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This Navy Yard is the only one on the west coast of America, and must grow in importance, as it will in size and usefulness, every year. Its facilities and appliances have been, and will be from this time forward, equal to all the demands made upon them, as not only all the vessels of the Pacific squadron needing them, have undergone repairs at this pard, but a large number of merchant ships have been docked and repaired. It is designed and expected that this Navy Yard shall increase in size and facilities, more rapidly than the requirements of the Pacific squadron will demand, in anticipation of the future necessities of our naval marine, when it shall have increased in proportion to our national greatness. If the original plans be carried out, and the works to be constructed shall be commensurate with those already built, many years will be required to complete them, and probably an expenditure of some $15,000,000 or $20,000,000; as among the many works marked out on the plan of the yard, yet to be constructed, are eight stone dry-docks. It is hoped and believed that, when finished according to the extensive scale adopted, the Navy Yard at Mare Island will be the largest, most complete and best dock-yard in the world.

2. VESSELS OF WAR OF THE UNITED STATES, NOV. 1857. The officers marked thus (*), have the rank of Commanders ; thus (+) Lieutenants; the rest are Captains.

Name and Rate-Guns. Where and when Built.

Officers.

Where Stationed.

SHIPS OF THE LINE-10.
Pennsylvania .120 Philadelphia .......1837 *John R. Tucker...... Rec'ing ship, Norfolk
Columbus ................80 Washington ........1819 In ordinary.. Norfolk.
Ohio

.84 New York.... .1820 * Samuel F. Hazard... Rec'ing ship, Boston. North Carolina .....84 Philadelphia .1820* James F. Schenck. Rec'ing ship, N. York Delaware

..84 Norfolk, Va.........1820 in ordinary.. Norfolk.. Alabama .84 On the stocks............

Portsmouth, N. H.... Virginia .84 On the stocks...

Boston ... Vermont .84 Boston..... .1818 In ordinary..

Boston New York, .84 On the stocks...

Norfolk New Orleans ............84 On the stocks.....

Sackett's Harbor......

FRIGATES—13. Independence ...........56 Boston...... ..1814* Archib’ld B. Fairfax R'g ship, S. Francisco United States............50 Philadelphia .......1797 In ordinary... Norfolk Constitution ......... ..50 Boston...... ..1797 In ordinary..

Portsmouth, N. H... Potomac ... 50 Washington ........1821 In ordinary

Norfolk... Brandywine ..50 Washington .1825 In ordinary

New York....... Columbia ..50 Washington .1830 In ordinary

Norfolk Congress..

.50 Portsmouth. .1841 * Thomas T. Craven... Mediterranean Cumberland

.50 Boston............. .1842 * John S. Misroon... Coast of Africa......... Savannah .50 New York...... .1842 In ordinary

New York... Raritan .50 Philadelphia.. .1843 In ordinary

New York.. Santee .50 Portsmouth.. .1855 In ordinary

Portsmouth, N. H... Sabine 50 New York...... .1855 In ordinary

New York.... St. Lawrence............50 Norfolk...............1847 Joseph B. Hull. Coast of Brazil......

SLOOPS OF WAR-19.
Constellation............22 Rebuilt, Norfolk..1854 * Charles H. Bell...... Mediterranean
Macedonian

.22 Rebuilt, Norfolk..1830 Fitting for sea......... Mediterranean... Portsmouth

.22 Portsmouth ........1843 * A. H. Foote..... East Indies... Plymouth

.22 Boston........... .1843 * John A. Dahlgren... Naval Ordnance Ship St. Mary's

.22 Washington.........1844* Charles H. Davis... Pacific Ocean..... Jamestown.

.22 Norfolk ...1844 Repairing for sea...... New York.............. Germantown .22 Philadelphia........1840 * Richard L. Page... East Indies

Name and Rate-Guns. Where and when Built.

Officers.

Where Stationed.

