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he put out the fire which he has kindled up through the nation? We ask our countrymen, and we ask the President, to consider (for he is accustomed to look upward,) how the record of this matter is likely to stand on high? If we have the law of nations on our side, have we the law of God? Will He who is the Father of the Mexicans as well as of us, and as compassionate towards them as us, will He believe this "a just and necessary war?" The rulers of Mexico may be much to blame, and yet that circumstance may do nothing to relieve our responsibility."
"We have been laboring for many months to avert war; and when we thought the danger was over, suddenly a mine has been sprung in another direction, and we are at war! Already some hundreds of human beings, probably have been hurried into eternity, and their blood will be required at the hands of--whom? The shock has come upon us so suddenly, and the reasons for it were so imperfectly known, that we have hardly been able to form an intelligent opinion about it. We are at war: not with England,―a nation which is a match for us, and which might have sent her thunder all along our coast,-but with a sister republic; a feeble, distracted, unfortunate, bankrupt state, priest ridden, with no Bible to guide her; with Mexico, more entitled to our pity than our vengeance. What are the causes of the war? It is not of any great importance to know according to the practice of nations we have cause for war, which men in the exercise of bad passions saw fit to make so. The great question is one of right; and the second is one of national interest and honor.
Mexico owes us several millions of money. It is a just debt, and more than just; for it is the reparation which she agreed to make us for spoilations and robberies committed against our citizens. She has solemnly promised to pay this money, and has paid a part of what she promised, but does not pay the rest. She has never said that she would not pay. On the contrary she has repeated her intention to pay, though for the time unable, for want of money in the treasury. The last instalment which she attempted to pay (not having money in the central treasury,) was met by Treasury drafts on the provincial custom houses, but they were not paid. It would hardly do for a nation comprising so many States which do not pay, to make that simply a cause of war, especially if inability were the reason of delinquence,—for we have determined inability to be very modified culpability. Besides, it must be a disgrace to the country to allow a mere money question to involve us in war, especially if it were certain that the expenses of the collection would be five times greater than the debt.
Mexico has refused to receive our ambassador or negociate with us. Every nation claims the same right, and it would be a very strange presumption which should make this a cause of war. But Mexico promised to receive an ambassador, and before he could be received, another Administration was in power who would not receive him. This was a wrong clearly, but small ground for war. Mexico has invaded our territory, we say,-or some of us,-for the people of the United States are by no means agreed on this point. Some of our leading democrats do not consider the territory on the Eastern bank of the Rio Grande as within the United States. If we are divivided in opinion, we cannot wonder that Mexico should consider her title "clear and indisputable;" and it would seem to be the least that justice could demand, to leave rights about which we ourselves are in doubt, in abeyance for the present. But Congress having, perhaps thoughtlessly, included this territory in its legislation, the President took possession of every inch of it, and our military commander planted his loaded cannon in such positions as to command the opposite shore. This last movement was the occasion of the
war, beyond all doubt. If our army had remained on the Neuces, no scout from it would have been attacked, and there would be no war. We advanced into a questionable territory. Mexico immediately considers herself invaded, and declares her determination to wage a "defensive Some of her troops, how many we do not know, also pass into the disputed territory, and a slight conflict ensues between them and a detachment of our troops, several miles from their camp, and instantly the cry goes over the land that the sacred soil of the republic is invaded, and the nation is called to arms. Our commanding General calls for five thousand men to aid him, and the President recommends and Congress order fifty thousand; not to repel invasion, not to act on the defensive merely, but to carry fire and sword through Mexico, and even to humble her pride by tramping our horses' feet upon the pavements of her splendid capitol. To be sure, with all this we proclaim the most just and benevolent intentions, and our President declares that he will treat, whenever Mexico will consent to receive or make propositions. But can he stop his victorious generals with fifty thousand men? Can
The remarks above which we have copied from the New-York Journal of Commerce, are well deserving preservation. The worthy Editors might have added that the United States Government in annexing Texas to the United States, bought a law suit. The ability of the administration to make such a bargain is a grave constitutional question, and the most that should have been attempted under the circumstances was to protect the disputed territory from bloodshed. The other disputes in relation to depredation upon our commerce by Mexico, should have been settled by other means than raising an army to enter the territory of a neighbor already overwhelmed with trouble.
The Journal of Commerce has within the last twelve months copied three different paragraphs from the Union, the administration paper, recording three distinct meetings held on the Sabbath by Mr. Polk and his Cabinet upon Mexican affairs. There is no excuse for such a desecration of that day, and it is no wonder that the great officers of the government should be in confusion.
