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10, 56; 11, 58; 12, 60; 1,59; 2, 571; 3, 57; 4,58; 5, 56; 6, 54: 7, 54: 8, 54. 9, 55; 10, 55.
Thursday, 12th, 5, A. M., 52; 6, 52; 7, 52, 8.53; 9, 55; 10, 55; 11, 55; 12, 54; 1, 55; 2, 54 1-2; 3, 53, 4, 54; 5, 54; 6,54; 7, 53 1-2; 8, 53 1-2; 9.53.
Friday, 13th, 6, 51; 7, 51, 8, 50; 9, 50; 10, 51; 11, 52, 1, 51; 2, 51; 3, 52; 4, 42; 5, 51; 6, 50 12, 7, 50; 8, 50; 9, 50. Equilibrium.
Wednesday, Nov. 4th, 6, A. M., 60. Rain has been falling since the evening of the 31st., with intermissions, up to this morning, and with a prospect of continuance. The Equilibrium state of the atmosphere, it will be seen by the above record, has been very extensive, and strongly marked. During that of the 31st October, and 1st of November, the temperature of the Earth, the Water, and the atmosphere, were equal, and at 49 1-2, during part of which time the smallest of my meteoric wires in the apparatus connecting the Earth, the Air, and the Water, and connecting the tin, the copper, the iron and the zinc, all presenting a line of two hundred lineal feet, carried the water upon their surfaces from the great loadstone balance with an evenness that was wonderful indeed.
I received Mr. Conkey's elaborate record of his meteorlogical observations made at the State Salines for October, yesterday, at the foot of which he appends a note in the words following:
"You will observe by examining this record, that an Equilibrium commenced October 31, as follows: 1 P. M., temperature 450; 3, 45; 9, 45. Nov. 1, 30 minutes to 1 A. M., 45. Sunrise, 42; 7 A. M., 42; 8, 42; 9, 42; 10, 41; 11,43; 12, 43; 1, 43; 2, 421; 3, 43; 4, 43; 5, 43; 6, 44. Rain commenced falling 30 minutes past 1, A. M., and at sunrise had fallen 33-100 of an inch; it commenced again at 9, A. M., and rained steadily all day." By Dr. Strong's record at Flatbush, L. I., it appears that an Equilibrium existed there at 6, P. M., of Oct. 31, and was still running on the morning of Nov. 1st. By Morris' Register, in Wall street, New York, an Equilibrium was running at 6, P. M., of the 31st of Oct., and was running until past noon of the first of November. The temperature at Flatbush, was at 500 -at Morris', 520-on Brooklyn Heights, 4910-at Syracuse, 450. All local as to different temperatures, but general as to fixedness of temperature.
Wednesday, November 4, 7 A. M., 62 1-20; 8, 63; 9, 65; 10, 64; 12, 61 1-2; 1, 60; 2, 59 1-2; 3, 58; 4, 60, 5, 58 1-2; 6, 55; 7, 54 1-2; 8, 54; 9, 53 1-2; 10, 53. Thursday, November 5, 6 A. M., 50; 7, 52; 8, 54; 9, 55; 10, 55; 11, 59; 12, 60; 1, 60; 2, 62; 3, 61; 4, 60; 5, 59; 6, 57; 7, 56; 8, 55; 9, 54; 10, 54.
Friday, November 6, 6 A. M., 54; 7, 54; 8, 54;termination of 11 hours Equilibrium-9, 55; 10, 55 1-2; 11, 57; 12, 55; 1, 56; 2, 57; 3, 56; 4, 56; 5, 55; 6, 55; 7, 54; 8, 54; 9, 53; 10, 54; 11, 54.
Saturday, November 7, 6, A. M., 53; 7, 52 1-2; 8, 54; 9, 54; 10, 55; 11, 56; 12, 55; 1, 56; 2, 56; 3, 56; 4, 55 1-2; 5, 55 1-2; 6, 55 1-2; 7, 55 1-2; 8, 55 1-2 9, 55.
Sunday, November 8, 6 A. M., 53; 7, 54; 8, 53 1-2; 9, 53; 10, 56; 11, 57; 12, 56; 1, 55; 2, 55; 3, 55; 4, 55, 5, 55; 6, 55; 7, 55; 8, 55; 9, 55; 10, 55; 11, 55; 12, 55. Equilibrium of 12 hours.
Monday, November 9, 6 A. M., 54; 7, 54; 8, 55; 9, 55; 10, 54; 11, 54; 12, 55; 1, 55 1-2; 2, 57; 3, 56; 4, 56; 5, 57; 6, 55; 7, 54; 8, 55; 9, 54; 10, 55; 11, 55; 12, 55.
Tuesday, November 10, 6 A. M., 53; 7, 53, 8, 56; 9, 58; 10, 57; 11, 59; 12, 59 1-2; 1, 60; 2, 62; 3, 61; 4, 61 1-2; 5, 59; 6, 58 1-2; 7, 58 1-2; 8, 58; 9, 58; 10, 55.
Wednesday, November 11th, 6 A. M., 54 1-2.The vibration of half a degree between 10 P. M., and 6 A. M., after a fall of 3 degrees between 9 and 10 is indicative of a distant disturbance, in addition to which are recorded two strongly marked Equilibriums on the 6u. and 9th.
Wednesday, Nov. 11, 7, A. M., 56; 8, 59; 9, 56;
Saturday, 14th, 6, 50; 7, 50; 8, 50. End of Equilibrium. 9, 52; 10, 53; 11, 54; 12, 54 1-2; 1, 55; 2, 55; 3, 55; 4, 54; 5, 53; 6, 53; 7, 51; 8, 52 1-2; 9, 53; 10, 53: 11, 43.
