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WIND. The wind blew from the east, all day on the 12th and 27th. From the south east, on the 25th and 30th. From the south, on the 18th and 29th. From the west, on the 10th. From the north west on the 5th, 6th, 7th, 9th, 16th, 17th, 21st, 22d and 23d.

At sunrise east, 13th, 24th, 26th, 28th. South east 1st, 14th. South 4th. South west, 2d, 8th, 19th. West 3d, 15th, 20th. North West 11th.

At 9 A. M., east 13th, 24th. South east, 1st, 14th. South, 4th, and 28th. South west, 2d, 8th, 19th. West 3d, 15th, 20th. North west, 11th, 26th.

At 3 P. M. south east 13th.

South 1st, 4th, 13th, 14th, 28th. South west 3d. West 2d, 11th, 19th, North west, 8th, 15th, 20th, 26th. North 24th.

At 9 P. M. south east 13th. South 1st, 14th. 28th, South west 3d, 4th, 19th. West, 2d. North west 11th 15th, 20th, 26th. North, 24th.

CLEAR WEATHER 9th, 12th and 17th. Clear at Sunrise 4, 7, 9, 10, 12, 17, 18, 24, 25, 26, 27, 30. 9. A.M. 3, 7, 9, 10, 12, 17, 18, 24, 25. 3 P.M. 9, 12, 17, 26.

9 P.M. 3, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16, 17, 22, 25, 26, 30. Entire cloudiness all day, 5, 20. 21. Cloudy at sunrise on 7 days exclusive of the foregoing-at 9 A.M. four days, at 3 P. M. 3 days, and 9 P. M. 4 days.

No thunder and lightning during the month. Dew point June 2, 3 p. m., 73. On the 7th at sunrise 34, and the same on the 23d. On the 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 28, 29, and 30th, 50, and above with the exception of the morning of the 6th and 17th, when it was 46. On the 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12. 13, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26 and 27 below 50.

STATE OF THERMOMETER at the different Telegraph stations, July 11, morning and afternoon. At Baltimore, 8 o'clock, A. M., 90°; 9, 92 1-3; 10, 93 1-2; 11, 94 1-12; 12 M. 94 1-2; 1 P. M. 95 1-2; 2 1-2, 96 1-2. Washington, 15 minutes to 3, 94. At Philadelphia, 10 A. M. 98 1-20; 11, 99 1-2; 12, 101; 12 1-2 P. M., 101 1-2; and at 2 1-2, 103 1-2. At Wilmington, Del., 2 1-2 P. M. 89 1-2. New-York, at 2 1-2 P. M. 99 1-2.

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State of the weather.

29 west wind, rain, thunder. and calm. west wind, clear., west wind, thunder. all day, S. W. wind. west wind, clear.



11, day W. wind. rain in morning N. E. Wind.




"" clouds, east wind. in morning, S. E. r. & t. 12. E. wind, much rain & loud thun14.70.-.-.69.. Do. from 2 to 4. [der from 12 to 4., thunder, east wind. and calm. clear d., W. wind, showers and and calm. [thunder at eve. and calm in morn. rain and ld. rain, w. w. thunder [thunder w. w. and calm.





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Salometer, June 2, 5, 8, 12, 15, 19, 26 and 29, 960. Temperature of brine on the same days 62°. W. K., Jr.


The heat on Friday the 10th, Saturday the 11th, and Sunday the 12th of July, was of the same degree of intensity, but not of the same duration. On Friday the temperature was 94° from 20 minutes past 1, to 40 minutes past 3 P. M. On Saturday 94 from 30 minutes past 2 P. M., to 50 m. past 2, and at 30 m. past 3. On Sunday 94 from 30 m. past 2, to 40 m. past 2. At the latter period heavy thunder was heard at à distance, and at 55 minutespast 2, a wind squall came up, and at 3 a heavy rain fell, and the temperature down to 87. At 4 o'clock it fell to 80°. On Saturday morning the 18th of July, the temperature was 580 from 4 to 6 o'clock, being a difference of 36° from half past 3 P. M. of the 12th. The lowest temperature on Friday night the 10th July, was 78°. On Saturday night 80. Sunday night 73.


On Thursday night 16th, and Friday morning the 17th, there was an equilibrium temperature of 11 hours, from 9 P. M. of the 16th, to 8 A. M. of the 17th, preceded by a sudden depression of temperature of 3 degrees. A storm followed. Such a state of the atmosphere in the year 1846 has frequently occurred, and has in every instance been preceded by an Earthquake; it is therefore reasonable to presume that an earthquake preceded the equilibrium of the 16th and 17th, produced the equilibrium.

EQUILIBRIUM.-Monday, July 20, 8 o'clock P. M.. temperature 68°; 9, 68; 10, 68; 12, 68.Tuesday July 21, o'clock A. M. 68; 2, 68; 3, 68; 4, 68; 5, 68; 6, 68; 7, 68; 8, 70; 9, 70, and a rain and great humidity of atmosphere. The state of the atmosphere for 11 hours was that of great quietude. A rain storm followed.


Made at Erasmus Hall Academy, Flatbush, L. I., by Dr. Strong, and copy of the record of the temperature kept at Morris' in Wall Street, N. Y.


