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the third order of Fresnel, and elevated one hundred feet above mean sea level, and should be seen in clear weather, from the deck of any sea-going vessel, fifteen nautical, or seventeen and a half statute miles. The structure consists of a keeper's dwelling of stone, with a tower of brick-the upper half colored dark lead, the lower half white-rising above it, and surmounted by - an iron lantern painted red; the entire hight being ninety-two feet.

The approximate latitude and longitude, and magnetic variation of the light, as given by the Coast Survey, are: Lat., 48 deg. 11 min. 45 sec. N.; Long., 123 deg. 7 min. 30 sec. W. Magnetic variation, 21 deg. 30 min. E.; August, 1852.

A Fog-Bell of eleven hundred pourds is also placed on the extreme outer end of the spit, which is sounded every len seconds during foggy or other thick weather, night and day. The striking machinery is in a frame building with the front open to receive the bell, painted black, raised thirty feet above the ground on an open structure, whitewashed.

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15. BELL BOAT, BUOYS, ETC. A Bell-Boat is placed just outside the Bar, entrance San Francisco Bay, California, in fifteen fathoms at mean low water, in range with Fort Point and Alcatraz Island light-houses. The bearing by compass, and distances in nautical miles, of prominent objects, are as follows: South Farallone Island Light-House .S. W. by W 1-2 W. 17 miles Point Reyes...

.N. W. by W. 3-4 W.22 3–4 Duxbury Reef.

.N. N. W. 3-4 W 8 1-2 Point Bonita Light-House.

.N. E. 1-4 N.

71-4 Fort Point Light-House.

.N. E. 3-4 E.

91-4 Telegraph Station, Point Lobos.

.N. E. by E. 1-2 E. 71-2 Point Pedro....

....S. E. 1-4 E.

11 3-4 The course to enter the bay is north-east half east.

The boat is thirty feet long and painted red. The bell of five hundred pounds, is elevated fifteen feet, and the day mark (of three and a half by four feet) eight feet above the water. The bell is rung by the motion of the sea, and should be heard under ordinary circumstances, from one to three miles. Mariners are cautioned not to run into or damage this aid to navigation.

Southampton Shoal.-A third class Can Buoy, red, with even numbers has been substituted for the Spar Buoy upon the S. W. spit of Southampton Shoal, in two and one-half fathoms water. Vessels bound up the bay should leave the buoy on the starboard hand, and be sure to keep it open to the east of Yerba Buena Island about a length. Bearings and distances: Point Blunt S. by W.(magnetic), distant about three miles ; Point Campbell, S. W. by W. (magnetic), distant about two and a half miles ; Brooks' Island, N. E. by E. (magnetic), distant about three and a half miles; Yerba Buena Island, 2. E. by E. (magnetic), distant about seven miles, and Red Rock, N. W. (magnetic), distant about five and a half miles.

Invincible Rock.— A third class Can Buoy, with red and black horizontal stripes, has been substituted for the Spar Buoy, in three fathoms water, on the north side of, and about a half cable's length from, the shoalest part of the rock. Vessels should not approach the buoy from any direction, nearer than one cable's length. Bearings and distances : Point San Pedro, N. N. W., (magnetic) distant about tbree miles; the Brothers, N. E. half N. (magnetic), distant about one mile; Point San Pablo, N. E. by N. (magnetic), distant about one and a half miles; Point Castro, S. E. by E. (magnetic), distant about three miles; Point San Quentin, S. W. (magnetic), distant about three miles; Marvin Island, Prison Ship, W. half N. (magnetic), distant about two miles, and Red Rock, S. E. by S. (magnetic), distant about two and a half miles.

Anita Rocks.—A Spar Buoy painted red, with even numbers, has been placed in three fathoms water, about half a cable's length due west from the shoalest part of Anita Rocks. Vessels should not approach this buoy withiu a cable's length, as a strong current sets across the rocks.

Commission Ledge.—A Spar Buoy, painted with red and black horizontal stripes, has been placed on the west side, close to said rock, in two and a half fathoms water. Vessels should not approach this buoy from any direction, nearer than the distance of half a cable's length.

Lower Middle Ground, Suisun Bay.--A Spar Buoy painted black, with odd numbers, has been placed on the south side of this shoal, in two and a half fathoms water.

Blossom Rock. A Spar Buoy, painted red and black horizontal stripes, has been placed in four fathoms water, about half a cable's length, due south from the shoalest part of the Blossom Rock. Vessels should not approach this buoy, from any direction, nearer than the distance of one cable's leugth.

Day Mark.Notice is hereby given that a mark, painted red, has been attached to the wreck of the ship Crown Princess, lying in five fathoms at low water, north of Yerba Buena Island, San Francisco Bay, consisting of a plank, seven inches by three inches, thirty feet long, showing fifteen feet above high water, with a board five feet long nailed across, one foot below the top. The following bearings (magnetic) and distances (statute miles) give the position: Alcatraz Island Light-House, W. by S., two and a half miles; east end of Yerba Buena Island, E. S. E., one mile; west end of Yerba Buena Island, S. E. by S. half S., three-fourths of a mile; Telegraph Hill, S. W. three-fourths S., three and five-eighth miles.