A war with Mexico, or with any other power, in the present state of the world-in the present state of society—is an injury of vast and untold magnitudeits demoralizing influence will pass down the current of time accumulating evil consequences until at length they will become overwhelming.
The people of the United States should never become a military people.
We have looked with fear to the Mexican borders ever since General Toledo entered the State of Tennessee, with his sand dollars.
In this volume, pg. 331 is recorded the awful visitation of the hand of Almighty, on the 21st of February, 1844, in the destruction of human life on board the War Steamer Princeton, when two of the Cabinet Ministers were destroyed by the very engine which the government had prepared for the destruction of others.
That some awful visitation will befall the American People, is greatly to be feared.
We trust that more wisdom will be found in the National Councils than has heretofore characterised some of their proceedings.
The way to "conquer peace" is, to not give offence.
From the Syracuse Daily Journal of July, 1846. JOSEPH SLOCUM, Esq.
To the Editors of the Daily Journal: Enclosed I send you an extract from the London "Morning Post," received a few days since per Great Western.
The friends of Mr. Slocum in this vicinity, will be pleased to see that the importance of the enterprise in which he is now engaged, is duly appreciated by one of the most influential journals of the British Metropolis.
From the London Morning Post, May 12. "By the next Hamburg steamer from hence, an American gentleman, named SLOCUM, will proceed for St. Petersburg on a very interesting mission with reference to agricultural affairs. During a residence of about four months in the Russian capital in the year 1843, Mr. Slocum was induced to examine
as far as he could possibly do, into the condition of the agriculture of the Empire, since it appeared to him to be much the most important of its interests, as also into that of the humble but useful mechanical arts of the country, both of which he thought had been less adequately attended to than many of the more popular pursuits. On the return of Mr. Slocum to the United States, a correspondence between himself and Prof. Fischer, the imperial botanist, ensued, which resulted in an invitation, sanctioned by the Emperor himself, from his Excellency, M. Peroffski, the Minister of the interior, who has charge of the imperial domains throughout the empire, being given to Mr. SLOCUM, to introduce into Russia such improvments in the implements of agriculture and the useful arts, as, in his opinion, were suited to the condition of that vast country. For this purpose a fund was placed at Mr. Slocum's disposal by the Russian government, to be so laid out as he should consider most expedient. Under this arrangement it is that Mr. Slocum is thus far on his way to St. Petersburg, accompanied by a practical ironfounder and machinist, engaged for the purpose of manufacturing in Russia such implements and machines as seem best adapted to the requirements of that country. Mr. Slocum takes with him a very general assortment of the more approved agricultural implements and machinery used in the United States. He has also many of the best varieties of field and garden seeds. fruit trees, &c., cultivated in the United States. Among these are cotton seed, rice, and many descriptions of maize and tobacco seeds, all of which, he thinks, will answer well in some part or other of the Empire. Mr. Slocum is a practical American farmer, and displays very great intelligence, so that much interest will attach to the result of his experi ments, in another soil than that to which he has been accustomed; and it is but due to the liberal and enlightened Sovereign of Russia, under whose immediate auspices the enterprise is undertaken, and to his able Ministers, through whom the arrangement has been made with Mr. Slocum, that attention should be directed to the subject."
We had several interviews with Mr. Slocum prior to his departure for London, on his return to Russia. We accompanied Mr. Slocum to Mr. Bogardus' machine shop in Eldridge Street to examine the Eccentric mills, invented and constructed by Mr. B. Mr. S. was so well pleased with them that he gave orders for two of these mills for the Russian Government, and they have already been shipped to Russia. Mr. Bogardus is among the most skillful and intelligent mechanics in the United States, and we should not be surprised at his being invited to take up his residence at the Russian capital. He would be a great acquisition to any country. His mills perform wonders-take up less room than a flour barrel, and will grind ten bushels of corn per hour-they are sold at $80.
Mr. Slocum was anxious to know how Mr. Bogardus came to possess such faculties, as his name indicated a Dutch ancestry. Mr. Bogardus replied that his mother was a Yankee. Mr. Slocum remarked that he had spent much time at the Patent Office in Washington, and found that nearly all the patents were granted to persons north of Mason & Dixon's line.
