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will exhibit the progress already made by one of the principal agriculturists of the State:
“The Committee cannot pass the garden of Mr. Prevost without a particular notice of bis efforts to introduce into our State the cultivation of the mulberry, and we may safely say he is the pioneer in this new work of silk raising. The Committee must warmly commend this enterprise, and in noticing his fine plantation of over twenty-five thousand mulberry trees, they feel that at least a just and appreciative notice of his laudable exertions is due to him. Mr. Prevost assured us that no country in the world was more favorably adapted to the raising of the silk-worm than California, from the fact of the absence of electricity, which is peculiarly injurious to the worm ; and another favorable feature is the dryness of our atmosphere."
1. FRUIT AND FRUIT TREES.
TABLE Exhibiting the Number of Fruit Trees in Cultivation in the State of Califor
Cherry. All Others
3 1,200 400
40 621 6,000 5,000 1,514 1,000 34,245 1,775
1,500 35,000 6,426 1,200 12,498
732 5001 9,000 21.282
1,229 5,312 5,600 349 278 69
833 114 800 1,500 1001 12,150 20,737 1,672 33,360 89,497 10,474 33,500 223,300 5,600 552,932 1,131,372 82,781|
304 277 2,096 12,321 12,565
75 1,040 2,242 5,750
The number and variety of fruit trees in cultivation at the present time in California, and the remarkable products therefrom during the past season,* will best exhibit the progress and condition of the fruit growing interest of the State. Not only the varieties grown in the Eastern States but those of the tropical climates have been successfully cultivated, and in such abundance as to surprise many of the most experienced fruit growers. The following, from the Report of the State Agricultural Society, for 1856, of the operations of the Messrs. Thompson's farm, in Solano County, thirty miles from San Francisco, will convey some idea of what California is at the present time, as a fruit producing country :
“We have produced apples this season of beauty and flavor unsurpassed even in the far famed State of New York; while the nectarine, apricot and gooseberry have so improved, by their removal to California soil, as scarcely to be recognized as the same fruit. With foreign grapes, too, we are much gratified. We have produced in the open air the grape from Malaga and the South of France, the size, beauty and flavor of which would be hard to excel in their native countries.
We are in a favored country for fruit growing. We grow the pomegranate, olive and fig, side by side with the apple, pear and quince; the grape of Malaga with the hardy Isabella, Diana and Catawba; the almond and olive with the black walnut and shellbark; the magnolia with the sugar maple and elm—the natives of the far North and the far South grow side by side, and all flourish well."
From a Report of the Santa Clara County Fair, held in September, 1858, the following is extracted to show what can be produced in a single county in California:
“You see, in one view, upwards of sixty different varieties of apples, pears and grapes, as California alone can produce. The fruit consists of apples, pears, peaches, (too late for many peaches) plums, pomegranates, quinces, oranges, nectarines, grapes, soft and hard shell almonds, walnuts, white, blue and black figs. Some apples measure five and a half inches in diameter, sixteen and a half in circumference, and weigh as high as two pounds each ; pears, four and seven-eighths inches in diameter, fourteen and a half in circumference; quinces, four and three-eighths in diameter, and thirteen in circumference; peaches, three and one-eighth in diameter, and ten in circumference; grape vines, two years old, from the graft, bearing one hundred pounds black Hamburg grapes, grown in the open air. Indeed, all the fruit exhibited was grown in the open air, except the oranges.”
In speaking of the resources of Los Angeles County, the editor of the Star, says:
"The time will come—we hope it is not far distant-when our valleys will resound with the hum of busy industry; when corn, and wine, and oil will abound; when the golden ears of an abundant harvest will cover the hills and plains, the result of well-directed energy and skill. It requires but the enterprise and capital to make, prudently, the experiments; to strike the waters out of the flinty rocks, and to spread it over our lands, enriching and fertilizing the present arid wastes. Science furnishes the mode of obtaining
* In Santa Cruz, a peach tree from a bud inserted a year ago produced eight large peaches, and a tree two years old produced over two hundred peaches. In Tehama County, there is a tree which has borne and ripened two crops of apples this season, and the third crop is now on the tree as large as hickory nuts.-ED.
the enriching element, let common sense dictate its application. First, among other facts, we have a climate unsurpassed in any country or clime. The genial rays of our almost tropical sun produce in abundance the fruits of the most favored regions. Our vines attain a luxuriance unknown elsewhere; our grapes astonish, by their size and delicious flavor, the most experienced growers of other States; besides these, we have lemons, oranges, olives, apples, apricots, aloes, figs, nectarines, plums, pears, peaches, pomegranates, pine apples, quince, raspberry, strawberry and walnuts. The currant of commerce will grow here; so also will cork-wood. Our wine is even now of first quality, what it wants in artistic finish being made up in purity and wholesomeness. We export wine, brandy, corn, hides, wool and salt. We should manufacture and export oil; olives grow here in abundance.”