Sunday, 15th, 6, 52 1-2; 7, 52 1-2; 8, 52 1-2; 9, 52 1-2. Vibration half of one degree from Equilibrium. 10, 53; 11, 53 1-2; 12, 53; 1, 53; 2, 54; 3, 55; 4, 54; 5, 53; 6, 53; 7, 51; 8, 52 1-2; 9, 53; 10, 53; 11, 43.
Monday, 16th, 6 A. M., 520; 7, 52; 8, 52; 9, vibration of one degree from Equilibrium, 53; 10, 53, 11, 55; 12, 55 1-2; 1, 56 1-2; 2, 55 1-2, 3, 54; 4, 53; 5, 54; 6, 53; 7, 52; 8, 52; 9, 53; 10, 53.
Tuesday, 17th, 6 A. M., 51; 7, 52; 8, 53; 9, 54; 10, 54 1-2; 11; 55 1-2; 12, 57; 1, 58; 2, 60; 3, 60; 4, 58; 5, 57; 6, 54; 7, 53; 8, 52; 9, 50; 10, 48 1-2; 11, 48 1-2.
Wednesday, 18th, 6 A. M., 49. Vibration of half a degree from an Equilibrium.
Auroreal lights illuminated the northern section of the atmosphere on Saturday evening, Nov. 14, and also on Monday evening, Nov. 16.
On the evening of the 11th, there was a rise in temperature after sunset, also on the 13th, 14th, and 16th. The highest temperature during the week ending this morning was 600, and the lowest 500. E. MERIAM.
A correspondent of the Florida Sentinel, states that on the 23d ult., about mid-day, a strange rumbling noise was heard at Tallahassee, in the heavens, resembling distant thunder or the rolling of cars on a railroad, or more nearly, the discharge of steam under water. The air was perfectly calm, the sky cloudless, though the atmosphere was filled, as common at this season, with a dull, misty hazethermometer about 70 or 800. It appeared very distant in the upper regions, though the sound somewhat resembled that of an earthquake, or the whirring noise of large birds descending very suddenly, and continued from a quarter to half a minute. The course of the noise was from North to South, and continued in that di. ection, gradually retreating.— The Sentinel says:-" Had it been cloudy, it certainly would have passed off as distant thunder; and had it occurred in the night, there would have been a long train of light, or of blazing sparks."-True Sun, Nov. 10.
The New York Farmer and Mechanic of October 29, contains my meteorological record for one week including the 23d of October, from which I copy as follows:-"At 6 o'clock, P. M., Friday, October 23, the temperature fell three degrees, and remained in in an equilibrium state until after 6 o'clock on Saturday morning, with two vibrations of half a degree each at 8 and 9 on Friday evening." The Brooklyn Evening Star of October 24, contains my communication as follows:-"THE WEATHER.-The highest temperature yesterday was 470, at 6 o'clock, P. M. It is not often that the temperature rises afAt 7 o'clock the temperature was 44°, being a sudden fall of 3°. It vibrated the next hour half a degree, and was for a little time at 44 1-2. It again vibrated and reached 45, at which it remained until near 7 this morning; thus forming an Earthquake Equilibrium! Snow tell yesterday at a long distance to the West of us, and afterwards to the
North of that point. This morning, before sunrise, there were mountain-clouds in the East, West, North and South."
The Montreal Transcript of October 31, copies from the Quebec Mercury as follows:-"THE SEASON has also become threatening: since the 23d inst. the country has been covered with snow which has continued to fall more or less every day since, with the thermometer several degrees below freezing.The cattle now subsist on fodder, and ploughing has ceased. Should the present state of the weather continue. there will be the loss of about three week's food for cattle throughout the country, a diminution of the produce of the dairy, the loss of many days of fall ploughing, and an increased consumption of fuel, besides the partial interruption of town outdoor work, and the danger of numerous vessels not being loaded in time to get away, or being forced to sail at too late a period. We still hope that we shall have a favorable change, as the first snows rarely lie on the ground. The whole season has, however, been extraordinary."
The Record at Flatbush shows an Equilibrium state of the atmosphere on the night of the 23d of October, at Morris's, in Wall street, New York, a vibration of one degree. At Syracuse, by Mr. Conkey's record, the vibration was two degrees during the night of the 23d of October, and a light fleecy snow fell there at 2 o'clock, P. M., on the 23d. At sunrise the temperature was 22°, and next morning sunrise 41. At 3, P. M., 23d, 36°. At Brooklyn, at sunrise of 23d, 33°, and at 3, P. M., 45°.
These records accord most wonderfully. The phenomenon may be classed among those convulsions which have been so frequent in our atmosphere the present year, although differing in many respects from all of them. E. MERIAM.
FALL OF RAIN.-At Syracuse, Onondago County, New York, the rain guage kept by Mr. Conkey, marked the fall of rain at that locality at five inches and seventy-five hundredths of an inch, during the month of September:-Thus, while rain was falling freely at that locality, other places farther north, as well as places farther south, were suffering greatly from drought. Mr. Conkey's record for October, shows a fall of rain at Syracuse of three inches and ninety-five hundredths of an inch during that month. The record kept by Dr. Strong, at the Erasmus Hall Academy, Flatbush, Long Island, shows a fall of rain during the whole month of September of but nine-hundredths part of one inch, and during the month of October of but one inch and seventy-two hundredths of an inch. On Sunday, November 1, and Monday, November 2, the rain which fell at Flatbush, Long Island, measured one inch and 30.100 of an inch.
The fall, as noted at the New York Hospital from Saturday, October 31st, 3, P. M., to Tuesday, Nov. 3, 9, P.M., was three inches and 60-100 of an inch.
HOOPS FOR LARGE Vats, Tubs, aND CASKS.-Hoops made of round iron are more economical than flat for the reason that they cost less to shape them, present less surface to rust and are stronger. Vessels having a great flare should be hooped with round iron. The round hoop will accomodate itself to the flare of the vessel.