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65 79 80 77 65 81,85 77 71 82 84 81 65 74 78 76 64 72 77 74 64747472 Cloudy 66 76 77 72 Fair 66 807471 1160 75 61 0.01 S. WS W Do. Rain. 65 76 7573 12 69 70 62 0.08 N.E.E. Do. Cloudy 65 73 7472 13 56 68 62 Do. S. E. Do. 6173,73,70 N.E. S. W Do. Do. 64 77 79 75 S.WS. W Do. Fair 67 82 80 77 N.E. S. E. Fair. Cloudy 71 82 84 75 N.E. S. E. Do. Do. 6679 7873 S.WS. Cloudy Fair 65 79 80 76 19 68 82 75 0.03 S. WS. W Fair. Rain. 72 85 88 74 Do. 20 67 80 69 0.07 S. W S. W Do. 71 83 85 74 21 62 70 66 0.01 N.WN.W Do. Cloudy 64 74 73 68 22 52 64 57 W. N.W Cloudy Fair 56 67 68 66 23 51 64 600.09 N. Do. N.E. Do. 5768 68 68 245370 62 0.01 N.E. S. W Fair. Cloudy 60 70 7570 25 57 74 68 0.04 N.WS. E. Do. Do. 62 77 7573 26 57 80 700.05 N. Rain. S. E. Do. 63 81 8274 27 58 72 66 N.E. S. Cloudy Cloudy 65 72 73 70 Do. 28 59 68 64 0.07 S.W S. E. Rain. 66707470 29.62 73 67 0.06 N.E. S. E. Cloudy Do. 66 76 77 73 30 65 70 69 0.05E. S. E. Do. Do.

15 65 8270 16,65 8168

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1.12 Barometer, at Flatbush June 7.-30,05-30,1030,05-8th, 30,10-30,20-9th, 30,25-30,25; 10th, 30,10-30,00--29,95; 12th, 29,95-30,10—30,20; 13th, 30,20-30,15: 14th, 30,05-30,00-29,95; 24th, 30,00 all day. June 20th, 29,65-29,60-29,65. The residue of the month from 29,65 to 29,95.

TEMPERATURE..-Friday, July 10th, 4 o'clock, A.M. 74; 5,73; 6,74; 7, 77; 8, 82; 9, 87; 10, 87 1-2; 11, 87 1.2; 12, 91; 12 20, 92; 1, 93; 1, 20, 94; 2, 94; 3, 94; 3 40, 94; 4, 93; 5, 91 1-2; 6, 90; 7, 885; 8, 88; 9, 86 1-2; 10, 84. Lightning cloud in the west 7 P. M.

Saturday 11th, 4 A. M. 78; 5, 78; 6, 79; 7, 82; 8, 86; 9, 91; 10, 90; 11, 91 1-2; 11, 30, 90; 12, 91 1-2; 1,91 1-2; 2, 92; 2, 30, 94; 2, 50, 94; 3, 93; 3, 15, 93; 3, 30, 94; 4, 93 3-4; 5,91; 5, 30, 89 1-2; 6, 88 1-2: 7, 87; 8, 87; 9, 86. Lightning storm of great intensity, bordering the entire northern horizon until midnight. Mr. Underhill's house, in East Brooklyn, struck by a terrific thunderbolt at 11 P. M.

Sunday July 12, 4 A.M. 80 ; 5, 78 1-2; 6, 80; 8, 87; 9, 89 1-2; 10, 90; 11, 90; 12, 91; 1, 91 1-2; 2, 98 1-2; 2, 30, 94; 2, 40, 92; 2, 55, 90; 3, 87; 3, 5, 85; 3, 15, 84; 3, 30, 82; 3, 45, 81; 4,80; 4, 20, 82; 6, 82; 7, 82; 8, 81; 9, 80 1-2; 10, 10, 79.


Saturday June 19, a thunder storm at Albany commenced at half-past 2 P. M. and lasted an hour, during which rain fell in great abundance, and the streets were flooded.

Friday, June 18, at 3 P; M- a violent thunder storm was experienced at Troy. The lightning was very vivid, and the thunder heavy, rain abundant. The

lightning struck in the river a few feet astern of the

little steamer Maria, and made the water boil like a boiling cauldron.

At Buffalo, a thunder storm commenced on Monday morning before 1 o'clock, and lasted for an hour with great violence. The lightning was intensely vivid the whole time. A stable in Gay Street was struck by lightning and a horse killed. The steeple of St. Mary's Catholic Church, and several other buildings were struck and injured.

Gazette, which I have partially perused with great interest, as there are many principles there reviewed with which I was formerly familiar, being the antipodes of our notions here of Municipal Government. The great length of time that has elapsed since your letter came to hand, makes it my duty to apologize. I had laid it by, and have a number of specimens of the kind you request, ready for transmission to you, and I had overlooked or forgotten your request to drop you a line, and I have been most of the time since last fall from home, and when home my health has been such as to unfit me for promptness; but I should long since have forwarded the specimens to you had I been able to get a conveyance. We are 36 miles from the railroad to Augusta, and thence to Charleston, and the road to Macon is torn up, and repairing, and I could not send them without incurring an expense altogether too great for the value. I will endeavor to convey them to Macon and thence to Savannah, by the latter part of this month. In regard to examinations for gold, I will mention that it does not appear to be confined to any particular rock or strata. We find gold veins running paralell with and crossing mica slate (or inferior granite), iron, sand stone (black and grey), and sometimes with veins of iron ore and lead glance. We test by washing the surface in a gadau pan shaking it and pouring off the sand until nothing but the gold remains; or by digging down in the branches until we come to a compact gravel, then cut through this and get some gravel off the slate, as we call it, (which is generally little else than decomposed granite or mica and fieldspar, and is of all colours, sometimes a fine blue green, tinged with purple yellow or white, feels greasy to the fingers, and dissolves instantly in water). Thirty or forty particles of gold to as large as the head of a common pin, if found in a gadau of earth will pay $1 per day to the hand. The gold is always found in a flint or quartz gravel, and and our veins are compact fractured flint or quartz. The quartz are milky, yellow, white, greasy, brown, cellular, with oxide of iron in the cells, semi-transparent, and some pure crystal, but we do look for gold in the pure crystal; it attends the veins in small blocks, or in regularly formed crystals, bnt in small quantities. We always find common quartz with the gold, but do not always find the gold in or with the quartz. If you can find any person who can learn you how to pan with a common gadau tin pan, you will have the knowledge of the miner who makes his first test, then if you find gold with your pan try your rockee (the machines we wash in) is a hollow trough 8 ft. long, 1 bar 1 in. high, within 34 feet of the head or end that is planked over, with the plank nailed down, 1 bar of the same height within 8 or 10 inches of the mouth, a riddle of punched sheet iron, 4 feet long, 2 feet wide to of an inch thick, holes within 24 in length, laid on the top and side and head boards, 8 in. high, rocked so as to move the gravel and sand gently from side to side, a stream of water, 1 inch by 3, running on, ain. augur hole 1 lu. above each bar in the entre of the bottom of the bottom of the rockee to take the gold out of, when done work rock a few minutes to lessen the quantity of sand stirring with the hand, or a stick take off of the water, then raise the top end of it, 2 or 3 inches and stir and rock until the sand is reduced from 2 quarts to 3 pints take out in a gadau pan after all the water is held off, the bottom of the rockee is made a compressed circle about one inch less than a circle, sides 2 in. thick, at the top and 2 ft. from the outside to outside, 3 to 4 thick, through the bottom, a piece across the top of the mouth below the lower bar 4 in. wide, let on with a dovetail and nailed, a mortice through the cross piece, and a the bottom of the rockee below the box to rock by, set at such an angle that the boy can take hold to rock with ease. If you think of going to make tests soon, I will with pleasure give you more particular directions. Our rockees are dug out of solid poplar, as called in NewYork, whitewood, the inside must be smooth.