The table of fruit trees, page 240, exhibits an aggregate of nearly two millions of trees in cultivation during the year 1857; this is exclusive of the grape, strawberries and other small fruits amounting to several millions. The returns from twenty-four counties, for the year 1858, show an increase over 1857 of seventy-five per cent., a ratio of increase that will give as the present stock of the State three and a half millions.* The number of apple is estimated at eight hundred thousand; peach, nearly two millions; and pear, one hundred thousand. The principal fruit growing counties are Sacramento, Los Angeles, Yuba, Napa, Alameda and Santa Clara.
The cultivation of fruit, in the mineral regions, has for the past few years attracted considerable attention, and, as an evidence of what a gold-bearing county can perform in the science of pomology, the following, which were produced in Tuolumne County, one of the richest mineral regions of the State, are referred to: a fig tree, four years from the cutting, seventeen inches round the stem, twenty feet high, and its branches occupying a circumference of forty-five feet; this tree has borne two crops this year. A grape vine, three years old, that will yield eighty pounds of grapes. A tree, three years old, which bore fifty-five apples weighing on an average nine ounces each; and another, not a year old, with two apples ripening on it.
CULTIVATION OF THE GRAPE. The increasing attention bestowed by the people of this State, in the cultivation of the grape and its manufacture into wines and brandies, and the remarkable progress made therein during the past three years, leave but little doubt that these products will soon become one of the most important branches of our resources. No better evidence need be presented of the adaptability of the soil and climate of California, as a wine-growing country, than the fact, that the grape is produced in every section of the State, and in several counties in such variety + and abundance that its manufacture into wines and brandies already engages the attention of a numerous population.
The State of California presents an inviting field to the wine grower, for * Date and Appearance of Fruits at San Francisco. - Apples, June and throughout the year; apri. cots, May to June 15 ; blackberries, June and July ; cherries, June and July ; figs, July to November; gooseberries, May and June; grapes, July to December 15 ; limes, November to January; nectarines, July 15 to August ; oranges, November to March ; peaches, June to November; pears, July to December; plums, June to August; quinces, September to January ; raspberries, May 20 to August 15 ; strawberries, April to December. + In a single vineyard in Sonoma there are to be found nearly three hundred different varieties of
there is probably no country in the world that offers greater advantages for the successful cultivation of the grape and its conversion into wines and brandies. It therefore requires but little application and energy on the part of its enterprising population to secure an annual crop that will not only meet our own wants, but will supply a share of the demand existing abroad. Table exhibiting the Number of Grape Vines in Cultivation in the State of California dur
ing the Years 1856, 1857 and 1858.
125,000 175,000 San Francisco
1,200 1,000 8,000 20,000 San Joaquin.. 13,467 28,640 40,000 45,773 80,707 San L. Obispo 1,500 2,000 10,000 6,465 24,187 San Mateo..... 5,000 40.000 40,000 3,120 4,285 Santa Barbara 15,000 70.000 90,000 34,468 42,640 Santa Clara... 150,000 500,000 513,000
1,050 Santa Cruz.... 5,000 6.179 20,000 26,400 77,472 Shasta ..... 5,348 6,100 25,000 1,000 3,000 Sierra ....
2,000 1.000 2,000 Solano
56,178 50,000 52,869 600,000 1,650,000 Sonoma and 500
Mendocino. 61,590 170,508 87,621 15,227 15,000 Stanislaus ..... 4,426 3,020 1,800 15,000 15.000 Sutter
45,123 135,369 50,000 11,650 50,000 Tehama......
2.000 5,500 55,000 90,000 Trinity
150 1,717 1,151 6,000 8,000 Tulare
400 30,000 5,742 5,000 Tuolumne..... 9.858 29,981 57,526 800 400 | Yolo
26,902 61,903 155,425 119.500 327,900 Yuba.