GRATES FOR BURNING COAL.-Grates for burning coal should be set as near the hearth as possible, and a depression should be made in the rear part of the hearth for the cinders and ashes. A grate set in this way will give out heat to warm the feet, whereas a grate set 8 or 10 inches from the hearth, the fire heats the limbs higher up.
A NEW COMET was discovered at Rome about 8 o'clock in the evening of the 23d Sept. It was advancing rapidly in a western direction towards the equator, parallel with Tarr in Ursa Major. It is nebulous, and throws very little light.
On the 21st of August, Lieut. Freemont was at an. altitude of 6 185 feet, temperature at noon 89°, at sunset 65, and at sunrise next morning 36. Thunder storm at a distance. Difference between noon of 21st and sunrise of 221 53, and between sunset of 21st and sunrise of 22d 29.
ATMOSPHERE OF THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS.-Lieut. Freemont made a tour across the Rocky Mountains in 1842, 1813 and 1844, during which he kept a me teorological journal, which was published with his report, by order of Congress, a printed copy of which I have now before me.
His observations, in August, 1843, were made between north latitude 410 23m. 8s., and north latitude 420 36. 56s.; and between West Longitude 106° 16. 54s. and 111o 46m. Os. The altitude above the level of the Gulf of Mexico, was from 4.666 feet, the lowest to 8.234 feet, the highest.
On the 1st day of August, the altitude of his place of observation was 7.178 feet; temperature at sun. set, 620, and next morning at sunrise 520-difference 100.
At Brooklyn, N. York, Lat. 400 41 m. 50s. North, Long. 730 59m. 30s. West, altitude above the sea, 65 feet, the temperature at sunset, Aug. 1, was 700, and at sunrise next morning, 660, difference 40.
On the 3d of August, Lieut. Freemont reached an altitude of 8.314 feet, temperature 330 at sunrise, 680 at 9, A. M., 66 at sunset, and 38 at sunrise next morning. Difference between sunset and sunrise 28.
At Brooklyn, on the 3d, the highest temperature was 760, at sunset 68, and next morning at sunrise 61. Difference 70 between sunset and sunrise.
On the morning of August, 12, altitude of Lieut. Freemont's place of observation 6.720 feet, temperature 31. In the evening of that day he had an altitude of 7 221 feet and a temperature at sunset of 52, and next morning at sunrise 26-fall of 26water froze in the lodge during the night. There he left the last waters running toward the rising sun, and travelled toward those running toward the setting
The temperature at Brooklyn, on the 12th, at sunrise, was 610; noon 81, sunset 76, and sunrise next morning 77, being a rise of one degree in the night. Thus, while the thermometer fell 26 and 6 degrees below the freezing point on the dividing ridge between the waters of the Atlantic and Pacific, the temperature at Brooklyn rose one degree-a wonderful contrast.
On the 14th of August, Lieut. Freemont had an altitude of 6941 feet, with a temperature at noon of 86; at sunset an altitude of 6,667 feet, and a temperature of 75, and next morning at sunrise 34-difference between noon and sunrise next morning 52, and between sunset and sunrise of 41.
At Brooklyn, on the 14th, the temperature at noon was 79°, at sunset 77, and sunrise next morning 71 -difference between noon of 14th and sunrise of 15th, 8°, and between sunset and sunrise 6.
On the 20th of August at 10 minutes past 4, P. M., Lieutenant Freemont was upon the high lands between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, altitude 8.234 feet-a lightning cloud was visible in the East, a high wind was blowing from the North, the temperature of the air was 79, and next morning at sunrise was 43-difference 36.
Lieutenant Maury, of the Hydrographical Office, Washington City, in a letter to me in October, 1843, states that 2 inches and 788.1000 of an inch of rain fell on the 20th of August, 1843, at Washington City.
At Brooklyn the temperature was 77° at noon of the 20th of August, 75 at sunset, and 73 next morn. ing at sunrise, and but 03.100 of an inch of rain fell -difference between noon of 20th and sunrise of 21st, 4.
At Washington City, three-fourths of an inch of rain fell on the 21st of August, 1843.
At Brooklyn, 54.100 of an inch of rain tell that day, and the temperature at noon was 78°, and at sunset 72, and next morning at sunrise 69-difference between noon of 21st atd sunset of 221 9, and between sunset and sunrise 3.
On the 224, Lieut. Freemont was at an altitude of 6 281, temperature at noon 84°, atmosphere smoky, and at sunrise next morning temperature 47-difference 37.
At Washington City, 180.1000 of an inch of rain fell on the 224, and at Brooklyn, NINE INCHES AND thirteen hundredths of an inch of rain fell between half past 3, A. M., and 12, M. on the 22d, the greatest rain ever known there. Temperature at sunrise 69, at noon 73, and at sunset 72, and the same of the morning of the 23d, thus forming an Equilibrium. On the 23d, at sunset, Lieut. Freemont made no record of temperature, but on the 24th at noon, he noted the altitude at 6.290 feet and the temperature at 75°, in three quarters of an hour after at 74, and at sunset 56, at an altitude of 5.843 feet, and the morning of the 25th at sunrise 45, being a fall of but 110 during the night. At noon on the 25th, altitude 5 841, temperature 72; at sunset 5.738 feet altitude; temperature 62, and next morning a. sunrise down to 28, or 4 degrees below the freezing point-change during the night 34. The afternoon of the 25th, Lieut. Freemont crossed a large field of SALT, several inches deep, and on the morning of the 25th, he examined the celebrated springs called the "BEER SPRINGS," one of which had a temperature of 56, another of 87, and the steam hole near it, 81.
At Brooklyn, the temperature on the 231, 24th, 25th and 26th was as follows:-noon, 23d, 78°; sundown, 74; 24th, sunrise, 63; noon, 76; sunset, 74; 25th, sunrise, 67; noon, 78; sunset, 74; 26th, sunrise 70; noon, 78; sunset, 76; and next morning, 70 at sunrise. The 23d to 27th, both inclusive, fair weather.