Saratoga
John Adams
Vincennes
Falmouth
Vandalia
St. Louis..
Cyane.
Levant...
Decatur..
Marion
Dale
Preble

.20 Portsmouth ........1842 * Frederick Chatard. Home Squadron
.20 Rebuilt Norfolk...1831 * Henry K. Hoff...... Pacific Ocean .....
.20 New York............1826 * Benjamin J. Totten Coast of Africa..
.29 Boston...... .... 1827 * Ebenezer Farrand.. Brazil Station
.20 Philadelphia .......1828

Pacific Ocean
.20 Washington.........1828 * John W. Livingston Coast of Africa.....
.20 Boston.... .1837 * Robert G. Robb...... Home Squadron
.20 New York........... 1837 * William Smith ....... East Indies
.16 New York...........1839 * Henry K. Thatcher. Pacific Ocean
.16 Boston .... .1839

Coast of Africa...... .16 Philadelphia.... .1839 * William McBlair... .....16 Portsmouth... .1839 In ordinary

Norfolk

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BRIGS-3.
Bainbridge
Perry
Dolphin......

..6 Boston...............1842 In ordinary

.6 Norfolk ..............1843
....4 New York ..........1836 In ordinary

Norfolk
Brazil Station ......
Boston ...

SCHOONER.
Fenimore Cooper........3 Purchased .1852 In ordinary For Survey

STEAMERS.
Screw—1st Class-7.
Franklin..
.50 Rebuilding

Portsmouth, N. H... Merrimack............... 40 Boston.......... .1855 *Robert B. Hitchcock Pacific Ocean Wabash

.40 Philadelphia .......1855 Frederick Engle Home Squadron Minnesota

..40 Washington ..1855 Samuel F. Dupont... East Indies ... Roanoke .40 Norfolk .1855 Repairing

Boston Colorado

.40 Norfolk

...1856 Fitting for sea...... Norfolk. Niagara....... ..40 New York ..........1856 William L. Hudson... Special service....

Screw, 2d Class-1.
San Jacinto.... .......13 New York ..........1850 * Henry H. Bell...... East Indies ....

Screw, 3d Class-2.
Massachusetts............9 Transf'd from W. D. In ordinary

San Francisco
Princeton ................10 Rebuilt, Norfolk...1851 Receiving ship.... Philadelphia......
Side-Wheel, 1st Class-3
Mississippi.

.10 Philadelphia .1841 Wm. C. Nicholson... East Indies.... Susquehanna............15 Philadelphia .......1850 Joshua R. Sands...... Home Squadron..... Powhattan ....... ..9 Norfolk ..............1850 George F. Pearson... East Indies Side-Wheel, 2d Class—1 Saranac. .6 Portsmouth.........1848 John Kelly.........

Pacific.....
Side-Wheel, 3d Class—5.
Michigan

.1 Erie, Pa.......... .1844 * C. H. McBlair..... Northern Lakes....... Fulton

....5 New York ..........1837 † John J. Almy. Home Squadron Alleghany Water-Witch

.2 Washington ........1845 | William S. Lovell... Norfolk Station ....... John Hancock.... .2 Boston............. .1850 in ordinary Mare Island, Cal.......

STEAM TENDERS-2.
Despatch...
Purchased .1855 In ordinary

New York.....
Arctic

Purchased
.1855 0. H. Berryman... Special service, under

Treas’ry Department.
STORESHIPS-5.
Relief..
.6 Philadelphia .......1836 In ordinary

New York Supply

..4 Purchased ..........

.1846 + A. F. V. Gray.. Brazil. Warren Boston...... ....1826 In ordinary

Mare Island, Cal..... Fredonia ...

..4 Purchased .........1846† William H. Ball.... Valparaiso, Chile... Release..... .2 Purchased .........,1855 In ordinary

Boston
PERM'T REO'G SHIPS-1.
Union......

Norfolk

.1842* William S. Young... Philadelphia ............ NOTE.-In addition to the vessels enumerated in this table, there are six steamers connected with the Revenue and Coast Survey Service ; also, the five screw frigates now building, viz : The Brook. lyn, Hartford, Richmond, Lancaster and Pensacola, each of two thousand tuns. These vessels, when in service, together with the seven screw sloops of war and the side-wheel steamer authorized to be constructed by the Thirty-Fifth Congress, will form an important addition to the Lavy of the United States.

-10 Pittsburg, Pa....1847 * R. F. Pinckney... { Rentering ship, Balti

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XIII.—POST-OFFICE DEPARTMENT, CAL.*

Number of post-offices in California, 315; length of routes, 3,084 miles ; cost of transportation for fiscal year, ending June 30, 1857, $143,797; expenses, same period, $359,854; receipts, same period, $256,974.