Mr. Slocum was very anxious to obtain some information in relation to the process of refining sugar at the mammoth establishment of Messrs. WOOLSEY & WOOLSEY in this city. These works are not accessable to visitors. The proprietors who are among the very best men in our land, superintend the concern and retain the valuable knowledge of the peculiar process within their own bosoms. When the city of Pittsburg was almost overwhelmed by a destructive conflagration, MAYOR HARPER'S Committee applied to the Messrs. WOOLSEY's for aid and they gave them $600, the largest donation given by any individual or firm in the city. Messrs. Woolsey's concern is one of the most prosperous establishments in the United States-a prosperitywell deserved.-Ed. Gazette.
direct a special election to be held, to supply the place of any alderman whose seat shall become vacant by death, removal from the city, resignation, or otherwise and the board of assistants shall also have power to direct a special election to supply any vacancy that may occur in the Board of Assistants, and in both cases the person elected to supply the vacancy, shall hold his seat only for the residue of the term of office of his immediate predecessor.
"7. The boards shall meet in separate chambers, and a majority of each shall be a quorum to do business. Each board shall appoint a president from its own body, and shall also choose its clerk, and other officers, determine the rules of its own proceedings, and be the judge of the qualifications of its own meinbers. Each board shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and the doors of each shall be kept open, except when the public welfare shall require secrecy.
8. All resolutions, and reports of committees, which shall recommend any specific improvement, involving the appropriation of public money, or taxing, or assessing the citizens of said city, shall be published, by the clerk of the common council, not later than two days after passage, in all the newspapers employed by the corporation; and whenever a vote is taken in relation thereto, the ayes and noes shall be called and published, in the manner aforesaid; and for every neglect of said clerk to publish as aforesaid, he shall be subject to a penalty of fifty dollars, to be recovered by any person who will sue for the same.
NEW-YORK CITY CHARTER.
We have received from the HON. STEPHEN ALLEN, now a member of the State Convention, the draft of a City Charter, drawn up by himself, some months ago, a copy of which we here present. When we received this draft in manuscript, we made an examination of the twelve first sections and suggested in writing, several amendments thereto, which we submitted to Mr. Allen; he approved of these amendments, and kindly permitted us to retain the paper and make such other amendments as we should deem right, and make such disposition of the whole as we thought best-in accordance wherewith, we have put it in print and now present it to the public. Mr. Allen is full of experience in public concerns and is well qualified to judge of the various provisions needful to guard the rights of citizens in a bill of this description. Mr. Allen drew up this paper before he was elected to the State Convention. As it is probable that the State Convention will place all Municipal Corporations in this State upon one and the same footing, the draft of this Bill may be found useful as containing valuable suggestions. It will be seen by a careful reading of the first section of this bill that Mr. Allen has deemed it necessary to define the power denominated legislative as inapplicable to the inhabitants of the city who are under the government of the laws of the State. Great mistakes have been made by Corporation officers in supposing that the Common Council possessed the legislative powers of the City-that, belongs to the Senate and Assembly of this State. Our amendments follow the bill.
An Act to amend the Charter of the City of New York.
"1. The legislative powers of the Corporation of the City of New-York shall be vested in a Board of Aldermen and a Board of Assistants, who together shall form the Common Council of the City. The acts of the said Common Council shall be confined solely to the passing of ordinances or laws, directing the performance of specific duties relative to the good government and other important interests of the Corporation.
“§2. Each ward of the city shall be entitled to elect one person to be denominated the alderman of the ward, and the persons so chosen, together shall form the board of aldermen. And each ward shall also be entitled to elect, in the proportion, as near as may be, of one person for each ten thousand inhabitants, exclusive of fractions; but each ward shall have, at least, one representative in the Board of assistants, and the persons so chosen, together shall form the board of Assistants.
"3. The aldermen shall be elected to serve for three years, and the assistants for one year. Immediately on the assembling of the board of aldermen, after their election, they shall be divided, by lot, as equally as may be, into three classes. The seats of the first class to be vacated at the expiration of one year; the second at the expiration of two years, and the third at the expiration of three years, so that one third, as near as may be, may be chosen every year.
"§4. The annual election of charter officers shall be held on the first Monday in November, and the officers elected shall be sworn into office on the first Monday of January thereafter; and all the provisions of law now in force, in regard to the notification, duration and conduct of election for members of Assembly, and in regard to the appointment, powers and duties of the inspectors holding the same, shall apply to the annual election of charter officers.
66 5. The first election for charter officers, after the passage of this law, shall take place on the first Monday in November, 1847, and all those persons who shall be elected under former laws regulating elec tions of charter officers, and shall be in office at the time of the passage of this law, shall continue in office until the officers elected under this law shall be entitled to be sworn in.
"§ 6. The board of aldermen shall have power to
"§ 9. Each board shall have the authority to compel the attendance of absent members; to punish its members for disorderly behaviour, and to expel a member, with the concurrence of two thirds of the members elected to the Board, and the member so expelled, shall, by such expulsion, forfeit all right and power as an alderman or assistant alderman.