"I am, Sir,


The New-York Life and Trust Company with a permanent capital of One Million of Dollars, safely invested, make Life Insurance both on the mutual and on the old plan.

DAVID THOMPSON, Esq., formerly cashier of the Bank of America, son of JONATHAN THOMPSON, formerly collector of the Port of New-York, has been elected President of the New-York Life and Trust Company, and has entered upon the duties of the office. WM. BARD, Esq., a gentleman of high standing in our community, is the actuary of the Company. With such officers the company will command an extensive business. The Board of Directors of the Company are worthy, good men, of high standing in this community. Many of our numerous readers in the 59 different counties of this state to whom this paper is forwarded will feel a satisfaction in knowing that our City possesses a Company with such ample capital, and that it is under the direction of such worthy and good men. This Company in the event of a loss may be relied upon for a prompt and equitable adjustment. In a future number we will endeavor to say something more full in regard to Life Insurance.

The New-York Life Insurance and Trust Company have issued a prospectus setting forth the plan on which they propose in future to insure lives. They propose to insure on their old system at reduced rates, This is proprietary, and allows to the insured no participation in profits, but gives to them the security of the Company's capital that their policies will be promptly paid when due. Thus affording security against loss beyond what the tables allow, from climate or the prevalence of cholera, and other epidemics and infectious diseases.

The Company propose also to insure at their present rates on the Mutual plan, in which the profits will be divided among the insured. They offer for a fixed period the guarantee of Fifty Thousand Dollars for the fulfillment of all contracts of Mutual Insurance, and the guarantee of their whole capital without limit of time, that the premiums paid by the insured shall be kept safely and without loss, and faithfully and punctually accumulated at the average rate of interest charged by them on all their loans in the city and county of New-York. The Company further propose to receive from the insured, either on the Proprietary or Mutual system, thirty per cent. of all annual life premiums in their own notes, or to allow them to pay their premiums quarterly or semi-annually. The Company will insure single or joint lives, or the life of the longest liver. They will also grant and purchase annuities and make any other contingent contract involving the interest of money and the duration of life. The prospectus may be had on application at the office. Its examination is recommended to him who wishes to secure his wife, or child, or friend, or dependant, against the suffering his death would occasion either of them should he leave them unprovided for.


In the Cherokee Country, State of Georgia. There is a U. S. Mint, for coining gold, in this neighborhood.

Copy of a letter addressed to the Editor from JOHN B. WICK, Esq., of Villa Rica, Georgia.



"Villa Rica, Carroll Co., Ga.. May 12th, 1846. Dear Sir, Mrs. Bryant handed me your favor of the 14th Oct., and also the Numbers of the Municipal

"Your ob't. servant,

"JOHN B. WICK. "To E. Meriam Esq,, New-York.

No. 1. Residuent sand, from the washing for gold from the granite formation from surface washings, taking all the surface from 12 to 24 inches deep; the residuent sands from the branch washing are precisely the same, except when we approach near the range

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VILLA RICA, Georgia, is named after a town of the same name in Brazil, capitol of the province of Mina's Geraes, on the Ouro Preto, This town is situate on the declivity of a high mountain. It is the head quarters of the gold mining district in Brazil. There is a mint here. The gold found in the mountains on which the town is built is found in a matrix of slaty clay schist resting on a granite, gneiss, or sand stone.

In the table lands in Mexico, gold and silver is found embeded in Porphyry and Hornblende. Quartz is absent. In the mines of Comanja silver is found in Syenite. in Guanaxuato, the richest mines in Mexico in clay slate and talc slate. Those of Real del Cardonal, Xacala and Somo del Toro, in a bed of transition lime stone. The precious metals are also found in the same districts with iron.

At Schemnitz, in Hungary, gold is found in a whitish compact limestone, alternating with syenite and porphyry. Ou the borders of Transylvania gold is found in sand like masses of decayed pumice stone.


Copy of a Letter from H. E. PIERREPONT, Esq., Brooklyn, New-York.

"Brooklyn, 13th July 1846.

"Dear Sir,

"I send you some insects which frequent Mr. Gouverneur Morris's house, and are supposed to have been brought by his father to this country in some French furniture. From their habits they are supposed to belong to the EPHEMERA, as their disappearance is as sudden as their visit-and like the ineects of that genus they come in great numbers, pouring out of cracks and holes and covering the floors of basement rooms. I have compared them with the description and engraving of the ephemera, but they do not resemble them so much as the very numerous family of ants. I am no entamologist and will not venture to class or name the insect-if you can do so, 1 shall be pleased to hear from you.