Four Fathom Bank.--(Being the northwesterly and shoalest part of San Francisco Bar). A first class Can Buoy, with red and black horizontal stripes, is placed in four fathoms at mean low water, on the west or seaward end of Four Fathom Bank. Bearings and distances: to Point Bonita Light-House, E. by N. (magnetic), four miles, and to the Telegraph Station on Point Lobos, E. by S. (magnetic), six miles. The buoy is also on range with Fort Point Light-House and Point Bonita. The bank extends towards Point Bonita, is two and three-quarter miles in length and nearly one mile in greatest

width. The least depth on it, at mean low water, is three and three-quarters fathoms.

N. B.-In entering a harbor from seaward, buoys with black and wbite perpendicular stripes may be passed close on either hand. Buoys with red and black horizontal stripes are on obstructions, with channels on either side of them, and may be left on either hand in passing. Red buoys with even numbers, should be left on the starboard hand; black buoys with odd numbers, should be left on the port hand.

XI.-WAR DEPARTMENT.

1. RETURNS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE PACIFIC,* Commanded bg Brevet Brigadier-General N. S. CLARKE; exhibiting the name and location of

each Military Post composing the same, with the Officers in command stationed thereat, June 1, 1858.

Posts.

Commanding Officers.

Garrison.

Presnt & Absnt

AggreCom'd Enlis'd gate. of cers Men.

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Fort Bellingham, W.T. Capt. G. E. Pickett ........ I company 9th Inf..... 4
Fort Townsend, Bvt. Major G. 0. Haller.. 1 company 4th Inf...... 3
Fort Steilacoom, Lieut. Colonel S. Casey... 2 cos.4th & 1 co.9th Inf. 11
Fort Simcoe,

Major R. S. Garnett....... 3 companies 9th Inf... 11
Senji-ah-moo Bay, Capt. D. Woodruff..... 1 company 9th Inf...... 4
Fort Walla-Walla,“ Bvt. Lt. Col. E. J. Steptoe t cos. Drgs & 2 9th Inf. 20
Fort Vancouver, Lient. Colonel T. Morris. F. & S. and F.'4th Inf. 6
Fort Dalles, 0. T........ Colonel George Wright... F. & S. & 2 cos. 9th Inf.
Fort Cascades, W. T... Lieut. F. Mallory....... 11 company 4th Inf......
Fort Yamhill, 0. T...... Capt. D. A. Russell.....
Fort Hoskins,“ . Capt. C. C. Augur.
Fort Umpqua,“ Major J. B. Scott........ 2 cos. 3d Artillery. 10
Fort Jones, Cal....... Capt. H. M. Judah.... 1 company 4th Inf.....
Fort Crook,“ Capt. J. W. T. Gardiner.. 1 company 1st Drgs....
Fort Terwaw, Cal.... Lieut. George Crook...... 1 company 4th Inf..
Fort Humboldt" Major G. J. Rains........
Benicia Barracks...... Lieut. Col.C.S. Merchant Fld St'f & Band 3d Art
Benicia Arsenal......... Capt. F. D. Callender...... Dct. of Ordnance....
Presidio, S. Francisco. Capt. E. D. Keyes.......... 1 co. 3d Art. & Recruits
Fort Miller, Cal......... Capt. E.O.C. Ord.. 1 co. 3d Artillery.......
Fort Tejon,“ Major G. A. H. Blake..... F. & S. & 1 co. 1st Drgs.
Fort Yuma,

Bvt. Lt. Col. G. Nauman 3 cos. 3d Artillery ...... 13
Mission of San Diego.. Bvt. Major F. O. Wyse... 1 co. 3d Artillery..
San Bernardino...... Capt. J. A. Hardie... 2 cos. 3d Artillery. 9
Camp Bragg, Mend'no Lieut. H. G. Gibson........ Dct. 3d Artillery...

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Totals............

155

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2. FORTIFICATIONS OF SAN FRANCISCO HARBOR. The amount appropriated by Congress, to June 30, 1858, for the erection of the fortifications of San Francisco harbor, is $2,695,800, viz; for Fort Point, $1,545,800; for Fort Alcatraz, $800,000; Fort Lime Point, $350,000. The fortifications of San Francisco Harbor will be, when completed, viz: Guns.

* Since these returns were made considerable accessions to the Department of the Pacific have been made, and all of the available force in the State transferred to Oregon and Washington Territories, in consequence of the Indian difficulties there. For officers of Department Staff, see p. 57.

+ Not to be added to total, because aecounted for elsewhere under “Present and Absent.”

Guns. Fort Point. 164 Point San José

50 Lime Point. .164 | Presidio Hill..

50 Angel Island 50 Alcatraz .

94

Total

,572

Of these works, Fort Alcatraz is nearly finished, and the defenses at Fort Point are in an advanced condition.