10. The stated, and occasional meetings of each board of the common council, shall be regulated by its own ordinances, and both boards may meet on the same, or on different days, as they may judge expedidient.
"§ 11. Any law, ordinance, or resolution of the common council, may originate in either board, and when it shall have passed one board, may be rejected or amended in the other.
"§ 12. No member of either board shall, during the period for which he was elected. be appointed to, or be competent to hold, any office of which the emoluments are paid from the city treasury, or by fines directed to be paid by any ordinance or act of the common council, or be directly, or indirectly, interested in any contract, the expense or consideration whereof, are to be paid under any ordinance of the common council, under the penalty of impeachment on articles preferred before the board of which he is a member, by one or more of the Heads of Depart
"13. Every act, ordinance, or resolution, which shall have passed the two boards of common council, before it shall take effect, shall be presented, duly certified to the Mayor of the city, for his approbation. If he approve, he shall sign it; if not he shall return it, with his objections, to the board in which it originated, within ten days thereafter; or if such board be not then in session, at its next stated meeting. The Board to which it shall be returned, shall enter the objections at large on their journal, and cause the same to be published in one or more of the public newspapers of the city.
"14. The board to which such act, ordinance, or resolution shall have been returned, shall, after the expiration of not less than ten days thereafter proceed to re-consider the same. If after such reconsideration, two-thirds of the members elected to the board shall agree to pass the same, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other board, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered; and if approved by two-thirds of all the members elected to such board, it shall take effect as an act, or law, of the corporation. In all such cases, the votes of both boards shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons voting for and against the passage of the measure reconsidered, shall be entered on the journal of each board respectively.
"15. If the Mayor shall not return any act, ordinance or resolutions, so presented to him, within the time above limited for that purpose, it shall take effect in the same manner as if he had signed it.
"19. Annual appropriations shall be made by proper ordinances of the common council, for every branch and object of city expenditure; nor shall any money be drawn from the city treasury, except for the object for which the money had been previously appropriated, and in no case shall the sum drawn exceed the sum appropriated. It shall be the duty of the Comptroller, in the event of an appropriation being exhausted, to give notice of the fact to the common council, and the reason of its deficiency.
"20, Unless by a special act of the legislature for that purpose, the common council shall not have authority to borrow, in any one year, on the credit of the corporation a sum exceeding in the aggregate, five hundred thousand dollars, nor for a longer period than nine months; nor shall any loan so made be renewed, or its time of payment extended, unless the same be funded under an act of the legislature, passed for that purpose.
21. It shall be the duty of the comptroller, in the month of January of each year, to publish, in all the papers employed by the common council, a full and comprehensive statement of the cash received during the year, and from what source; the cash disbursed during the year, and for what object. Also, the loans made, both temporary and funded, and for what object made. Also the sinking fund account, and of what it consists.
"$22. All ordinances, or amendments of the ordinances, shall be published by the clerk of the com-mon council in all the public papers employed by the corporation, as soon after their passage as prac cable, for a neglect of which, the said clerk shall be subject to a penalty of fifty dollars, to be recovered by any one who will sue for the same.
"§ 23. All the executive business of the Corporation shall be performed by distinct and separate departments in accordance with ordinances now in force or hereafter to be passed by the Common Council, not inconsistant with this act; and no member or committee of the said common Council, or of either of the boards of aldermen or assistants, shall perform any kind of executive duty, acts or business, or shall carry into effect, except such as relate to the office of magistrate, commissioner of excise, or supervisor, any of the laws resolutions, or orders of the common council; but all executive acts, duties or business shall be performed, and transacted, by the particular department charged therewith; and the said departments respectively, shall be responsible for the due performance of the duties enjoined on them by this act, and by the laws and ordinances of the Common Council.
"§ 24. There shall be an executive department to be known as the City Commissioners department, to consist of three competent citizens, one of whom shall be a civil engineer. They shall form a board, and
"35. It shall be the duty of the common council to provide for the accountability of all officers and other persons to whom the receipt or expenditure of the funds of the city shall be entrusted, by requiring from them sufficient security for the performance of their duties or trust, which security shall annually be renewed, but the security first taken shall remain in force until new security shall be given.