"With much regard,

"I am yours,

"E. Meriam, Esq." These insects are the winged ant, described in this voulume, p. 331-they take wing in summer.-Ed.

LIGHTNING.-Two persons, L. Conuel, and Chancey Walker, the former a Seargent and the latter a Corporal, belonging to the two Reg. U. S. Infantry were killed by lightning during a thunder storm at Sault St. Maria, a few days since.

came upon a cherry tree on the opposite side of the house, which is within ten feet of the window beside which is my writing table, and commenced singing its sweet notes. Since then this bird has visited this tree several times a day, and at each visit sings a pretty song. On the fourth of July this bird came upon the tree quite often-the weather was rainy, and the boys were firing crackers, and then it did not sing. Last year I restored a young bird of the same species to its parents, and it is possible these may be the same birds. These birds are sweet singers, and are often heard on the tops of the trees in Brooklyn, singing at an early hour in the morning. Their notes are much like those of the canary. This bird is about the size of the canary, and of an olive green color on its back, with a light colored breast, is of a slender form and very bright eyes.

There is much real and abiding satisfaction in rendering kindnesses to these little birds-they are sensible of kindness and very grateful for favors-they bring a blessing with them when they come, and leave when they depart-their visits are therefore twice blessed.



Capt. Freemont's visit to the top of the highest Mountain in North America.

"During our mornings's ascent, we had met no sign of animal life, except the small sparrow like bird already mentioned. A stillness the most profound, and a terrible solitude forced themselves censtantly on the mind as the great features of the place. Here, on the summit, where the stillness was absolute, unbroken by any sound, and the solitude complete, we thought ourselves beyond the region of animated life; but while we were sitting on the rock, a solitary bee (bromus, the humble bee,) came winging his flight from the eastern valley, and lit on the knee of one of our men.

"It was a strange place, the icy rock and the highest peak of the Rocky Mountains, for a lover of warm sunshine and flowers; and we pleased ourselves with the idea that he was the first of his species to cross the mountain barrier-a solitary pioneer to foretell the advance of civilization. I believe that a moment's thought would have made us let him continue his way unharmed; but we carried out the law of this country, where all animated nature seems at war; and, seizing him immediately, put him in at least a fit place-in the leaves of a large book, among the flowers we had collected on our way. The barometer stood at 18.293, the attached thermometer at 44°; giving for the elevation of this summit 13,570 feet above the Gulf of Mexico, which may be called the highest flight of the bee. It is certainly the highest known flight of that insect."— Capt. Fremont's Tour, page 69. Published by order of the Congress of the United States.

This act, we have no doubt, Capt. Freemont will remember to the latest day of his life, and regret it as long as that memory lasts.


Thursday morning June 13th, my little daughter informed me there were several young birds flying about the street, and that the boys were endeavoring to catch them. I immediately set out in pursuit and soon found the little creatures the boys had caught; two of them, and the parents were flying about in great distress. The boys willingly gave the young birds up to me, and I laboured nearly an hour to induce the parent birds to follow their young to the trees near my dwelling, and at last succeeded; frequently the mother would fly within a few feet of me, and I could see that her eyes were perfectly red, produced by the excited feelings. I procured a ladder and ascended a tree, and placed the young birds upon a limb, out of harm's way; but one of them flew down upon the ground, I caught it and placed it in a cage and hung the cage on a limb that reached near a window of my house. The parent birds followed their little offspring and fed it through the wires of the cage. The following day a sudden gust came up and I removed the cage inside the house and near the window, leaving the window open, and the parents followed it and fed the young bird inside the house. The following day the young bird, by the aid of the mother got through the wire of the cage, and escaped -but a few minutes after I saw the bird fly down upon the pavement, while the mother flew after it to prevent it from encountering too great a risk. I caught the young bird and replaced it in the cage, and the mother immediately came and fed it. and seemed satisfied with the care I had taken of it. I then removed the cage to a small bed room, and placed it upon a chair near the window, fastened the door and left the window open for the mother to come in and feed her little one. She came frequently and fed it, and a little before sundown left it for the night. On Sabbath morning the parent bird came a little after 4 o'clock, and fed the young bird, and repeated the visits very frequently while I was in the room. At about ten o'clock she came near the window and seemed anxious to have the little bird set at liberty, and the little bird seemed impatient under restraint, and as it had acquired strength to fly I placed it on a long stick, reached it out towards its mother, while she sat waiting on the limb of a tree, at a few feet distant. The little one flew upon the tree, and from tree to tree the parent following it, both apparently greatly rejoiced, a feeling in which I largely participated. Some days after one of the parent birds

It was the pretty Dove that was commissioned by the Great Patriarch of the Deluge to examine the state of the earth, aud of the waters, which returned bearing an Olive branch in its mouth. The Raven was the favored messenger charged with an errand of mercy by Him who made the World, to one of his ancient Prophets.

Birds possess intelligence-discover a retentive memory and are grateful for kindnessess.

Men can profit by the teachings of the most humble of God's creatures.


The Journal of Commerce of July 3, states that letters from Copenhagen of April 10. states that the eruptions of Hecla commenced on the 2d of Sept. 1845, and ceased about the 5th of April, 1846, having been in activity seven months. Mount Hecla is in latitude 63 20, and Copenhagen in latitude 55, 41. It is probable therefore, that there is some error in dates.