RATES OF POSTAGE DOMESTIC. Letters-for each half-ounce, under three thousand miles, prepaid, three cents; over three thousand miles, pre-paid, ten cents. All letters must be pre-paid by stamps, or inclosed in stamp-envelopes, or they will not be forwarded.

Transient Newspapers, Periodicals, Circulars, etc., -to any part of the United States, not weighing over three ounces, one cent—and one cent for each additional ounce.

Books--pre-paid, not weighing over four pounds, two cents per ounce. All fractions over the ounce being counted as an additional ounce.

Newspapers and Periodicals—not exceeding one and one-half ounces in weight, when paid quarterly in advance—daily, per quarter, twenty-two and three-quarter cents; six times per week, nineteen and one-half cents; triweekly, nine and three-quarter cents; semi-weekly, six and one-half cents; weekly, three and one-quarter cents; semi-monthly, one and one-half cents ; monthly, three-quarter cents. When sent out of the State these rates are doubled.

Small newspapers, published monthly, or oftener, and pamphlets not containing more thau sixteen octavo pages, in packages of eight ounces or over, one-half cent per ounce.

Weekly newspapers, within the county where published, free.

Quarterly payments, in advance, may be made either where published or received.

1

RATES OF POSTAGE-FOREIGN.

NOTE.-The figures following the name of each country, are intended to represent : first, the postage in cents, on letters weighing one-half ounce or under ; and second, the postage on single news

i papers.

North America.-British Possessions, Pacific Coast, 3, 1. Canada, 15, 1. Mexico, 10, 2. Central America, 44, 8.

South America.—Bolivia, Chili or Ecuador, 34, 6. New Grenada, 18, 6– except Panama and Aspinwall, which are, 20, 6. Peru, 22, 6.

Europe.—Belgium, 26, 6.· Denmark, 35, 6. France, 15 per one-quarter ounce, 2. German States, 30, 6. Great Britain, 29, 2. Greece, 42, 6. Holland, 26, 6. Norway, 46, 6. Portugal, 73, 6. Russia, 37, 6. Sardinia, 38, 6. Spain, 78, 6. Sweden, 42, 6. Switzerland, 35, 6. Turkey, 30, 6. Tus. cany, 35, 6.

East Indies and Islands of the Pacific.-Australia, Sandwich Islands, Manila, China, Java, New South Wales, New Zealand, Victoria, etc., etc. (by sailing vessels) 1, 1.

* For List of Post-Offices, Officers and Clerks, see pp. 58-63.

West Indies.—British, 20, 6. Cuba, 20, 2. Danish, 44, 6. Dutch, 44, 6. French, 44, 6. Spanish-except Cuba—44, 6.

Pamphlets or bound books, not to exceed four ounces in weight, may be forwarded by mail to foreign countries at the rate of four cents per ounce.

INSTRUCTIONS TO POSTMASTERS-TRANSIENT PRINTED MATTER, ETC.

Books, not weighing over four pounds, may be sent in the mail pre-paid by postage stamps, at one cent an ounce, any distance in the United States, under three thousand miles; and at two cents an ounce over three thousand miles, provided they are put up without a cover, or wrapper, or in a cover or wrapper open at the ends or sides, so that their character may be determined without removing the wrapper.

Small newspapers and periodicals, published monthly or oftener, and pamphlets containing not more than sixteen octavo pages each, when put up in single packages weighing at least eight ounces, to one address, and prepaid by postage stamps, may be sent to any part of the United States, at onehalf cent an ounce, or fraction of an ounce.

Unsealed circulars, advertisements, business cards, transient newspapers, and every other article of transient printed matter (except books and packages of small publications as above,) not weighing over three ounces, sent in the mail to any part of the United States, are chargeable with one cent postage each, to be prepaid by postage stamps. Where more than one circular is printed on a sheet, or a circular and letter, each must be charged with a single rate. This applies to lottery and other kindred sheets assuming the form and name of newspapers, and the miscellaneous matter in such sheets must also be charged with one rate. A business card on an unsealed envelop of a circular, subjects the entire package to letter postage. Any transient matter, like a circular or handbill, inclosed in or with a periodical or newspaper sent to a subscriber, or to any other person, subjects the whole package to letter postage; and whenever subject to letter postage from being sealed or from any cause whatever, all printed matter, without exception, must be prepaid or excluded from the mail

. It is the duty of the postmaster at the mailing office, as well as at the cffice of delivery, carefully to examine all printed matter, in order to see that it is charged with the proper rate of postage and to detect fraud. At offices where postage stamps can not be procured, postmasters are authorized to receive money in pre-payment of postage on transient matter, but they should be careful to keep a supply of stamps on hand.

