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TABLE
Exhibiting the number of Live Stock and Poultry of the State for 1857.

[graphic]

Alameda
Amador..
Butte ......
Calaveras....
Colusa....
Contra Costa......
Del Norte..
El Dorado
Fresno...
Humboldt
Klamath
Los Angeles
Marin
Mariposa..
Merced...
Monterey
Napa
Nevada
Placer...
Plumas....
Sacramento...
San Bernardino
San Diego.
San Francisco...
San Joaquin
San Luis Obispo...
San Mateo
Santa Barbara
Santa Clara....
Santa Cruz...
Shasta......
Sierra
Siskiyou...
Solano....
Sonoma
Stanislaus
Sutter.
Tehama

Trinity.
Tulare..
Tuolumne
Yolo ........
Yuba......

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137,142 30,1781 722,374 298,343 12,743 165,921 553,429 The great increase of stock in this State during the past few years, estab"lishes the fact that in no section of the United States, and perhaps the world, do live stock flourish better than in California. There is no branch of our resources of more importance to the permanent prosperity of the State, than that of stock raising, and every advance made therein not only adds to our present wealth but lays the foundation of our future greatness.

The State Census of 1852 exhibits the live stock of the State as follows, viz: horses, 64,773; mules, 16,578; cattle, 448,796; sheep, 82,867; swine, 38,976; poultry, 96,230. The aggregate number of live stock, exclusive of poultry, in 1856, was 1,272,921; 1857, 1,366, 701; and in 1858, 1,576,980. The returns of 1858 exhibit a slight decrease in the number of mules and swine, and a large increase in the horses, cattle and sheep. The number of poultry in 1858, 839,159.

TABLE

Exhibiting the number of Live Stock and Poultry of the State for 1858.

[graphic]

Alameda....

3,647 376 51,031 13,595 150 1,306 21,539 Amador

1,150 412 4,025 2,983 284 1,772 Butte

2,126 98 21,450 16,000 454 8,603 13,964 Calaveras

1,345 405 7,487 4,588 170 3,020 25,285 Colusa

2,895 322

36,254 14.199 25 11,335 3,822 Contra Costa...

8,936
33.240 17,000

9,800 26,000 Del Norte..

150 1,700
1,500 600

4 1,000 1,700 El Dorado....

1,002 428 6,979 1,514 146 1,817) 9,055 Fresno......

1,200 169 15,650 5,000 200 1,084 3,200 Humboldt

825 610 9,500 500 50 2,800 7,375 Klamath 82 951 535

12 517

1,200 Los Angeles..

9,602 570 40,050 20,910 850 670 24,221 Marin

3,410

23,268 4,900 250 400 4,000 Mariposa

520 230 3,001 2,000 25 800 4,075 Merced 3,300 400 21,200 4,000

1,000 7,274 Monterey

6,355 282 51,244 74,339 400 1.609 71,066 Napa.......

4,800 612 32,371 11,515 100 9,275 60,000 Nevada....

936
240 2,608 400

1,973 Placer*

960 373 4,353 3,835 861 4,763 8,924 Plumas 303 496 5,117

619 Sacramento.....

6,693 1,105 33,008 12,824 7361 8,115 41,186 San Bernardino*

1,708 185 9,712 2,455 464 402 3,000 San Diego.. 7,000 850 20,000 25,000

500 San Francisco...

4,500 100 3,000 1,000 300 5,000 5,000 San Joaquin.. 5,609 1,811 31,584 18,085

4,080 7,089 18,746 San Luis Obispo*. 2,000 170 4,000 10,000

700 1,000 San Mateo* 3,000 40 7,500 8,000

2,500 5,000 Santa Barbara.

10,000

75,000 35,000 200 1,000 25,000 Santa Clara....

6,804 350 35,967 18,000 565 2,959 38,000 Santa Cruz.

3,052 125 9,041

2,500
110 1,500

4,000 Shasta 914 337 7,801 650

38

6,476 6,661 Sierra 240 542 438 175

37 557 5,025 Siskiyou 1,594 1,227 22,908 1,975 200

3,070 250.000 Solano*

3,986

568

19,814 18,103 547 7,684 30,000 Sonoma and Mendocino... 11,511 454 49,850 9,204 911 11,190

52,888 Stanislaus .....