The ordnance intended for these works are of the heaviest and most effective used in the service, consisting of eight and ten-inch Columbiads, sixtyeight, forty-two and thirty-two pound guns, furnished with all the improvements and appliances of modern warfare.

3. MILITARY SYSTEM OF THE STATE. By the Act of April 25, 1855, the State is organized into six Military Districts, with six Major-Generals and twelve Brigadier-Generals.* All free and able-bodied citizens, between the ages of eighteen and forty-five, residing in the State, not exempt by law, are subject to military duty, and are required to be enrolled therefor. The Governor of the State is Commander-inChief, and is authorized to appoint and nominate an Aid-de-Camp, for each and every Brigade. Every free white male inhabitant of the State, between the ages of eighteen and forty-five, not a member of any volunteer company, is subject to a tax of twenty-five cents, for the support of the militia of the State. Number of citizens liable to military duty (estimated) one hundred and eighty-three thousand.

There are at present organized in the State thirty volunteer uniformed companies, with an aggregate of eighteen hundred members.

4. MILITARY DISTRICTS. First Division.—The counties of San Diego, San Bernardino, Los Angeles, Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo and Monterey.

Second Division. The counties of Santa Cruz, Santa Clara, San Francisco, San Mateo, Alameda and Contra Costa.

Third Division. The counties of San Joaquin, Mariposa, Merced, Fresno, Tulare, Buena Vista, Tuolumne, Stanislaus and Calaveras.

Fourth Division.—The counties of Amador, El Dorado, Sacramento, Placer, Nevada and Sierra.

Fifth Division.—The counties of Yuba, Sutter, Yolo, Solano, Napa, Sonoma, Marin and Mendocino.

Sixth Division.—The counties of Butte, Plumas, Colusa, Shasta, Tehama Siskiyou, Trinity, Humboldt, Klamath and Del Norte.

* The Militia Act of 1850, organized the State into four Military Districts with four Major-Generals and eight Brigadier-Generals. The following were elected by the Legislature, April 11, 1850 ; T.J. Green, J. E. Brackett, David F. Douglass, and J. H. Bean, Major-Generals. J. H. Eastland, A. M. Winn, R. Semple, J. McDonald, J. E. Addison, D. P. Baldwin, T. H. Bowen and J. M. Covarubias, Brigadier-Generals. For List of Officers now in commission, see p. 100.

XII.-NAVY DEPARTMENT.

1. NAVY YARD, MARE ISLAND, CAL.* Capt. R. B. CUNNINGHAM, U. S. N..

.... Commandant. The position for the Navy Yard, Mare Island, was selected and located by a board of officers charged with that duty, in 1850. The first appropriation, $200,000, was made by Congress for founding the yard in August, 1854. The subsequent appropriations made, have been: in 1855, $345,000; in 1856, $322,000; in 1857, $399,880; in 1858, $493,921. Total appropriations to the close of the fiscal year, June, 1859, $1,760,801.7 Operations were commenced October 1st, 1854, and all the temporarily necessary workshops and buildings constructed, beside temporary wooden wharves for landing stores and materials. About thirty acres of ground, requiring heavy grading and filling in, have been brought to the established grade of the yard. A smithery, one story in hight and six hundred and fifty-eight feet frontage, by fiftyfive feet in width, designed to contain sixty-seven forges, a steam engine, and all the necessary appliances of such a structure, with a chimney one hundred and twenty-seven feet high, and its funnel nine feet in diameter; a store-house, four hundred feet long by fifty-five feet wide, two stories high; the Commandant's house, forty-two feet square and three stories high; four blocks (eight houses) of officers' quarters, also three stories in hight; a joiners' shop and timber shed, four hundred feet long by sixty-five feet wide, two stories high, have been completed. There are in the course of construction two additional buildings, four hundred feet in length, for the storage of timber etc., and for use as a cooperage; two blocks (four houses) for officers' quarters, similar to those already finished, and a two-story building, two hundred feet in length by fifty-five feet in width, for a plumbers' and coppersmith's shop. These buildings are all of brick, are built in the most substantial manner and of the best materials. A stone quay-wall, five hundred and fifty feet in length, has been built, and the foundation for two hundred feet more made ready. The magazine, now in the course of completion, is one hundred and thirty-six feet in length by sixty-five feet in width, and will cost, when finished, one hundred and twenty thousand dollars; a shellhouse, and three cisterns of a capacity of one hundred and forty thousand gallons each, have been finished, and preparations made for the commencement of a building, eleven hundred and sixty feet long, to be used for a machine shop. A sectional dry-dock and a basin and railway have been completed by contract at a cost of $1,400,000. The sectional dry-dock, by order of the Navy Department, is now placed at the service of the commercial marine of the Pacific Coast at rates of dockage barely covering repairs and expenses of operating it, whenever it can be shown that any private works of the kind are incompetent for the purpose.

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* For List of Officers, Clerks, etc., see p. 58. + Exclusive of the cost of Sectional Dock, Basin and Railway, one million four hundred thousand

dollars.

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