THE PRODUCT OF LABOR. The human race are not the only portion of animated nature engaged in industry, in labor, in trial, for the support of Life. The Bee labors, and the product of the industry of that insect in Honey and Wax, is immense, forining two items large in amount in the list of articles of Commerce. The Silk Worm labors and the product of its industry is vastly great-all the silk made use of by the human race, is the product of the Silk Worm. The Ant labors-the Beaver also labors, and we could go on with a long list, but what we have stated is enough for our present purpose. Human labor when put in requisition yield results that are vast and almost beyond estimate. Individually and collectively, one or both, the results are equally important. If a Railroad is to be laid down, or a Canal is to be excavated-the work is soon accomplished if human labor is brought into requistion. Not slavish labor, but that aid which allows the laborer his proportionate share of the results and which requires from him his proportionate share of the outlay. Millions of our race suffer hunger and cold because they are unconscious of the power that is in them to support themselves by the labor of their own hands. Public works constructed at the cost of the public treasury, are by many considered unauthorised by the great covenant of the people made by each with the others. If such a principle is not innorporated in the paramount fundamental law-it should be, and it would be well to let it take the place of the cost of gun-powder and fire-arms which are producing so much mischief in the world and probably drawing our nation toward the realms of perdition.

present month, while sitting at the window of my study, in quiet contemplation that a splendidly beautiful Butterfly made its appearance near me. With a magnifying glass I examined this wonderful creature -its wings were spangled with feathers ornamented with the brightest silver-it had a crest like the golden pheasant, and its antenaes were of the richest purple fringed with golden yellow, and shaded by a lovely green-its body was covered with ash colored feathers of a silky lustre-its legs were of a rich pink, and furnished with a slight covering of ash colored feathers. I placed the pretty creature on one of my fingers and removed it to a boquet of flowers-it seemed delighted with the change and flew from flower to flower with an activity that seemed to evidence great satisfaction. Less than a month ago this beautiful Butterfly was an humble, hated worm. It has passed that change alloted to it by nature, and entered upon a new state of existence, which although one of great apparent pleasis at the longest of but a few day's duration.



It is instructive to the human mind to watch the changes which the humblest worm that crawls upon the earth, is heir to. Nature, in the bounteous profusion of her gifts, has made provision for the humblest worm, and endowed it with the needful faculties and nstructed it in whatever pertains to its weifare. Man grudges to the humblest worm its morsel of food which nature has caused to grow for its use.

It was in the stillness of a clouded morning of the


During a heavy wind in the month of May, we discovered one of these fall in the yard, and appeared disabled; poor puss was close upon the fallen bee, but we were almost as quick upon puss, and released the insect, placed it in comfortable quarters, and endeavoured to feed it with some sugar; but it refused the food, and for about twenty-four hours seemed failing; but on being furnshed with some fresh flowers, it revived, and in the course of a few hours regained its strength and its energy, I would raised itself by its wings, and flew away. not exchange the gratitude of this humble insect, for all the bloody laurels ever gained upon the field of battle in the slaughter of the human race.


Among the geological sgecimens we collected upon the Adirondack Mountains, is a pretty gem of a bright green color, which on being placed in an atmosphere heated to the temperature of 212 of Fahrenheit, becomes luminous and exceedingly brilliant, and in a few moments after acquiring this luminous state, explodes and flies into fragments. The fragments on becoming cold resemble pieces of flint glass, being perfectly transparent and without color. The appearance of this stone during its illuminated state is exceedingly beautiful, the color that of heated iron while enduring a white heat.


On the 24th of June, about the middle of the afternoon, I noticed about twenty large caterpillars directing their march over the side walk to the front area of my dwelling. I immediately provided myself with a little bush that they could lay hold of, and carefully removed all of them to my cabinet, and shut the door; next morning all of them had become attached to the underside of the shelves and hung pendant by a glutinous substance which exuded from the head of the insect.

This morning at 4 o'clock, I opened my cabinet to give it the refreshing morning air, and closed it again at 5 o'clock, but had occasion to open it several times afterwards. At a little before 8 o'clock my little daughter espied a pretty butterfly that had just made its appearance in the cabinet; on opening the door a few minutes afterwards, six others bore it company.

Counting from the morning of June 25th, when they became attached, to the morning of July 9th, when they emerged from the chrysalis, there are 15 days of 24 hours each.

The humble and hated caterpillar crawling to its rest to await the change appointed to its race by nature in a little less than than 16 days becomes a beautiful butterfly and soars aloft amid the morning sunbeams occasionally alighting upon flowers to taste their sweet, and at last after a few days of recreation and pleasure, retires calmly to its place of rest and change,-how instructive to man. Nature, and Nature's GOD as seen in the terrific earthquake-its calm, its storm, or in the labors of the worm crawling under foot to enter an humble gate to reach its change--all afford that evidence which should produce profitable conviction in the human mind.

July 9, 1846.

Monday April 13th, 4 o'clock A. M, 38; 6,37 ; 7, 42; 9, 50; 12, 51; 1, 50; 4, 41; 5, 39; 7, 39. Tuesday 14th, 4 o'clock A. M. 31°; 6, 33; 8.41; 9, 46; 10, 45; 2, 3, 52; 4, 51; 6, 51; 7, 49. Wednesday 15th 4 o'clock A. M. 43; 7, 46; 10, 51; 11, 48; 12. 49; 1, 2, 3, 50; 4, 48; 5, 47; 8, 41.

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From the Brooklyn Star, April 24, 1846. TEMPERATURE, &c. OF THE ATMOSPHERE. Tuesday April 7th, at 5 o'clock A. M. 44°; 6, 43; 8,53; 9, 58; 10, 60; 11, 61; 12, 60; 1, 62; 2, 62; 3, 61; 4, 58; 5, 56; 6, 55; 7, 54; 8, 53; 9, 55. Wednesday 8th, 5 o'clock 55°; 6, 56; 9, 58; 10, 60; 11, 56; 12, 56; 1, 57; 2, 57; 3, 59; 4, 59; 5, 6, 7, 56; 8, 54.

Thursday 9th, 5 o'clock, A. M. 39; 6, 40; 8, 45; 9, 48; 10, 48; 11, 50; 12, 52; 1, 53; 2, 3, 52; 4, 53; 5, 50; 6, 46; 7, 48; 8, 43.

Friday 10th, 5 o'clock A. M. 38; 6, 40; 8, 47; 10, 53; 11, 55; 12, 58; 1, 60; 2, 59; 3, 57; 4, 53; 5, 6, 50; 7, 8, 48.