"§ 36. This act shall not be construed as repealing any of the provisions of law or charter now fin force, except so far as they shall be inconsistent with the provisions of this act.
have the general supervision care and control of the corporation wharves and piers; the paving and repaving of the pavement and all matters relative to the streets; to the lamps and gas; to the public roads and highways; to the public markets; to the public buildings and repairs; to the assessment for wells and pumps, and sewers; and generally for the improvement of streets, and the collection of such assessments; to the engine houses and the engines, and fire apparatus, the making of contracts for work or supplies, and generally to have the care of the public property of every kind and description.
"25. There shall also be an executive department known as the Finance department, to consist of the chamberlain, the comptroller, the receiver of taxes, the collector of the city revenue, and the public administration. The comptroller to be the head and chief of this department, and to have the general direction, supervision and control of the business transactions of the whole department.
"§ 26. There shall also be a department to be known as the police department. This department shall consist of the mayor of the city, the chief of police, and magistrates of the city. The mayor to be the general advisatory head and to possess all power delegated by law; but the chief of police to be the chief and permanent head of the department.
"27. There shall also be a department, to be known as the Alms House Department, which shall consist of the superintendent of the Alms House, the superintendant of the penitentiary, the superintendant of the city prison, the superintendant of the nursery and the resident physician. The superintendant of the Alms House shall be the head of this department and shall have the general control, supervision and direction of the business transactions of the department including the procuring the necessary supplies, and the eutering into contract for the same.
"28. There shall also be a department known as the water department, to consist of the commissioner of the Croton acqueduct, the water purveyor, and the water register. The commissioner of the croton acqueduct to be the chief head of the department, and to possess such powers and perform such duties as may be required of him, or of the department, by ordinance to be passed for that purpose.
"§ 29. The departments thall not appoint any subordinate officer whatever, except day laborers, and such as shall be specially authorized by ordinance of the common council passed for that purpose, and by which their salary or pay shall be fixed and established.
"$30. It shall be the duty of the common council to pass ordinances designating and prescribing the special duties to be performed by the respective deThey partments and by each officer of the same. may establish such additional assistants to the several departments as the public interest may require.
31. The city commissioners, and the chief or heads of the several departments shall be elected at the next election for charter officers after the passage of this act, and shall hold their offices for three years. They may be removed from office by impeachment before the board of aldermen, on articles preferred by the board of assistants for gross or improper conduct in office.
Sec. 6. Removal of Alderman or Assistant from the Ward should be deemed and taken a resignation of office.
Sec. 8 The reports and resolutions required to be published after passage, requires this alteration-a resolution introduced into the Board of Assistants, and passed by that body, should be published before it is acted upon by the Board of Aldermen, by which means those interested will be informed in time to remonstrate in the board to which the proceeding is sent for concurrence, hence both boards should be interdicted from acting on any matter involving taxes or assessments, during the same week, or say within an intermission of 12 days. Reports should, before being adopted by either board, be published, and a delay of 10 days after publication. The penalty should also include any damage which any person may suffer by the omission.
The 10th section if amended so as to require one board to meet on the first Monday of every other month, and the other to meet on the 1st Monday of the intervening month, would give a substantial check to hasty proceedings.
Section 12 requires amendment, requiring each member to subscribe an oath that he would not violate the charter under the pains and penalties of perjury. Section 13 should require the President of the respective boards to certify the passage of every act by his board on the face thereof, and if required to be passed by ayes and noes, that should be stated. The same practice is pursued by the president of the Senate of the State and by the Speaker of Assembly. Section 15 should be struck out.
Section 17 requires amendment.
Section 18 requires amendment. The duties of the Mayor should be specially set forth.
Section 19 requires amendments. Appropriations should be special and not general. No money should be drawn from the treasury except on the warrant in favor of the person to whom it is due and owing,
Section 20 requires provision for the funding of the present indebtedness. Also should provide that all bonds issued be registered by the Mayor-by the Clerk of the Common Council, and by the Comptroller, and the page of each record should be endorsed on each bond, and each bond when paid should be cancelled by the City Chamberlain by cutting the same with a punch an inch in diameter, taking out the centre of the bond.
The amendments to remaining 16 sections we will give in our next number.
We submitted MR. ALLEN's draft of a charter and our amendments to the Hon. GABRIEL FURMAN, Chairman of the Select Committee, appointed by the HON. THE SENATE OF THIS STATE, in 1841, to investigate assessment abuses in the city of New-York; he has returned them to us, with the following endorse
"I think well of this amended charter with your amendments.
THE REGISTRY LAW IN THE CITY OF NEWYORK.