On the 28th, 29th and 30th, Lieut. Freeront records thunder storms, at his encampments, at night, accompanied by rain. The temperature of the atmosphere and altitude on these days was as follows: 28th, altitude 5.142 feet, sunrise, temperature 55; 2, P. M., 78, altitude, 4.764 feet; sunset, 65, altitude, 4.681 feet. Thunder storm and rain. Next morning, at sunrise of 29th, temperature 54, being a fall of 11 degrees during the night; noon, 71; altitude, 5.561 feet; 1, P. M., altitude, 5.595 feet, temperature 76. No sunset observation, but next morning at sunrise, 39-a thunder storm during the night, fall of temperature from half past 1, P. M., to next morning at sunrise, 37. On the 30th, at noon, temperature, 67, altitude, 5.169 feet; half past 1, P. M., temperature 73; altitude, 5.228 feet; sunset, temperature, 64, altitude, 4.723 feet; and next morning at sunrise, 44; a thunder storm during the night-fall of 20°.
At Brooklyn, the temperature on the 28th, 29th and 30th, was as follows:-23th, sunrise, 73°; noon, 78; sunset 70.
29th, sunrise, fall 8, 73°; noon, 75; sunset, 75. 30th, sunrise, 67°; fall 8o, noon, 81; sunset, 76; and next morning sunrise, 74-tall 20.
On the 5th of August, Lieut. Freemont's observations were frequent. At sunrise of the 4 h his altitude was 7,143 feet, temperature 380; at 32 minutes past 12, M., altitude 6,951, temperature 790; at 42 minutes past 1, P. M., altitude 6.963, temperature 800. Next morning at 8 o'clock 50 minutes, temperature 610, altitude 6,727; 9 hours 50 minutes, temperature 670, altitude 6,755; 10 hours 50 minutes, temperature 690, altitude 6,766; noon 750, altitude 6,825; 0 hours 50 minutes temperature 790, altitude 6,831; 1 hour 50 minutes temperature 790, altitude 6,875; 2 hours 50 minutes temperature 77, altitude 6,871; 3 hours 50 minutes temperature 75, altitude 6,888; 4 hours 50 minutes temperature 95, in the sun, sunset temperature 70, altitude 6,743, and next morning at sunrise 46, fall 24-sunset, temperature 63, with wind East, and a thunder storm approaching.
At Brooklyn on the 4th, 5th and morning of the 6th, temperature as follows: 4th, sunrise, 61o; noon, 76; sunset, 67-5th, sunrise, 64; noon, 72; sunset, 70, and next morning at sunrise 70, being an Equilibrium. On the 5th, rain fell for a few minu es at 1, P. M.; rain commenced at half past 7, P. M., and continued near all night, accompanied by thunder and lightning. One inch and 90-100 of an inch of rain fell. At Washington City, half an inch of rain tell on the 5th.
On the 27th of July I encamped upon the pinnacle of Killington, temperature of the air at 9, P. M 470, and at 10 miles distant on the common surface, same hour in the evening 760-difference 290. I discharged fire arms on the pinnacle of the mountain at fixed periods which had been agreed upon to be observed by persons near the foot of the mountain-the reports were without echo on the mountain top, but the sound came to the listeners and ob. servers at near the foot of the mountain from the sides of a mountain opposite.
Lieut. Freemont, remarks that the sound of rifles upon the mountains was as loud as elsewhere, but without reverberation. I think had he selected a high isolated peak for the experiment that he would have found that the sound was much less powerful than on the common surface.
It will be seen from these statements, above, that the change of temperature in the region travelled by Lieut. Freemont and his party were of greater extent, and more frequent, than in our atmosphere on the sea board of the Atlantic, and notwithstanding these great and sudden changes his men were healthy and vigorous.
I do not find in the meteorlogical records of Lieut. Freemont any state of atmosphere recorded during his whole tour amounting to an Equilibrium of six hours duration, and but one case in which the temperature approached within one degree of that state of atmosphere. I am inclined to the opinion from long continued observation, that during the Equilibrium state of atmosphere more persons die than during a vibratory state of temperature, and particularly, aged persons.
I have searched the records of Lieut. Freemont, with a view to ascertain the existence of frequent thunder storms on the ridges dividing the waters running respectively toward the two great oceans, presuming that where the respective vapors of these were touched at the same moment by a passing cloud, that a thunder or snow storm would be the offspring of the union. His notes are hardly full enough for accurate decision, still I think that as far as they go, they favor the opinion that the commingling pro duces such results.
Lieut. Freemont records the fall of rain on six difterent days and nights during the month of August, 1813, viz: on 1st, 21 and 9th, and the three thunder storms stated on the 28th, 29th and 30th, during all of which the wind was either North, N. W., E. or N. E. The quantity of rain he records as being moderate, except on the 29th, which he notes as "considerable." The 6th of August, during which he made, and notel observations, nearly throughout the day, the temperature was highest between 12 M. and 2, P. M.
The fall of rain in August, 1843, at five different localities, was as follows:
Flatbush, Long Island, by Doctor
Strong's guage, Syracuse, New York, by Mr. Conkey's do,
Washington City, Lt. Maury's Ob-
Harvard College do, 8 do 740-1000 Boston, Mass., Mr. Hall's do, 6 do 88-100 The difference in the fall of rain is very great between these five localities. Boston and Cambridge are but three miles apart, and yet there was a great difference in the fall of rain at the two places. From the records of Lieut. Freemont, it appears probable that he experienced less rain than was noted at Syracuse, the lowest noted above.
With regard to temperature I will also make some statements. Mr. Conkey since I commenced this notice, has been so kind as to furnish me his recorded temperatures for August, 1843. The latitude of his place of observation is 43 deg. 1 min. North long. 76 deg. 15 min West. altitude 400 feet.