28,000 30,000 50,000 38,000 75,000 4,0001 50,000 Totals ....... 1,540,134 2,265,062 3,954,548
1,000 10.000 10,000 22,700
Plumas Sacramento... S. Bernardino San Diego .....
The number of vines in cultivation in this State in 1856 was 1,540,134, in 1857, 2,265,062, and in 1858, 3,954,548. Of this number, 1,650,000 are in the county of Los Angeles. The increase from 1856 to 1857 was nearly fifty per cent. ; from 1857 to 1858, seventy-four per cent., and from 1856 to 1858, one hundred and fifty per cent. The arrangements already made for the season of 1859 indicate a large increase, probably of fifty per cent. to the present stock of vines.
The vintage of 1857 amounted to nearly four hundred thousand gallons, —three hundred and eighty-five thousand gallons of wine, and ten thousand gallons of brandies; of this amount, Los Angeles County alone produced over three hundred and fifty thousand gallons, the remainder was manufactured in the counties of Santa Clara, Sonoma, Napa, Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo, Butte, Sutter and El Dorado. The value of the entire crop is estimated at seven hundred and fifty thousand dollars.
The average yield * of each vine is about fourteen pounds (instances are frequent of twenty.five and thirty pounds,) of grapes, the amount necessary to produce a gallon of wine; estimating the yield of the present stock of vines at this rate, and there will be an annual product therefrom, when fully matured, of nearly eight millions of dollars.
* In Santa Barbara there is a single vine which yielded during the year 1858 over two thousand pounds of grapes ; one single stem rises from the ground a distance of five feet, and its branches, supported by poles, cover a very large area ; its trunk at the base measures two feet in circumference. 2. LIVE STOCK.
There are few States of the Union that are better adapted for the raising of stock than California. The extensive tracts of unoccupied land in almost every section of the State are covered, for the greater part of the year, with abundant crops of wild oats and grass, affording an excellent range for stock of every kind. The raising of sheep and the production of wool, have recently attracted the attention of the stock breeders of the State. The immense tracts of grazing lands, and the hills and mountain sides, furnish a rich pasturage for this description of stock for the entire year. A very laudable spirit exists among the agriculturists of the State to improve the character of their stock, and for that purpose a considerable number of the most approved foreign breeds have been imported; the beneficial effects of such a movement are already to be observed in the appearance of the native stock.
Exhibiting the number of Live Stock and Poultry of the State for 1856.
255 1,000 450 358 176
350 450 3,500 330
964 1,916 4,195 1,305 1,400 5001
250 11,220 2,060
450 1,473 3,939 5,030 1,500 1,052
150 5,639 1,558 4,252 3,500 3,437 2,100 2,000 8,000 4,200 1,364 782
55 3,478 3,689 5,590 2,320 1,723 800 239 1,500 1,193 3,500 1,098
2,600 19,331 21,771
5,836 21,300 3,604 4,000 70,584 17,772
2,954 31,726 36.206 22,700 2,500 7,309 1,300 19.841 14,471 30,3831
3,6001 22,745 26,000
5,216 60,000 29,5751 6,7731 4,134
197 22,234 18,710 32,504 12,665 18,983 11,128
93 415 500 468 615 806 232 727
100 2,418 100 158 500 570
95 870 401 2,477 400 298 184 1,061 1,195 1,253
2,013 19,406 3,600 7,063 30,000 4,900 10,5751 9,139 4,932 6,000
10,000 4,000 2,000 3,000 3,000 1,000
824 1,402 2,067 2,10+ 10,080 10,000 5,543 3,850
950 8,852 32,027 437
558 4,000 5,000 10,000 6,973 10,000
5001 5,000 25,000 2,3881
4,929 4,172 3,000
151 2,500 9,500 7,000 20,000 16,886 30,000
976 7,078 10,495 5,242 1,145
9,588 5,000 6,114 13,630 15,000 3,400 4,000
11,235 3,500 8,000 25,000 14,000 1,652 118
1.900 15,113 10,814 3,482 5,536 3,410
3,441 19,000 6,818
209 13,760 5,877
747 437 961
27,241 694,248 253,312
4,544 186,585/ 266,336