Attempts have been made by Corporation officers to render the registry law unpopular by representing the expenses of the office very great. It is not often that officers boast of their own shame. It is, however, the case in the representations made of enormous expenses. The expenses were very great. Ten times as much money was paid for the registry books as they ought to have cost. Let the State Convention call for these books and the Bills paid for furnishing them, and an abuse will be exposed which will be a great gain to this State.
Mortality in the city of New-York.-The City Inspector reports 425 deaths in the city of New-York from the 11th to the 18th of July-one week, of which 51 were from Convulsions, 26 Dropsy in the head, 20 from inflammation of the brain, and 21 from Coup de Soliel. It is an awful mortality. Pause, mortal man, behold
On Thursday the 23d inst., the individual whose name heads this obituary notice, departed this life at the age of 81 years. Mr. Fish possessed a remarkably strong constitution, was an active business man, and a man of great decision of character.
A delegation of the Anti-Assessment Committee waited upon him in March 1843, to ask him to serve as Chairman of the meeting of the citizens at the Merchants Exchange on the 5th of March of that year. His prompt reply to the question, Will you consent to preside at the meeting as President with sixteen other individuals, members of both political parties, as Vice Presidents," was "YES."
The abuses that that meeting was convened to ask the Legislature to redress, yet exist. Will the State Convention allow them longer to remain?
The proceedings of that meeting are to be found on pages 245 to 248 of the Municipal Gazette.
Thus one after another of the aged of our city-pass away-and ere another hundred years shall have rolled around it is probable that none of its present inhabitants will remain this side of the grave.
We had copied from the Journal of Commerce of July 3, into this paper a paragraph stating that the eruptions of Mount Hecla had ceased about the 5th of April and accompanied the paragraph with a remark that there must have been some error in the statement, as the account came from Copenhagen of the date of April 10, only 5 days after, and wrote Mr. Halleck, the editor, a note to that effect. We now find in the Journal of Commerce of July 22, an account from Iceland of a later date, showing that we were correct. It is as follows:
"Iceland.-The eruptions of Mount Hecla still continued, according to the latest accounts of the 15th of April.
Friday, July 24. CORRUPT EXPENDITURE UNDER THE REGISTRY LAW.
Mr. TALLMADGE offered the following resolution: Resolved, That the city comptroller of the city of NewYork report to this Convention copies of the bills which make up the item of $4,748,24, set forth in his former statement as paid for "printing and posting of registry and maps of districts for registration, expenses of election of November, 1840;" also, copies of bills which compose the item of $3,319 18 set forth in said former statement, as paid for “ printing and posting list of registry and map of districts for registration, expenses of election in April, 1841;" and also copies of bills which compose the item of $3,099 39, set forth in his former statement as "paid for second registration expenses of November election of 1841."
Mr. Brown moved a reference to the committee on the elective franchise.
The motion was debated by Messrs Tallmadge and Harrison and agreed to.
Rights of Citizens.-The important Report of Committe No. 11, of which Mr. TALLMADGE the distinguished member from Dutchess, is Chairman, will be found on page 584 of this number. The worthy Chairman is honored in his report.
POSTSCRIPT, July 28...EARTHQUAKE.
The Journal of Commerce of this morning, states, that a slight shock of an earthquake was felt at Vera Cruz, on the morning of June 21st. This did not produce an equilibrium here but had the same effect upon the atmosphere at Syracuse, as the earthquake at Cincinnati of the 28th of February had on the atmospere here, viz: a rise of three degrees and an equilibrium, and was followed by a snow squall on the mountains of Huntingdon, Pa., and a cold atmosphere, the same as the earthquake at Mexico, on the 7th of April, 1845, when the steamer Swallow was stranded at Ateens.
"A smart shock of an earthquake was felt at Point a Petre, Gaudaloupe, and also at Martinique on the 16th ult., (June 16,) but no damage was done."
The Brooklyn Star of the 18th of June contains my meteorlogical observations of the 17th of June, as follows:
"THE WEATHER.-The state of the temperature to-day indicates a disturbance of very considerable extent at a distance within the last few hours. The accounts which will be received from other sections of the country will determine the particular locality of the disturbance. It is a singular fact that but little of the arctic ice is leaving the polar regions; and the lightning is taking its departure from the distant northwestern sections of our continent, and is journeying to the south west. E. M.
Wednesday evening, June 17."
This communication was delivered to Mr. E. B. Spooner at the Evening Star office, at about 5 o'clock, P. M., of the 17th of June, the day following the occurrence of the earthquake at Guadaloupe. The atmosphere was in that peculiar state that inade its distant disturbance perceptable, and I felt a peculiar sensation during its continuance, which I cannot describe, and it was during that state of feeling I wrote the above communication and carried it to the office of the Brooklyn Evening Star, to Mr. E. B. Spooner, and remarked to him that an earthquake had taken place at a distance. The human mind is sometimes so constituted that a powerful impression of the occurrence of such an event, may itself be the cause of that peculiar state.