From this record I gather the following: on the morning of the 8th and 27th, at sunrise, the temperature was at 70 deg., and on the 26th at 72 deg. On the morning of 1st and 2d, 52 deg.; 4th and 24th, 55 deg.; 16th, 57; 25th, 54; and 21st, 59, the residue of the mornings of that month ranging between 60 and 69 deg.
teorology, for in this is found the plain teachings of
15 inches 76-100
2 inches 15-100
6 do 889-1000
At 9, A. M., on the mornings of the 7th, 14th and 27th, the temperature was 80 deg., the residue of the mouth ranging from 65 to 78 deg.
At 3, P. M., on the 27th, temperature 90 degrees; 13th and 17th, 87; 12th and 31st, 86; 10th, 85; 9th and 30th, 84; 16th and 29th, 83; 7th, 18th and 28th, 82; 4th and 6th, 81, and 7th and 25th, 80. These are much higher than Brooklyn temperatures.
The evening temperature, at 9 o'clock, was on the 31st, 78 deg; 7th, 77; 17th, 26th, 28th and 29th, 76; 12th, 13th, 14th, 16th, 18th and 30th, 74; 4th, 8th and 10th, 73, and the residue ranging from 63 to 72 deg. The lowest from the 20th to 24th both inclusive. No Equilibrium during the month.
Comparative meteorology is very instructing. The agriculturalist needs to understand its pointings, that he may cultivate such grains, plants, &c., as the climate favors, for nature has wisely arranged all these, and the agriculturist will find by close obsérvation that nature is wonderfully instructive. The valetudinarian in search of health is interested in comparative meteorology, for he would shudder at the thought of encountering a climate that presented changes of 53 degrees, within the 24 hours, when if he would take into consideration the altitude of the surface on which such a vibratory atmosphere rested, he would find on the high mountains with its ever changing temperatures, the very place where he should resort for benefit of health and mind. The physiognomist should investigate comparative me
South of the Equator, upon the American Continent, the negro by long residence becomes bleached, the white man bronzed. The white man also there diminishes in size and in intellect in less than three generations of his race.
Citizens of the United States are many of them bending their course towards the shores of the great Western Ocean-toward sundown-leaving the regions that lie toward sunrise; the natural products of the soil of the newly sought country indicates to them that it is different from the place of their birth, and should they extensively locate west of the Rocky Mountains, two or three generations will prove to their descendants, that the climate degenerates their mental powers, and they will regret the exchange, and so will those who inhabit the country they have left;
The mountain lands in our region of country are vested with an atmosphere that seems to be highly charged with invigorating properties. It is among he mountains that are exposed to the bright sunshine tof morning, that men of greatest intellect are found. It is to the high mountain top tha! men worn down with mental labor should resort for renewed vigor of health and intellect. Climate and atmosphere have much to do with the animal race. The rabbit and the weasel change color with the seasons in high Northern latitudes-in winter are white, in summer red. E. MERIAM.
Struck By Lightning.
On Sunday afternoon last, a cloud highly charged with the electric fluid, with however but little rain, passed over this village, during which the dwelling house of Mr. MANN was struck by the lightning, and one of his daughters severely injured. It appears that the lightning struck the chimney, following it to where the stove-pipe was inserted, thence down the pipe into a lower room, and glancing from the pipe, it struck Miss M. a little above the waist, on her side, thence down to her feet-through the floor into the cellar-kitchen, and through an outside door into the earth. At the point where it struck Miss Mann, it burnt a hole about the size of a dollar through her clothes, causing the flesh to bulge outwards. Her side and back was awfully burned. It literally tore her sleeve, and other parts of her dress, into shreds. One of her stockings, and a shoe, were torn from off her. The shock made her senseless for some time. Medical attendance was obtained, and the young lady, although suffering extremely, is in a fair way of recovery. No other person in the room, of whom there were several, received any injury, although they felt the effects of the shock.On the whole, this was a narrow and providential escape.- Wisconsin Beloit Messenger of October.
COAL ASHES FOR MANURE.-Mr. Pell, of Pelham Farm, has written a letter to the Editors of the New York Journal of Commerce, detailing the great advantages he has experienced from using Coal Ashes as a manure upon grass land.
THE GREAT GALE.-The storm in which the Atlantic made shipwreck, on Thursday, the 26th November, commenced as far to the South-west as the South-western Mountains of Virginia. At Saltville in a rain storm on the 24th and on the 25th, the wind blew a perfect hurricane from the West accompanied by a snow storm of 24 hours duration.
SALTVILLE, Washington Co., Va., Nov. 19, 1846. MR. E. MERIAM.-Dear Sir:-In my last I acknowledge the receipt of yours of 28th Aug. I have now the pleasure of noticing another favor under date of 26th Sept., with a postscript of 2d Oct. 1 am also much indebted to you for the several papers sent me. By last mail came to hand the "Brooklyn Evening Star," and the "Farmer and Mechanie" both excellent papers, and always welcome visitors. The Farmer and Mechanic is certainly the most valuable paper of its kind I have ever met with. Mr. Starr is most eminently successful in the conduct of his paper, and deserves great credit for the ability and zeal he shows in getting together so vast a fund of useful and entertaining matter. To the Agriculturist and Mechanic it is particularly valuable, and no man in the union, either Artist or Agriculturist, should be without it.
I was away from home from the 11th to the 24th of last month, and many omissions occurred in my meteorlogical record-indeed I did not intend to send it to you, on that account, but perceived in one of your late communications in a paper sent me, that ir might be of some interest to you, and therefore annex it herewith. You will notice that the change in the temperature from 10, P. M. 24th Oct., to 6 o'clock next morning, was the same at this place, as on Brooklyn Heights, viz: 100, and followed by an equilibrium on the 25th from noon to 4, P. M.