2,087 158 19,400 16,295 100 721 3,150 Sutter...

2,428
1,038 28,749 13,231 56 5,610

9,318 Tehama.... 2,092 1,175 18,285 6,943 15 7,477

9,845 Trinity

160 590 1,511

156
16 683

10,000 Tulare.. 26,068 177 23,400 3,260 20

4,292 Tuolumne

984 479 3,095 645 475 1,098 Yolo

3,555
351 13,562 10,957

4,047 18,114 Yuba....

1,275

6,154 5,573 100 4,110 2,653 Totals...

160,804 20,506 814,642 417,909 12,176 150,943 839,159) SHEEP.—The number of sheep in the State in 1856 was 253,312; in 1857, 298,343, and in 1858, 417,909. The increase since 1857, is 119,566 or 40 per cent.

The accession since the returns of 1858 were made up, will increase this number to over 500,000. The remarkable increase of sheep during the past few years, is the best evidence of the adaptation of the soil and climate of this state to the rearing of this description of stock. A large number of the choicest foreign breeds have been imported, and every effort is being made by our enterprising agriculturists, not only to augment the present stock, but to improve its quality. In speaking of this department of stock-raising, the editor of the California Culturist, says:

"There is no branch of our husbandry engaging the attention of our herdsmen, at the present time, that promises better for the future, than the raising of sheep. Large numbers are annually required for the shambles, more, even, than can at present be spared from our own flocks; most of such as

* Returns from private sources.

pass to the butcher, are supplied from northern Mexico, and not a few are annually driven over the plains from the Western States, at a large profit on their cost. From the latter, are principally made up the flocks of breeders, that here and there throughout the State, at no distant day, will have expanded into herds that would do no discredit to older States than ours.

Already we have flocks varying in numbers from 500 to 5,000 choice ewes, kept purposely for breeding, and which money could hardly buy, so highly are they valued. And rightly are they prized, for the proprietor sees in his flock of 100 or 1,000 good ewes, a property that will annually net him 100 per cent. This in any other country than California, would be deemed a valuable property, a satisfactory investment.

It is not unusual for 100 ewes, in California, to present their annual increase of 110, 120, and even as high as 130 lambs. This more than doubles the flock in numbers, whilst the wool more than pays all the expenses of care and keeping for the year. The great item in favor of the California sheep raiser, over that of the Eastern, is found in the little comparative cost of feeding, summer and winter. No hay is necessarily prepared for the winter, and the mildness of the climate renders it unnecessary to provide costly shelter for the animals or their food. Nature supplies them both to the fullest extent; all man has to do is to avail himself of her prodigality.

There is not a doubt but that the climate of California will prove highly favorable to the growth of the finer grades of wool, and as the size of the animal of all breeds yet introduced is actually increased, either from the influence of food or climate, there seems nothing in the way of making wool one of the great and permanent exports of our State. All who have given their attention to sheep husbandry admit it to be among the best paying of all their attempts at animal raising.”

TABLE Exhibiting the number of Live Stock, the Wheat, Barley, Oats and Wine, pro

duced by the different States, according to the Census of 1850.

Horses. Mules.

177

LIVE STOOK.

AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS.
STATE.
Asses.

Bushels Bushels Bushels Galls.
Cattle. Sheep. Swine.

Wheat. Barley. Oats. Wine. Alabama 128,001| 59,895 728,015 371,880 1,904,540 294,044 3,958 2,965,696 220 Arkansas 60,197 11,559 292,710 91,256 836,727 199,639

656,183 35 California.. 21,719 1,666 262,659 17,554 2,776 17,228

9,712

58,055 Connecticut. 26,879 49 212,675 174,181 76,472 41,762 19,099 1,258,738 4,269 Delaware 13,852 791

53,211 27,503 56,261 482,511 56 604,518 145 Florida 10,848 5,002 261,085 23,311 209, 453 1,027

66,586 10 Georgia, 151,331 57,379 1,097,528 560,435 2,168,617 1,088,534

11,501 3,820,044 796 Illinois.. 267,653 10,573 912,036 894,043 1,915,907 9,414,575 110,795 10,087,241 2,997 Indiana

314,299 6,599 714,666 1,122,493 2,263,776 6,214,458 45,483 5,655,014 14,055 Iowa..