It will be seen by referring to the Municipal Gazette of July 27, page 588, which page was published several days before the account of the earthquake reached here, that the temperature of the atmosphere at 8 o'clock in the morning of the 17th June, was at 68; 10, 70; 11, 70; 12, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 714; 6. 70: 7,69; 8, 69; 9.66; 11, 15m. 63, and next morning 4, 63; 5, 64, and 6, 64; and although the period of 11 hours was not made up of an uninterrupted equilibrium, still the equilibriums were numerous, viz. the first of 2 hours, -second of 2 hours-third 6 hours-fourth of two hours-fifth of 5 hours, and sixth of two hours. It will also be seen by referring to the storm record on the same page, 588, that on the evening of the 17th, at Middle River, Virginia, a thunder storm took place, by which a female was killed. On the 19th, violent wind squalls, accompanied by thunder, lightning, hail and rain was experienced at Harrisburg, Pa., New-York, Quebec, Rochester, Boston, Portsmouth, N. H,, and the next day at Bucks County and Danvelle, Pa., New York, Albany, Sand Lake, Pittstown, Brunswick, Nassau, Poetens, Kiln, and also at Springfield, Mass.
Martinique is in latitude 14, 23, 43, to 14, 52, 47, N. long. 60, 46 to 62, 15 west. The island is moun
tainous and the mountains are volcanic. The summit of Montagne Pelee is 4429 feet high, and Piten du Cabet 3960 feet, Length from N. W. to S. East 38, average breadth about 10 miles. Mean annual temperature about 81° and the annual rains average about about 85 inches.
Guadaloupe is in latitude 15 58 to 16 13 North, longitude 61 15 to 61 55 west.
EARTHQUAKES AT MESSENIA.
We find in the Journal of Commerce of August 5th, the following account, copied from Galignani :
"A letter from Athens, Greece, of the 20th of June, informs us that great disasters had recently occured at Messenia, in consequence of repeated shocks of earthquake. The town of Micromani has been entirely destroyed, and the villages of Baliaga, Gliata and Aslanaga have shared the same fate. In the town of Nist, a number of houses have been thrown down, and at Colemata even the public buildings have been overturned. In the country parts, great mischief has also been done. Several plantations were completely ruined, and the ground has opened in various places and vomited forth torrents of water and mud. The loss of life was said to have been inconsiderable, but the exact amount is not yet known. The last letters received from the scene of devastation, to the 16th of June, announce that the shocks, though less violent, were still going on, and that the great uneasiness was far from being calmed down. The Government sent assistance of various kinds to the Messenians, and subscriptions have been opened at Athens for the victims. Several persons spontaneously left the Capital to proceed to Messenia, to keep up the spirits of the people-amongst them was the Minister of France, accompanied by M. de Roujoux, Consul of the Cyclades."
The scene of these Earthquakes is in that part of the Morea which lies in about lat. 38° n. long. about, 220, east, and nearly opposite to Catania in Sicily, and about 450 miles, distant therefrom.
The city of Catania, convulsed by the earthquakes of the 22d and 28th of April of the present year is in the island of Sicily, in N. latitude 37° 28' 20". East long. 15°, 5′ 15′′. In 1693, it was nearly destroyed by an earthquake during which 50,000 of its inhabitants perished. In 1669 the lava from the eruptions of Mount Etna, reached the city of Catania and destroyed 15,000 of its inhabitants.
THE GRAHAM (VOLCANIC) SHOAL-MALTA, June 19.-Commander Graves, the senior surveying officer in the Mediterranean, whose departure we lately announced, in the Locust for the coast of Sicily, under orders to examine whether from the late earthquakes, or any other cause, the sounding over the shoal, formed by the disapearance of Graham Island and Volcano, had suffered any material change or variation, returned to Malta on the 11th, after having, as we understand, spent two entire days in making his survey; from the result of which it has been ascertained, that, since it was last surveyed in 1841, the sharp pinnacle then covered by only 1 fathoms water, with deep sounding all around, and an irreg ular bottom of lava, cinders, &c., has now sunk down to the depth of 32 fathoms, (or as much under, as at its greatest recorded elevation it was above water,) and in its descent it has gradually spread out, and now forms a flat bank, with a sand and coral incrustation of a similar form and appearance to the banks marked in Capt. Smyths charts, and named by him nerita, triglia, prima marina patella, &c.; all of which no doubt owe their origin to volcanic causes.-Malta Mail.