It is no part of the duty of a postmaster to receive ard deliver to subscribers any other newspapers than those which come in the mail, or to put the address on newspapers sent to clubs, or to deliver them from a furnished list; nor should he do either, even through courtesy, unless it may be done without interfering with the legitimate business of his office.

A postmaster, whose compensation for the last preceding fiscal year did not exceed two hundred dollars, can send through the mail, free of postage, all letters written by bimself, and receive letters addressed to himseli

, on his own private business, the weight of each letter not to exceed half an ounce. He cannot receive free nor frank printed matter of a private nature; nor letters addressed to his wife or any other member of his family; por can he frank letters to editors or publishers containing money in payment of subscription.

But every postmaster, whatever may bave been his annual compensation, can send and receive, free, communications, whether written or printed, relating exclusively to the business of his office, or of the Post-Office Department.

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All letters placed on a mail steamboat, on which the mails are in charge of a route agent, should go into the hands of such agent; and on these letters the master of a vessel is not entitled to receive any compensation. None but pre-paid letters should be received on such steamboat, and these should be duly mailed. But should any chance to be unpaid, they should be deposited by the route agent in the post-office at or nearest the point at which they are received, and the postmaster should post up a list of them, with the unpaid letters dropped into his office, adding that they were put on board the steamboat unpaid.

In like manner, when practicable, all letters should be pre-paid which are received by steamboats or other vessels not in the mail service, or carrying the mail with no route agent on board. When pre-paid, the master of the vessel, if under contract to carry the mail, may receive one cent “way,” and if not under contract with the Department, two cents each from the postmaster in whose office he deposits them; and they should be delivered to their address without any charge beyond the amount pre-paid. But if unpaid, they should be treated as ship-letters, and are chargeable as such with a postage of six cents if delivered at the office at which the vessel shall arrive, and with two cents in addition to the ordinary rate of postage if destined to be conveyed by post to another place. On all such letters the master of the vessel is entitled to receive two cents each.

Letters inclosed in stamped envelopes may be carried out of the mail, provided such stamps are equal in value and amount to the rates of postage to which such letters would be liable if sent in the mail; and provided, also, that the envelopes are duly sealed, etc.

A letter bearing a stamp cut or separated from a stamped envelop cannot be sent through the mail as a pre-paid letter. Stamps so cut or separated from stamped envelopes lose their legal value. Stamped envelopes, as well as postage stamps on pre-paid letters, should be canceled immediately on the letters being placed in the post-office.--[Amended, see p. 153.

When a letter is delivered, and the postage paid thereon, the postage should not be returned after the letter has been opened, except in cases where the postmaster is satisfied it has been opened by the wrong person through mistake; in which event the letter should be resealed and a memorandum of the mistake made thereon in writing.

To inclose or conceal a letter, or other thing, (except bills and receipts for subscription,) in, or to write or print anything after its publication upon, any newspaper, pamphlet, magazine or other printed matter, is illegal, and subjects such printed matter, and the entire package of which it is a part, to letter postage; and if done in order that the same may be carried by post free of postage, subjects the offender to a fine of five dollars for every such offense ; and in such cases, if the person addressed refuse to pay such letter postage, the package should be returned to the postmaster from whose office it came, to prosecute the offender for the penalty. Printed slips or circulars stitched or pasted in with the body of periodicals or magazines with which they have no legitimate connection, are attempts to evade the law; and all such matter which does not form, and was not intended and originally printed to form, a regular part of the contents of any given number of a periodical or magazine and its cover, must be considered as extraneous matter subjecting the whole copy with which it is thus sought to be incorporated to letter postage. All transient printed matter should be distinctly post-marked and rated at the mailing office.-[Amended, see p. 153.

Any word or communication, whether by printing, writing, marks or signs, upon the cover or wrapper of a newspaper, pamphlet, magazine or other printed matter, other than the name and address of the person to whom it is to be sent, subjects the package to letter postage; and such postage should be, like all other letter postage, pre-paid, or the matter should not be mailed. If,

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