Saturday 11th, 7 o'clock A. M. 56; 8, 60; 9, 62; 10, 64; 11, 12, 1, 68; 2, 69; 3, 73; 4, 70; 5,69; 6, 66; At 1 o'clock that afternoon a very black cloud, with loose disturbed appendages like stalactites, was visible in the west from the high grounds at Albany.

On Sunday morning the 12th inst., rain fell about 4 o'clock. At 6 o'clock, temperature 49°; 11, 49; 12,50; 2, 50; 4, 49; 6, 49. Snow fell at Utica during that day three inches deep. I presume that we shall be able to learn something of the cause of this result from the south.

Thursday 16th, 5 o'clock A. M. 32; 7, 36; 8, 43; 9, 46; 10, 48; 11, 12, 50; 1, 2, 3, 51; 4, 49; 5, 48; 6, 46; 7, 42.

Friday 17th, 5, 6, A. M. 40; 7, 8, 46; 10, 53; 11, 56; 12, 59; 1, 62; 2, 64; 3, 66; 4, 68; 5, 64; 6, 60; 7.58; 8, 56.

Saturday 18th, 5 o'clock A. M. 52; 7, 55; 8, 62; 9, 66; 10, 67; 11, 71; 12, 72; 1, 2, 3, 78; 3 1-2, 80; 4, 79; 5, 74; 6, 70; 7, 67; 8, 66; 9, 63.

Sunday 19th 5 o'clock 55; 6, 57; 7, 55; 8, 65; 9, 67; 10, 66; 12, 70; 2, 68; 3, 70; 4, 67; 5, 65; 6, 62; 7, 58; 8, 52; 9, 51; 10, 59; 12, 58.

Monday 20th, 4 o'clock 48; 7, 49; 9, 50; 10, 53; 11, 62; 12, 64; 1, 66; 2, 3, 67; 4, 63; 5, 60; 6, 58; 8, 57.

Tuesday 21st 5 o'clock 49; 7, 53; 8, 62; 9, 67; 10, 70; 11, 72; 12, 78; 1, 79; 2, 80; 3, 81; 3 1-2, 82; 4, 81.-April 21st.

On Tuesday afternoon, which is where my last communication leaves off, at 5 o'clock 78; 7, 73.During Tuesday night the temperature decreased 14, being at 59 at 4 o'clock Wednesday morning.

Wednesday morning at 4 o'clock temperature 59; 6, 59; 7, 59; 9, 57; 11, 55; 12, 56; 1, 56; 2, 56; 3, 55; 4, 54; 5, 54; 6, 53; 7, 49.

The temperature on Wednesday evening the 22d, was stationery 11 hours. At 7 o'clock thermometer marked 49; it contiued at that during the night-was at the same at 4, 5, and 6 o'clock this morning, 23d;

at 7 it rose to 51.

It will be seen by the files of the Star that the 23d of December and 23d of March presented the same phenomena as here noticed, on which occasion an earthquake took place at the South; the same on the 30th January and 28th February, and on both of these occasions earthquakes took place at the South. April 23d. E. M. From the Brooklyn Star, April 25. THE WEATHER.

My two memorandums of the weather &c., published in the Star of yesterday, under one head, explains the reference at the close, in the words 'where my last communication left off-which was at 4 o'clk. on Tuesday in the first, of the two; the second, closed at 7 o'clock Thursday morning.

Thursday 8 o'clock A. M. 54; 9, 55; 10, 58; 11, 63; 12, 66; 1, 67; 2, 69; 3, 68; 4, 64; 5, 61; 6, 58:7, 55; 9, 50: 11, 48.

Friday 4 o'clock, A. M. 46; 7, 47; 8, 49; 9, 54; 10, 57; 11, 63; 12, 68; 1, 72; 2, 3, 4, 5, 74; 6, 72; 7, 70; 10, 69.

Saturday 4, 5, 6, 7 o'clock, A. M. 49; 8, 41. Yesterday morning the fog was so dense on the East River that the shore bells were rung as a guide to the boats -the same difficulty was experienced by the Ship Henry Clay-making the coast on the 24th of March the day succeeding the earthquakes at Maysville and Cuba, of the 23d March. The 23d Dec. and 28th Feb. on each of which earthquakes occurred, and the fog was made into snow. Last night we had black clouds entirely overhead and a storm-the same result is stated in the Star in December, January, February and March following each earthquake. E. M.

From the Brooklyn Star, April 27, 1846.


Saturday had a clouded atmosphere which mantled the Eclipse. The 23d, 24th, 25th and 26th, have been more or less cloudy. The temperature from sunrise to sunset, on Saturday vibrated but 9° Farenheit.. 8 o'clock 44; 9, 44; 10, 42: 11, 48; 12, 46; 12 30 minutes, middle of the eclipse, 47; 1, 45; 2, 47; 3, 47; 4, 48; 5, 51; 6, 48: 8, 46; 9, 46.

Sunday, 26th, 5 o'clock, 44; 6, 42 1-2; 7, 44. 9, 47; half-past 9, 50; 12, 53; 1, 57; 2, 56; 3, 54; 4, 52; 6, 51; 7, 50; 10, 47.

Monday, 27th, 4 o'clock, 43, 5, 42, 6, 43. Sabbath morning, a few minutes past 5 o'clock, a most beautiful rainbow was visible in the west and south of west, its centre was vertical at Brooklyn Heights, its northern base appeared to extend to the horizon and at a point a little north of Newark, N.

J., its southern extremity terminated at an elevation about midway between its centre and the horizon, in the direction of Fort Hamilton, L. I. The clouds in the south west were of a deep violet tinge of the softest hue; at the north, the great ethereal canopy was without a cloud-on the heights of Staten Island, six miles distant, the glass windows of the dwellings were glowing with the bright rays of the morning sun, which they reflected in a blaze of light that appeared like sheets of the sun itself in its meridian splendor-it was a beauteous, lovely, charming morning to commence a Christian's Sabbath-the air was still, even the wind was sleeping-a ferry steamer was rolling its active wheels upon the waters of the bay-all else was still. I looked around to endeavor to ascertain if any other human being was beholding and enjoying this beauteous scenery, I searched in vain, and regretted that this gorgeous exhibition was lost to thousands of our race. E. M.