"Brig Helespont, at Providence from Charleston, reports: 13th inst., off Cape Fear, at 4 A. M. took a heavy gale from north-east, which lasted till 6 P. M." Schooner Governor Bennet, Warfield, of N.York, encountered a heavy gale on 12th inst., in lat 35, long. 72.0//
Thunder-storm at Indianapolis on the 13th, during which Thomas Ramsay, a carpenter, was killed by lightning.
Terrible storm of lightning, hail, rain and wind, at Nashua, New-Hampshire, on the 14th, doing great damage.
On the 15th inst., a terrible hail storm, accompanied by lightning, rain and wind, at New Sharon, Stark, and Mercer, and also in Somerset county, State of Maine. Thunder storm near Three-mile Run, NewJersey, during which a barn was struck by lightning, and with its contents consumed. Loss $3,000. Rain, On thunder and lightning on Brooklyn Heights. Brooklyn Heights the temperature was as follows:August 11th-4 and 5 a. m., 66; at half-past 2 to 3, 77 -being the highest during the day; at 8 p. m., 70.
12th-4 to 5 a. m., 66; 2 p. m., 81-the highest during the day; at 9 p. m., 701.
13th-At 4, 5 and 6, Equilibrium, a. m., 70; at 3 p. m., 881-the highest during the day; at 10 p. m.,
"SUPPOSED EARTHQUAKE.-The Journal of Commerce of August 22, contains the following:
"Fincastle (Va.) Democrat of the 15th inst., states, that a supposed earthquake' was felt in that vicinity on the 12th inst., between 1 and 2 o'clock. The shock' (it says) was felt by many persons, and was accompanied by a sound resembling distant thunder, but rather more harsh and protracted. Several observed at the same time a meteor in the south, moving from east to west. It was broke into pieces, and descended towards the earth gradually, assuming the appearance of vapor.'"
14th-At 4 and 5 a. m. 72; at 20 minutes past 3 p. m., 89-and distant thunder in the south-west; at 9 p. m., 78.
15th--4, 5 and 6 a. m., 75—6.20 rain; at 3 to 4 p. m., 83-the highest during the day; thunder at 20 minutes past 5 p. m.; at 9 p. m., 76.
On the evening of the 2d, and morning of the 3d, there was evidence of a partially disturbed atmosphere at a distance, and on the evening of the 20th and morning of 21st, evidence of a greatly disturbed atmosphere at a distance.
THE DIAL OF A CLOCK.
The large church edifice at CARACAS has upon each of the four sides of its tower a dial to its clock. In 1812, the city of Caraccas was rent by a terrific and awful earthquake. At the very moment that the fatal shock rent the earth and shook the foundations of its church edifice, the vibrations of the pendulum of the clock ceased, and thus the minute hands of the clock were made to mark the precise moment at which thousands of the inhabitants of that ill-fated city were buried in one common grave. The church edifice and clock has since that time been repaired, but one of the dials of the clock has been allowed to remain undisturbed, with the minute hand still pointing to the fatal moment when the grave of thousands was suddenly opened, and as suddenly closed by the earthquake's awful mandate—a wonderful memento-the record, in a language that is universal, with an emphasis of expression that speaks in the still small voice that is intelligible to the contemplative mind. Oft is the tender bosom swoolen with emotion, while the human eye rests upon the mute monitor-and then busy memory travels back to the dreadful moment of awful agony and woe.
PRIVATE RESPONSIBILITY CLAUSE. Mr. Townsend in his views of the individual responsibility of tsockholders in incorporated companies of any kind, beyond the capital actually invested, is wrong-for no man who has property would be a stockholder in an institution thus shackled, and the private respousibility clause as to a stockholder of no other property, would be of no value to the public. Mr. Townsend would do well to consult the Report made by himself when Chairman of the Bank Committee in 1839 and 40, when he recorded the fact that a short crop in England made the Bank of Eng. land a borrower of the Bank of France, notwithstanding her immense deposits in gold. At the wresent time the Bank of England is overloaded with gold. Banking institutions cannot be made by either fundamental or statute law superior to the elements. A famine will empty their vaults. It is the agricul ture of a country that form its precious deposits-that is the mine of wealth-specie compared with corn is of small account-it failed in amount when the Bank of England became a borrower-there was not enough of it in all the kingdom to buy corn for the people. It was so in the time of the Pharoahs-the money was exhausted-then the cattle, next the land, and at last the people became slaves.