We had also an equilibrium on Tuesday, 27th, from noon until 7, P. M., followed by a fall of temperature from 10, P. M. to 6 o'clock next morning, of 160. During that night there continued a very strong wind from S. W., about daylight it changed and blew for several hours with undiminished violence from the N. E. You will notice other equili briums during the month. I mentioned the above because they corresponded as to date with similar phenomena given by yourself.
The equilibrium of the 10th was succeeded by a strong wind on that night, and next morning from the N. E.
According to your theory the temperature of the present month has been, with us, most alarmingly Prophetic. Time will show with what truth.
The accounts you furnish of your researches in this new path are deeply interesting. The positions you have taken have been so, I may say, universally corroborated as to leave little doubt of the intimacy between Earthquakes, Atmosphere and Wind-and as may ere long, with the assiduous attention you bestow on the subject, place the system upon incontes'ible basis. I look for your communication on the subject, with eager anxiety.
In reply to some of your enquiries not heretofore answered, I refer you to a communication from Gen. P. C. Johnston, of Abingdon. That gentleman estimates the altitude of this place at 1782 feet above tide water. He has also politely furnished me with the heighth of several points in the main valley route leading from Wythe C. H. to Abingdon, which are as follows:
11th, 6 A. M., 48; 7, 50; 8, 50 1-2; 9, 53: 10, 55 1-2; 11, 57 1-2. On the night of the 13th 3 inches and 9-100 of an inch of rain fell. This is all that Saltville experienced of the great gale of the 10th, 11th, 12th and 13th of October.
On the 29th of October the temperature at Saltville at 6 A. M., 22&. On Brooklyn Heights same hour of same morning 360. At Syracuse 350 at sunrise. At 3 P. M. at Saltville 62, same hour Brooklyn Heights 52o. S racuse 490, Montreal, L. C. 42. The altitude of Saltville 1762 feet, Brooklyn Heights 55 feet. Syracuse 400 feet. Montreal net ascertained by me. E.MERIAM.
Saltville, Washington Co. 1,782, distance to Abingdon 16 miles, course about S. W.
The following is Gen. Johnston's letter. "ABINGDON, Oct. 12th, 1846. "Mr. Milnor has placed in my hands Mr. Meriam's letter to him of the 28th Aug., 1846; and in regard to some of the enquiries he makes, I take pleasure in affording the following memorandum:
"The altitude of Saltville above tide water has not been ascertained, nor have I now the means of doing so, my boiling point thermometer being out of order. It is somewhat less than that of the town of Abingdon, which is 16 miles S. W. The altitude of Abingdon is 1,932 feet, ascertained both by levelling, and the boiling point thermometer. Saltville probably about 150 feet less, being very near the bottom of the valley of the north fork of Holsten river. "Barytes is of frequent occurrence in this valley. It is most generally a sulphate. I do not know, however, that any specimens have been analyzed; I have supposed that some I have met with was a carbonate, because it effervesced with nitric acid. As far as yet ascertained, no metals of any particular value are closely associated with it. In some neighborhoods iron is found near it, sometimes with it—but iron is here every where. The only other inetal of any value yet found in our valley is lead; but I have not yet heard that Barytes is associated with it."
This morning (the 19th) was ushered in with an equilibrium-my thermometer stood at 5610 when I first observed it the morning at 6 o'clock, and remained at that until 10, when it raised degree, and from that hour until 8, P. M. gradually fell to 390, at which it remained at my latest observations, at 10, P. M., viz:-6 A. M., 561; 7, 561; 8, 561; 9, 56; 10, 57; 11, 55; 12, 51; 1, 51; 2, 49; 3, 46; 4, 44; 5, 43; 6, 42; 7, 45; 8, 39; 9, 39; 10, 39.
The morning commenced calm and cloudy, a drizling rain all day-at 10, A. M., the wind commenced blowing, viz. fresh from S. W., and continued at that the remainder of the day and all night.
Nov. 20.-Clinch mountain, in view from my house, has its summit this morning partly covered with snow, the first that has fallen in view of this place this season. I anticipate a severe spell of weather will follow.
Our farmers have just gathered to their cribs a most bountiful yield of corn, a larger crop than has been made for several years past.
My record for this month, which has been kept with more regularity than that of Oct., shall be furnished at the expiration of the month.
Very respectfully yours,
WM. P. MILnor. NOTE.-In a note which Mr. Milnor appends to his meteorlogical tables for the month of October, he remarks as follows: "Quantity of rain which fell during the month of October 4 inches and 60-100 of an inch. Strength of salt water 240. Wind light every day during the month excepting the night of Saturday 10th, fresh from North East, and during the morning of 11th and night of Tuesday 27th, strong wind from S. W. veered in the morning, and blew fresh North East. No thunder and lightning during the month of Oct. The 10th and 11th of Oct. the terrific gale laid waste the shipping in the harbor of Havana and the town of Key West. The temperature at Saltville on the 10th of October was as follows: 6 A. M., 47; 7, 49; 8, 52; 9, 58; 10, 62; 11, 671-2; 12, 70; 1, 72; 2, 72; 3, 72; 4, 72; 5, 72; 6, 704; 7, 69; 8, 67; 9, 66; 10, 64. Sunday
The state of the barometer on the 25th and 26th of November, the day preceding, and the day on which the steamer Atlantic was wrecked was peculiar. At Boston, Nantucket, Flatbush, New York, and Syracuse, the mercury was very low. It would be well for passengers if Captains of steamers and packet ships were to pay more attention to meteorology. The steamer Great Western, which often traverses the same path with the icebergs both day and night registers the temperature of the air and water but once in 24 hours, although during that 24 hours she sometimes runs 200 miles. The temperature should be registered every hour, and then it could readily be known it an iceberg was near.