38,536 754 136,621 149,960 323, 247) 1,530,581 25,093 1,524,345 4201 Kentucky 315,682 65,609 752,512 1,102,091 2,891, 163 2,142,822 95,343 8,201,311 8,093 Louisiana 89,514 44,849 575,342 110,333 597,301 417

89,637 15 Maine.

41,721 55 343,339 451,577 54,598 296,259 151,731 2,181,037 724 Maryland 75,684 5,644 219,586 177,902 352,911 4,494,680 745 2,242, 151 1,434 Massachusetts 42,216 34 259,994 188,651 81,119 31,211 112,385 1,165, 146 4.688 Michigan 58,506 70 274,497 746,435 205,847 4,925,889

75,249

2,866,056 1,654 Mississippi ... 115,460 54,547 733,970 304,929 1,582, 734 137,990 228 1,503,288 407 Missouri 225, 319 41,667 791,510 762,511 1,702,625 2,981,652 9,631 5,278,079 10,563 N. Hampshire 34,233 19 267,910 384,756 63,487 185,658 70,256 973,381 344) New Jersey. 63,955 4,089

211,261 160,488 250,370 1,601, 190 6,492 3,378,063 1,811 New York 447,014 963 1,877.639 3,453,241 1,018,252 13,121,498 3,585,059 26,552,814 9,172 N. Carolina.. 148,693 25,259 693,510 595,249 1,812,813 2,130,102 2,735 4,052,078 11,058 Ohio..

463,397 3,423 1,358,947 3,942,929 1,964,770 14,487,351 354,358 13,472,742 48,207 Pennsylvania 350,398 2,259 1,153,946 1,822,357 1,040,366 15,367,691 165,584 21,538,156 25,590 Rhode Island 6,168 36,262 44,296 19,509

49 18,875 215,232 1,013 s. Carolina... 97,171) 37,483 777,686 285,551 1,065,503 1,066,277 4,583 2,322, 155 5,880 Tennessee 270,636 75,303 750,762 811,591 3,104,800 1,619,386 2,737 7,703,086 921 Texas.

76,760 12,463 930, 114 100,530 692,022 41,729 4,776 199,017 99 Vermont 61,057

348,848 1,014, 122 66,296 535,955 42,150 2,307,734 659 Virginia 272,403 21,483 1,076,269 1,310,004 1,829,843 11.212,616 25,437 10,179, 144 5,408 Wisconsin, 30,179 156 183,433 124,896 159,276 4,286, 131 209,692 3,414,672 113

Totals. 14,319,481|549,861 18,288,54321,327,05530,313,381/99,950,912 5,163, 920/146,473,344 218,026

218

HORSES.—The number of horses, 1858, is 160,804, an increase over 1857 of 23,662, or 18 per cent.

CATTLE.—The number of cattle in this State in 1858, as reported by the returns of 1858, is 814,642,* an increase over 1857 of 92,268, or 12) per cent. The most extensive cattle-raising districts in the State are the counties of Santa Barbara, Monterey, Alameda, Los Angeles and Sonoma.

Wool.—The returns from twenty-seven counties, for 1858, exhibit a product of 957,823 pounds of wool; the remainder of the State will increase this amount to 1,250,000 pounds.

HIDES.—The number of hides exported during the present year, is estimated at 150,000, of which about one-third are received from the Mexican ports and Oregon. A large number of hides are annually manufactured into leather in this State, which render it difficult to obtain even an approximation to the actual yield.

II.- MINERALS.

The State of California, throughout its entire length and breadth, abounds in mineral wealth. The developments daily made, prove that the treasures of its soil are as yet unrevealed ; and that industry and well directed efforts alone are necessary to bring them forth from their hidden depths.

1, GOLD.