The complaints of the frequent and sudden changes of the weather are very common-and. I hear them in every section of the United States in which I travel. The readers of the Star will find by the published memorandums of my meteorlogical observations, that these complaints should not be indulged. There are sometimes great changes in the atmosphere, but the cause of such changes are not always ascertainable. The earthquakes and the lightning have much to do in producing these changes. Each of these exert a most powerful influence upon the temperature of the atmosphere, sometimes depressing it, and at other times increasing it. The difference may arise from the peculiar temperature of the locality in which the action commenced, and varied, as the immediate atmosphere is more or less depressed. Snow and fog, I have shewn, in several instances, resulted from one and the same cause, the result in each case depends upon the temperature of the atmosphere in which the snow fell, or the fog floated; that earthquakes are the immediate cause in some instances and the lightning in others, I have shewn so conclusively, by recorded facts, as to leave no doubt, in my own mind, as to the extraordinary effects of these two great operators.

In atmosphere in which metallic substances are floating, in a pulverescent state, as when raised by the wind in dust, or absorbed by the water of the atmosphere and held in solution, the lightning may, in its active movements bring into one compact body by magnetic influence and in doing this give it that impetus which puts it in such rapid motion, that gathers heat as it increases in velocity until at length the generating of the inflamable gasses within its body explode it, and throw the fragments through the air to fall in aerolites upon the earth.

During the passage of dense clouds through the atmosphere I have noticed that when a heavy thunderbolt breaks in the clouds, that the convulsions affect the atmosphere to a great distance. and this result is seen most distinctly in its operation upon animal fluids. Milk in deep cellars is frequently changed by the thunder, even at a great distance-here is the cause, and effect, which are both cognizable by every observing dairy man. Thus we have a practical illustration of the influence of the thunder upon animal fluids in one state, which may justify us in concluding that it has some influence on the animal fluids, in all cases. It is true that thunder is not heard by the inhabitants of every part of the earth-yet notwithstanding, it is certain that the inhabitants of every part of the earth feel its influence although they may not be aware of the cause. The well observed changes of the temperature, hourly, half hourly and quarter hourly, for a considerable length of time during the various seasons of the year, and the careful record of these compared with other atmospheric changes, are full of instruction, and when taken together form a mass of testimony that carries convincement to the deliberate judgment formed in the human mind. The changeableness of the weather is the great question to which I wish to direct the readers attention, and to the fact that these changes are not so injurious to the human system as is generally considered, and the only difficulty is, that these changes which is the difficulty, which arises from a neglect to watch their approach.

The Journal of Commerce, of Tuesday morning the 28th of April contains an account of the death of a

In the Island of Grenada, up to the 23d of May, no rain had fallen for a long time and the drouth was very severe.

Rain at Flatbush in 1846.

young man belonging to Norwich, in this state, by lightning, on Saturday about one o'clock of the day. The account is copied from the Norwich Journal. Comparing the date of the Journal with the mail arrangements between Norwich and the city of NewYork it appears that the Saturday referred to must be the 18th of April, the day on which the steamer Oregon ran on the rocks at Hurl Gate. The young man led a horse of his brother-in-law's into the stable to keep him out of the storm, and he was struck down as he came out of the stable; the horse was also killed. The event took place near Cooperstown, in Otsego county, about 220 miles from here. On Monday, the 27th, I sent a communication to the New-York Farmer and Mechanic, for the columns of that Journal, in which I suggested the probability that that disaster was caused by atmospheric action, at a distance, as was the case in the shipwreck of the Swallow on the Hudson, from an earthquake in Mexico; the shipwreck of the John Minturn on our coast, from a lightning storm at Mobile; the shipwreck of the Henry Clay, packet ship, also on our coast, from an earthquake in Cuba and Maysville. Hurl Gate is a verry narrow strait and might be easily thus affected. I sent to the Star office some time ago, a newspaper printed at Toronto in Upper Canada, which contained a report from the Star of an account of the storm of lightning and hail which crossed the Adirondack mountains, on the 20th of September, to which the publisher of the Canada paper appended a remark, that it accounted for the extraordinary commotion in the waters of Lake Ontario of that day, during which the sudden ebbing and flowing of the water left one of the large Lake Steamers aground at the pier at Port Hope. The reader will perceive by referring to my meteorlogical memorandums published in the Star of the 24th of April that the temperature on Saturday the 18th, in the morning at 5 o'clock was 52°; 7, 55; 8, 62; 9, 66; 10, 67; 11, 71; 12, 72; 1, 2, 3, 78; haff-past 3, 80; 4, 69; 5, 74; 6, 70; 7, 67; 8, 66; 9, 63.

The young man, it will be noticed, was killed at 1 o'clock P. M., the temperature here, it will be seen, was fixed for three hours, viz: 1, 2, 3, and at 78, an extraordinary high temperature. At the time the thunderbolt broke upon the young man the atmosphere here became fixed.

The temperature of the atmosphere from the time my account published in the Star of April 27th leaves off, to the date of this memorandum is as follows, viz: Monday morning, 27 th, 9 o'clock, 61; half-past 9, 64; 12, 65; 1, 66; 2, 58; 3, 69; 4, 67; 5, 65; 6, 62; 9, 57; 10, 55.

Tuesday, 28th, 4 o'clock, 48; 5, 48; 6, 52; 7, 58; 8, 64; 2, 72; 3,71 1-2; 4, 67; 5, 65; 6, 60; 7, 58; 9, 53; 10, 50.

Wednesday, 29th, 4 o'clock, 50; 5, 50; 6, 50; 7, 50; 8, 50; 9, 50.