THE LATE FLOODS IN FRANCE.-The French Minister of Public Works has received a general report on the ravages committed by the floods, from which it appears that it will equire upwards of 65,000,000 francs to repair the bridges, embankments, roads, &c., which have been destroyed, and 10 execute the works necessary to prevent a recurrence of a similar disaster. This estimate does not comprise the amount of injury suffered by private property.
Official documents declare that the loss of houses carried away, at Roanne alone, amounts to two hundred; and the record of the number is daily augmented. Not fewer than two thousand persons are without food and raiment, and to this amount must be added sixty families belonging to the neighboring
The little commune of Epercieu, St. Paul, near Feurs, has lost forty-two houses out o' ninety-one. Upwards of forty important domains have been ravaged between Montfrond and Feurs, on the two banks of the Loire. At Vanchetto, all the inhabitants of the lower grounds were forced to fly; and scarcely had they escaped when their houses were inundated. The water was in general three feet higher than in November, 1790.
The return of the waters their proper channels and the consequent re-opening of the communications, have further disclosed the horrors of the late inundation. Of ten floods recorded between 1755 and 1845, none equalled in height and force the re
The King, Queen, and Royal Family, have placed 12,000 francs at the disposal of the Minister of Commerce for the use of the sufferers. The journals publish many liberal subscriptions, including one from the Bank of France of 25,000 francs. The Archbishop of Paris has called on the clergy of his diocese to make collections in their Churches.
PIGEONS.-The storm of the 24th, 25th and 26th of November, brought immense flocks of Pigeons to the South-western Mountains of Virginia. From whence did these Pigeons come?
SALTVILLE, WASHINGTON CO. VA., Nov. 29th, 1846. Dear Sir:-Your esteemed favor of 26th October was received by due course of mail, and would have been answered before but for pressing engagements which have absorbed my time.
I rejoice to hear that the new Constitution of the State of New York has met with so hearty a respone by a large majority of the people. Although it is faulty in some of its features, yet as a whole it is much better than the old one. The political revólution of the State is also extremely satisfactory, Idio not allude simply to the benefits which may result from passing the power and patronage of the State Governinent from one political party to another, but of the influence which it may have upon our National councils wit reference to the mean and useless quarrel with our Mexican neighbor. It seems to me that by this war, our nation has disgraced itself in the eyes of all civilized nations, and that it has met with an emphatic condemnation in the recent vote of New York.
Al offensive wars I deem unjust. They belong to a barbarous age, and no nation is entitled to be deemed civilized, that engages in them, much less can they with propriety be called Christians. Christ is the "Prince of Peace," and it is the height of absurdity to call any one by his name, who will seize the implements of war and murder his neighbor.
Accept my thanks for the papers you send me, The "Farmer and Mechanic," which I received yesterday I perceive contains additional information of the correctness of your theory concerning the relation between earthquakes and storms, and certain conditions of the atmosphere.
The weather with us during the fall has generally been pleasant. The past week however has been an exception. It rained during the day on Tuesday the 24th, and on the 25th it snowed during the 24 hours, and the wind blew a perfect hurricane from the West, the thermometer stood at 38 deg. at 10, A. M., and gradually fell during the day until 5, P. M., when it reached 21 deg., where it remained stationa. ry until 10 o'clock, when I retired. On Thursday, the 26th, the mercury seemed to be extremely fittul during the day, scarcely remaining stationary for half an hour. It varied from 18 to 46 degrees, and on Friday morning at 6 and 7 o'clock it sunk to 9 deg., but on Saturday morning from 6 to 10 o'clock, it stood at 47 deg. To day (Sunday) it was 53 deg. at six this morning, where it remained in equilibrium, without the slightest variation until half past 4 this afternoon.
At five o'clock it fell to 510, and now, ten o'clock in the evening, it stands at 400. The day has been delightfully mild and pleasant. The storm of last week brought with it immense flocks of pigeons from the north. I think it must have been severe in that region. Many of the pigeons have stopped with us to spend this pleasant weather, and recruit themselves for their journey to a still more southern climate.
The gypsum, of which you speak in your last, is found in immense quantity on the Holston river, from this place to fifteen or twenty miles above. As yet discovered it does not occupy a position much above the surface of the water in the river, but it extends to an unknown depth below, and is (in most places) rather difficult of access on account of the surface water. The quality is very pure. It is quite equal to Nova Scotia, which it resembles in
appearance. When it was first discovered here, it was supposed to be salt that had lost its savor, and was consequently called "dead salt." It was consequently regarded as worthless, and was entirely neglected. But since it has been ascertained that it is valuable as a fertilizer, considerable quantities have been used annually, and now it is transported in wagons, fifty or sixty miles. It is, however, used to a very limited extent, compared with what it should be, but the quantity is increasing with a knowledge of its benefits.
Mr. Milnor will forward you his meteorlogical table, for November, by the first mail after the close of the month.
TENESSEE CORRESPONDENCE.-Letters from Nashville of November 22, as follows:-" Cotton, is 9 cents lb. here and the whole crop will turn out 2,155,000 Bales of 450 to each as time will prove. Corn is 30 cents delivered along the river per bushel of 52 lbs. Hay $6 per ton 22 40 lbs. Flour 5 to 5 50 per barrel 200 lbs. Tobacco 1 75 to 4 50 per 100 lbs. Pork 2 50. Lard 5 to 6 cents. Bacon best and common, mixed 3 1-2 to 5 1-2 dollars per 100 lbs. We have had white frosts which the new leaves resisted wonderfully but had to drop off green without the autumnal yellow sear. The gentle winds from the South-west for 30 days caused little rain and the North-easters being now over after 6 day's cold, promise rather a dry season for four weeks to come."
A SOLEMN KNELL.-The remnant of the wreck of the Steamer Atlantic, a floating palace, still remains among the rocks of Fisher's Island supporting the ship bell, which the wind and waves toll at every heave of the surface of the briny flood. What a memento! What a monitor! How mournful the sound!