THE GOLD REGION AND ITS EXTENT. The gold region of California extends from the Oregon line, north, to Kern River, south, a distance of four hundred and sixty miles in length, by from ten to one hundred and fifty miles in width. Mining, at the present time, is successfully prosecuted in twenty-five counties of the State. The aggregate area in which gold is known to exist, is variously estimated at from eleven to fifteen thousand square miles.

Dr. Trask, State Geologist, in his report of the mineral districts of the State, classifies the gold region into three distinct ranges. The Upper, or Eastern Range; the Middle Placers and the Valley Mines.

"EASTERN RANGE.—This district extends from near the summit ridge of the mountains to within about twenty-five miles of the edge of the plains. It maintains a very uniform breadth of about twenty miles, and a length of one hundred and thirty, as far as known. It covers an area equal to about three thousand square miles, a large proportion of which is available as mining grounds.

In this district is situated the major part of what is known as 'Dry Diggings,' which include the towns of Forest City on the north, and Placerville on the south. At the present time there is but a comparatively small portion of this district occupied and improved. Admitting, that of the area included within the lines of this district, but one-third of the same may be considered as containing placer deposits, we shall have for the immediately available purposes of mining an area equal to one thousand square miles.

* Compiled from the Assessors' Returns of thirty-six counties, and seven estimated. From our correspondents in several of the heaviest cattle raising districts, wo are satisfied that these figures are too low and that the aggregate of the State is not less than 920,000 head.—[ED.

+ In the preparation of these descriptions, much important information has been extracted from the valuable reports upon the geology of the State, made to the State Legislature in 1853–256, by Dr. Trask, State Geologist.-[ED.

A glance at the entire area which is now in actual occupancy on this range and employed as mines in active operation, will convince those acquainted with the district, that but a very small fraction of the available territory is as yet opened or in any manner improved. It is estimated, that twenty square miles will cover that area, and even this may be considered a large figure for the grounds so improved; amounting to two per cent. only, of the lowest aggregate that can be placed upon the unoccupied district of the range. It is doubted whether there are men enough in this State (aside from those required for the transaction of other departments of business) to occupy and improve even one-half of the available mining lands that lie in the four middle mining counties of the State which at the present time is untouched; for it is pretty well ascertained, that the absolute amount of ground in fourteen of the mining counties, now under improvement for those purposes, does not exceed five hundred square miles. The amount of territory in each county which is unoccupied forms a heavy aggregate against the other.

Of the eastern range of placers, there are wide districts intervening between the settlements on the range, and an approximate idea may be obtained of the extent of these placers, by citing districts that are well known, which will convey at the same time a better conception of the proportions occupied and the reverse.

The counties of Placer and El Dorado are fair examples of this district; they lie adjoining each other, and are situated nearly in the middle of the State, and of the range. The deep workings of the above counties extend north and south for a distance (air line) of thirty-three miles, the North Fork of the American being one boundary, and the mountains and its tributaries being the other on the south; the breadth included in the above line and extending east and west, is about fourteen miles.

The area of the eastern range in these counties, alone, amounts to four hundred and sixty-two miles, nearly one half of the aggregate amount for the State as belonging to this particular range of deposits; and when we recollect that there are four additional counties through which their placers are found, the estimate of one thousand square miles will not be considered as excessive.

To those who are acquainted with the section alluded to, I have no hesitancy in submitting the above figures, for there is no object to be attained in presenting a fancy sketch of our available resources. We may draw upon facts, for many years to come, in regard to matters of this character, for the mining districts are possessed of an ample fund for that purpose.

It must not be understood that the deep diggings' of this district are the only resources attainable, or that they constitute the only deposits of gold in the range, for it is far otherwise. The entire surfaces of this range are productive of this metal; it was from the surface washings of portions belonging to this district of the State, that a large proportion of the gold was obtained during the earlier periods of mining. These placers still continue to yield profitable returns for labor, though long since, they were among the old workings which were considered exhausted. The returns from these old placers, at the present time, are attributable to the improved methods of mining that have been introduced subsequent to their first becoming abandoned, and the greater care which is now bestowed in washing the earth.

The placer miner of the present day will not exhaust the same quantity of ground that he would have done in 1850 or 1851, and at the same time ob

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