score; No-right; Abstainright.

Elevating the PLO to the status of an observer nation such as Switzerland was inappropriate.

Vote: 95 in favor, 17 against, 19 abstentions.
6. Suspension of South Africa: Yes--no score; No-right; Abstain-right.

Vote was in support of a ruling of the Assembly President, calling for the suspension of South Africa from the proceedings of the Assembly. While frustration has run high for years because of the unwillingness of the big powers to in any way exert themselves on behalf of the end of Apartheid, the ruling was essentially illegal under the Charter. The impact on South Africa was probably useful ; the impact on the UN was damaging.

Vote: 91 in favor, 22 against, and 19 abstentions.

7. Napalm and Weapons Causing Unnecessary Suffering: Yes—-right; Nowrong; Abstain-wrong.

Urges further progress by the Geneva Diplomatic Conference on International Law in Armed Conflicts updating the laws of war, toward banning napalm and other cruel and indiscriminate weapons.

Vote: 108 in favor, none against, 13 abstentions (potential or actual napalm users).

8. Nuclear Tests : Yes-right; No-wrong; Abstain—wrong.

A straightforward resolution condemning all nuclear weapons tests in whatever environment they are conducted. Calls for a comprehensive test ban, and for a moratorium until it is worked out.

Vote: 95 in favor, 3 against (current atmospheric testers China and France plus tagalong Albania), and 33 abstentions (US, UK, USSR and close friends).

9. Indian Ocean as a Zone of Peace : Yes--right; No-wrong; Abstain—wrong.

Asks the US and USSR to cool it on their arms build up in the Indian Ocean, until the states in the area can meet and establish the Indian Ocean as a Zone of Peace.

Vote: 103 in favor, none against, but 26 abstentions (the US, USSR and their closest friends gave their usual whole-hearted support).

10. Salt Talks : Yes—right; No-wrong; Abstain-wrong.

“Shares the concern” of the US and USSR about the nuclear arms race; urges them to "broaden" the scope and accelerate the pace of their talks ; stresses the necessity of qualitative limitations and substantial reductions of strategic and nuclear arms. Asks them to inform the Assembly.

Vote: 105 in favor, 1 against (Albania. China “not participating”) 23 abstentions (US, USSR and small group of friends).

11. Nuclear Weapons Free Zone in South Asia : Yes-right; No-wrong; Abstain—wrong.

Although the Pakistan initiative was triggered by India's entry into the nuclear explosions club, it was still a good initiative. Invites states to consult on setting up such a zone; asks the UN to convene a meeting for that purpose and to provide assistance.

Vote: 96 in favor ; 2 against (Bhutan, India), 36 abstentions. China voted for; US, UK, USSR and France against.

12. Military Budgets: Yes-right; No-wrong ; Abstain—wrong. Very interesting resolution building on work of previous year. Asks states to provide views on definition, procedures for establishing a system of comparing military budgets to facilitate their reduction by the proposed 10% and the allotment of part of the savings to development through the UN.

Vote: 99 in favor; 2 against (China and Albania in their usual constructive role) ; 12 abstentions (USSR group plus France and Paraguay!).

13. UN Command in Korea : Yes-right; No-no score; Abstain-right.

A moderate and constructive resolution offered by the US and friends under pressure. Foresees the end of the “UN Command" in Korea which is a ridiculous anachronism; urges continued dialogue toward conciliation and unification between North and South. Abstention is also regarded as right, inasmuch as the resolution did not remove UN imprimateur from US presence.

Vote: 61 in favor, 42 against, 32 abstentions. (Vote in Committee I.)

14. Improvements to UN and to Charter : Yes--right; No—wrong; Abstainno score.

Resolution sets up a committee of 32 members to consider this year proposals and recommendations of the members for improving the UN and its Charter; asks the Secretary-General for his views.

Vote: 77 in favor, 29 against, 32 abstentions in the 6th Committee.

15. Covenant on Civil and Political Rights: Optional Protocol: Yes—wrong; No-right; Abstain—wrong.

Vote was on a Soviet move to take reference to the Protocol out of a resolution calling for ratification of the Covenants on Human Rights. The Protocol provides for the right of individual petition over the heads of governments on rights grievances, if governments have agreed in advance. A rare vote showing the line-up on individual human rights.

Vote: 26 in favor, 33 against, 52 abstentions. China did not even wish to participate. The large number of abstentions show nations not knowing, not caring, or caught between two fires of the proponents and opponents of human rights.

16. Rhodesia: Yes-right; No-wrong: Abstain-wrong.

Annual omnibus resolution on Rhodesia. Calls for enforcement of sanctions taken against Rhodesia, names the US in this matter.

Vote: 99 in favor, none against, 17 abstentions, in 4th Committee. 17. Namibia: Yes—right; No—wrong; Abstain—no score.

Annual omnibus resolution on exertion of UN mandate over Namibia. Each year the African states hunt around for something new to do to try to prod action

on this question, with absence of help from the big powers. This year the resolution provides funding for one of the liberation groups' offices, and for a transmitter to broadcast into Namibia-questionable items, therefore abstention is not marked wrong, but only no score.

Vote: 96 in favor, none against, 14 abstentions, in Fourth Committee.

18. Charter of Economic Rights and Duties: Yes—right; No-wrong; Abstain--no score.

A Magna Carta or a hoax, depending on whom you talk to. Probably neither one, but a painful first step toward a statement of international responsibility in the area. The industrialized western countries wanted amendments easier on their multinational corporations concerning compensation for nationalization, etc., main reason for their votes.

Votes: 120 in favor; 6 against (Belgium, Denmark, West Germany, Luxberg, UK, US); 10 abstentions.

19. Peaceful Settlement of Disputes: Yes—right; No—wrong; Abstain—no

score.

A fine resolution stressing the importance and value of using the UN Charter provisions for settlement of disputes by negotiation, conciliation, arbitration, with the UN as third party when helpful. Although an endorsement of motherhood, some states were hoodwinked by a USSR campaign against it, a country which wants everything settled only by bilateral negotiations.

Votes: 69 in favor ; 10 against, 35 abstentions.
20. Human Rights in Chile: Yes—right; No—wrong ; Abstain—no score.

Although the UN is political in its choice of human rights issues (Chile is a USSR favorite), the resolution was good one and well-sponsored, and unfortunately, there is no doubt about the severity of the repression of rights in Chile.

Vote: 90 in favor, 8 against (all Latin), and 26 abstentions.

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HOW SCORED: Y--'Yes' vote; N--"NO" vote; A--"Abstain" vote. R--right. W--wrong. 0--no score
Slant line--absent. NP (a Chinese invention)--not participating. The scores are computed on
the basis of Right minus Wrong, and minus the number of absences.
Rationale: There is difficulty selecting votes for comparison because roll calls or recorded

votes are not always available on important issues and because the resolutions do not always reflect the issues accurately. The votes were selected with these points in mind.

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