SHIPWRECK OF THE BRITISH STEAMER NORTH AMERICA. This steamer was shipwrecked on her passage from St. Johns, N. B., to Boston on the night of Wednesday, the 25th of November. When off Mount Desert, the wind blowing a gale from S.S.W., the steam pipe burst, she cast anchor, but the cables were subsequently cut and she drifted on shore. The passengers and crew were all saved, with the exception of one fireman. Vessel and cargo a total loss.
COLD WEATHER SOUTH.-It will be seen by Mr. Spencer's letter from the Mountains of South-western Virginia, that the cold has been more severe there than here, for on Friday morning, the 27th of November, the thermometer was at only 9 degrees above zero for two hours.
Oct. 15th, 1846.
E. MERIAM, Esq.-Dear Sir :-I observe in your journal numerous facts recorded having reference to storms, earthquakes, and other natural phenomena. I will offer for your consideration some remarks about storms that perhaps may be worth perusal. The immediate causes inducing storms are quite complex, and much enquiry is necessary before assigning to each due weight in such atmospheric convulsions.
Chemical and electro-magnetic affinites co-operate for preserving the elements in a state suitable for storm developements.
But these ever active forces are merely compacts of certain properties congenital with atoms, and seem dependent upon more pervading influences, demanding absolute repletion or absolute negation of atoms, at a given point, which cannot be attainable within our atmosphere.
Yet it is certain the changing postures of atoms and states of properties, arise from constant efforts to attain those opposing results.
It is a truth in Physicis that the concentrative rights of matter are opposed by the dispersive rights of matter, and as one or the other compact is infringed, sequential motion represents the greater or lesser invasion by either class.
For example, when the volcano sends into the upper air its streaming fires, or the cometary visitant approaching near the sun disperses its atomic body one hundred millions of miles into void expanse, the dispersive law, as to these facts, has ascendency over the gravitating tendencies.
But there does remain a nucleal conservative portion which in the end reconstructs the comet by the concentrative or gravitating law and the motions of atoms and of their attributes, during all the dispersing and aggregating contest, represent the relative power of the combattants.
While I would not in this paper discuss these elementary laws of the universe, their force must be acknowledged as controlling minor groups of law and of physical circumstances involved in all storm manifestations.
It is a necessary circumstance attending the globular figure of the earth that the more direct action of the sun and moon must produce during every rotation of the earth, a large fund of chemical results, within the tropics, in many respects differing from similar effects exterior of the tropical latitudes.
It is a necessary circumstance from the diversified character of material composing different paris of the earth's mass and its crust, as well as its waters and more elastic superstructures, that much variety must attend the equations of gravitating forces alone and of electro-chemical forces alone, as well as in effecting equilibrations between any opponent laws ope
rative at the same time.
The place of iso-thermal lines, and lines of no magnetic variation, the direction of the latest main currents of moisture and of aridity over the surface of great districts, and the unchanging position of plains, mountains, valleys and frozen seas all imprint their features upon the laws controlling general and local storm commotions.
With the foregoing positions kept in view one may perhaps be better able to classify many facts which I will describe as concomitants of storms I have witnessed in past years.
I will first describe a local storm which occurred
a few miles from the Pilot or Arrarat mountain standing in a rolling district of North Carolina.
The mountain is of sugar loaf form rearing its apex to the heighth of 1,500 or 1,800 feet by common estimation.
A perpen licular rounded rock 300 feet high and containing about three acres of surface crowns the top of the cone and much iron and other metalic substances in the vicinity seem to excite the electrogalvanic forces during summer.
On one side of the pinnacle there is a crevice through which with the aid of ladders persons ascend to the top and may see the clear sun shine, over clouds pouring down rain and emitting thunders whose sound is sharp and without reverberation like the discharge of rifles.
The form of the mountain gives a hollow conic shape to the clouds that envelope it and sometimes the vapors ascending make the appearance of another cone of clouds with the base inverted, and the apex pointing to the mountain top.
Such appearance I saw and quickly these clouds assuming a whirling motion came tilting toward where I was six miles off.
The rain and hail poured as if from a water spout, the ground trembled and elect: ic shocks being felt we soon saw a large grainery near us, was ignited, and a pine tree not far off, by the lightning.
Subsequently a whirlwind, from the same mountain, carried away the frame house from which I observed the storm I am dercribing, the inmates happening not to be at home.
The wind appeared as if descending from the zenith and spreading, cast over fences and sheds and prostrated trees in every course around.
I have often observed that river fogs are apt to collect upon the highest land in their neighborhood and sometimes a cloud advancing along one mountain will cross, at right angles, to another parallel range, in great haste, even when 10 or 20 miles apart.
Sometimes long columns of storm clouds advance simultaneously and a stationary point in the forward part must sustain the passing blast during the passage of all the colunm so that if the motion is at the rate of 60 miles per hour and the storm lasts 10 hours, the primary moving column may be esteemed as six hundred miles in length.
The storm current usually pursues a serpentine path, but the rear portions are not obliged to run around every curve, but sometimes taking the near cut embarrass the forward parts and appear as if two or more storm currents were advancing at such places.
Currents of side air also frequently rush in, driving aloft the storm current so that for miles the elementury strife is high above the forest trees.
It also appears to me that in some parts of every hurricane-line of travel, it is repelled from the earth after every free discharge of hail and water and is again electrically attracted to it, at irregular distances, often without reference to the even or uneven surface of the place over which it is moving.
The like causes operating along an ocean surface might excite a "ground swell" where the storm action would be lightest, while at another part of the serpentine line the impress of the winds would elevate waves, but usually the moving winds as well as the electro-magnetic appliances under and above the ocean surfae have concurrent torce in causing
In September of the same year, 1806, with numer