Thus we have another night in which the atmosphere has been stationery in temperature. This morning rain fell in a gentle shower between 7 and 8 o'clock. Rain fell at Baltimore during the eclipse on Saturday and the day following.

From the Brooklyn Star, April 30, 1846.

Thursday morning 4 o'clock, April 30.--The temperature yesterday reached 57°, and vibrated considerably-the lowest point was 50, at which it now is. During the night it fell 20.

In my communication sent you yesterday, I stated the fixedness of the temperature the previous night. I have now to notice the profuse storm which followed. It will be seen by referring back to my published memorandums that a storm followed the same state of atmosphere December 23; January 31; Feb. 28, March 23, and April 23—(at the South)—and now of yesterday, of the 28th here. E. M.

FALL OF RAIN FOR THE MONTH OF JUNE. At Rochester N. Y., 4,96-100 inches. At Philadelphia, Pa., 3,30-100. At Flatbush, N. Y., 1,12-100. At Syracuse, N. Y., 4 inches. At Athens, Georgia, 9, 93-100 inches of Rain fell between the 1st and 20th of June.

Rain commenced falling at Baltimore, June 30th, and continued for 24 hours, doing great damage. Accounts from Ponce, Porto Rico, of June 12th, say that the rains of late have been heavy.

Rain fell in Barbadoes early in April.

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Heat of the Middle of Day.-The average heat at 2 P. M. for the month of June at Saltville was 75 3-30, and the average temperature at Brooklyn Heights for the same hour for the same month, 73 25-30°.Difference 1o 8-30. Thus the difference between the mountain air of Saltville, and the ocean air of Brooklyn Heights is greater at night than during the day.

At Syracuse, at 3 P. M., during the month of June the average temperature was 75° 4-30. On Brooklyn Heights for the same hour during the same month the averge temperature was 73° 29-30. Difference 1° 5-30.

The highest temperature at Syracuse in June was 90°-the lowest 41. Difference 49°.

The highest temperature at Saltville in June was 85°, the lowest 58-differenee, 27°.

The highest temperature on Brooklyn heights during the month of June was 84°-the lowest 520. Difference 32°.

Evening Air.-The average temperature of the evening atmosphere for the month of June at Saltville on the south western mountains of Virginia, near the Tennessee line, at 9 o'clock was 70° 09,30; at Syracuse, Onondago County, N. Y., 61° 23-30, and at Brooklyn New-York, 65° 23-30. Thus there is 80 16-30 difference between Syracuse and Saltville, and 4° 16-30 between Brooklyn Heights and Saltville.

The difference in longitude between Brooklyn Heights and Saltville is about 8 degrees, equal to 32 minutes difference at sunrise, unless varied by the altitude of the ground on which Saltville is built above tide water, and the height of mountains east of Saltville and contiguous thereto. The difference in long. between Brooklyn Heights and Syracuse is about 20 15' or nine minutes difference in the rising of the sun.

Equilibrinm.-Temperature July 26, 9 P. M. 69°, and continued at that until near 8 o'clock A. M. 27th.

UNITED STATES WAREHOUSING BILL. Senator Dix, while this bill was under consideration in the Senate of the United States, remarked that it originated with himself and a merchant in the city of New-York, now a member of the New York State Convention. That member of the State Convention is the Hon. SOLOMON TOWNSEND. Mr. Townsend made a voyage to Europe in 1845, and one of the objects of his visit to England was to learn something of the warehousing system in that country. Mr. Townsend is a practical man, and has been found a useful member of every public body in which he had a seat.


We noticed a paragraph in one of the city papers stating that Mr. Allen had been absent from his seat in the Convention. Mrs. ALLEN is sick, and the absence of Mr. Allen is owing to that cause. The name of Mr. Allen was placed upon the ticket for the Convention without previous consultation with him and it is a sacrifice indeed under the circumstances for him to attend while the health of Mrs. Allen is in its present state.


The name of Mr. Skidmore was brought before the State Convention during debate, a few days since, and some person whispered that Mr. S. was not resspectable. Mr. Brown, a member from Orange, reported the whisper, and Mr. Townsend rose and stated to the Convention, that he was personally acquainted with Mr. Skidmore, and paid him a compliment and thus rebuked the whisperer. It was a noble act in Mr. Townsend, for Mr. Skidmore and himself had been members of the same board of education at the same time and were political opponents. Mr. Townsend honored himself in defending Mr. Skidmore from the attacks of the lurking foe. Mr. Skidmore is one of our most active business men-a man of great personal independence of character-who knows no fear in a good cause. Mr. Skidmore has paid immense sums of money for shameful and outrageous assessments and he deems the assessment abuses a matter which the State Convention should remedy by guarding the citizens against such imposition in future. His efforts in this, deserve high commendation.


The Hon. SOLOMON TOWNSEND has offered in the State Convention a resolution to equalize Taxation, as follows:

"Resolved, That the Committee on the Public Revenues (No. 3) be required to consider the propriety of instituting by Constitutional enactment a State Board of Assessors with power to equitably adjust the relative appraisement of the real and personal estate in the several counties with reference to a just and uniform system of state or national taxation."

This is an important measure-the equitable valuation of the property, however has nothing to do with the imposition of the tax-the valuation is made by one set of officers, and the tax imposed by another; unless we come to a tariff of "national taxation," in which each particular species of property is to be assessed, a specific amount--as for example, a gold watch $10; a silver watch $2; a diamond ring, $50. and a plain gold ring $1, &c. When we come to that state of things voters will attend the polls, every mother's son of them, and change all rulers forthwith. Voluntary payments in the shape of duties upon foreign goods is the easiest and best way of supporting the general government, and as far as State taxation is concerned, retrenchment" (Governor Morton recommended) as a substitute.

State Governments are designed for the administration of law, and not for carrying on either farming, mercantile, mechanical, manufacturing or Commercial business.

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