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II.-LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE.

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LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE
Of the Principal Points on the Pacific Coast, determined by George Davidson, U.S. Coast Survey.

Longitude.
No. Name of Station.

Locality.
Latitude.

Mag. V'n. Time of De

In Time. In Arc. East. termination.
COAST OF CALIFORNIA.

D. M. S. H. M. S. D. M. S. D. M.
1. . Point Loma Light-House. San Diego Bay

32 40 13:07 48 49 5117 12 22 12 29 April, 1851 2. .SAN DIEGO.. Observatory Hill, near La Playa.

32 41 58.0 7 48 53.5 117 13 22
3. .San Clemente..

North Anchorage of Island, Santa Barbara Channel.. 33 (00) 7 54 15.7 118 33 55
4. . San Nicolas,
South

33 14 12 9 7 57 39.6 119 24 54
5. . Santa Catalina..
North

33 26 347 7 53 54 6 118 28 39
6. . San Pedro
Edge of Bluff at Landing,

33 43 19 6 7 53 042 118 16 03
7. .Prisoner's Harbor.
Island of Santa Cruz,

34 01 10 2 7 58 40 0 119 40 00
8. . Cuyler's Harbor.
Island of San Miguel,

34 (00) 8 01 21.4 120 20 21
9. . Santa Barbara...
At Landing,

34 24 24.7 7 58 41.0 119 40 15
10. . Point Conception Light-House.. Point Conception,

34 26 47.9 8 01 45 7 120 26 25
11. . POINT CONCEPTION
Valley of " El Coxo,"

34 26 56.3 8 01 42.2 120 25 33 13 50 August, 1850
12. . San Luis Obispo.
Beach west of Creek

35 10 37.5 8 02 54.1 120 43 31
13. .San Simeon.
Near the Landing.

35 38 24 4 8 04 41.5121 10 22
14..POINT PINOS
Near Monterey, Monterey Bay

36 37 59.9 8 07 377 121 54 25 14 58

1851
15.. Santa Cruz..
At Embarcadero,

36 57 26.9 8 08 007 122 00 10
16. . South Farralone.

Off the
entrance to San Francisco Bay

37 41 43 7 8 11 57.2122 59 18
17.. Point Lobos...
South Head of entrance to San Francisco Bay

37 47 12-08 09 56.4 122 29 06
18..PRESIDIO.
Near Presidio of San Francisco ..

37 47 36.1 8 09 45.0 122 26 15 15 27 April, 1852
19.. TELEGRAPH HILL.
Near McGregor's Observatory ...

37 47 (55) 8 09 30.7 122 22 54
20..Fort Point...
South side of entrance to San Francisco Bay

37 48 27 1 8 09 503 122 27 35
21.. Point Bonita
North Head

37 49 10 0 8 10 03:4122 30 50
22. . Punta de los Reyes
Sir Francis Drake's Bay.

37 59 33 8 8 11 490 122 57 15
23. Bodega.
Bodega Bay, west end of Sand Spit

38 18 103 8 12 07.9 123 01 59
24. . Haven's Anchorage.
On Bluff near Landing

38 47 59 4 8 14 13.3 123 33 20
25. . Mendocino City.

39 18 07.1 8 15 09.7 123 47 26 26.. Shelter Cove..

46

40 01 14 1 8 16 12 2 124 03 03 27. HUMBOLDT. Red Bluff, Humboldt Bay.

39 2 8 (40)

1854 28. Bucksport

Town of Bucksport, Humboldt Bay. 29. Trinidad. Town of Trinidad, Trinidad Bay.

41 03 18 1 8 16 26.1 24 06 32 30. Crescent City. At Indian Village, Battery Point..

41 44 410 8 16 43.0 24 10 45

:::::
COAST OF OREGON.
31.. Port Orford..
In Town of Port Orford

42 (44) 8 17 52.8 24 28 12
32. PORT ORFORD.
On Point west of Town.

42 44 21 71 8 17 55.2 24 28 47 18 29 Nov.

1851
33. . Umpqua:
One mile from entrance of River

43 41 46 6 8 16 39 81 24 09 57
34. Astor Point.
Near Astoria, Columbia River

46 11 276 8 15 18.4 23 49 32
35..Point Adams.
South side of entrance to Columbia River

46 12 304 8 15 14.71 23 56 56
COAST OF WASHINGTON.
36.. CAPE DISAPPOINTMENT. North side of entrance to Columbia River.

46 16 35 2 8 16 08.024 02 00 20 45 July, 1851 37. .CAPE FLATTERY Nee-ah Bay, Strait of San Juan de Fuca.

48 21 49 21 8 18 28 81 24 37 12 21 30 August, 1852 38. False Dungeness

Head of Bay,

44

48 07 515 8 13 49.41 23 27 21

66 39. Point Hudson... Port Townsend,

48 07 02:51 8 11 002 22 45 03 40..Lummi

Sand Spit on N. E. side of the Island, Rosario Strait. 48 44 01-01 8 10 43 88 22 40 57

Jan'y,

NOTE.-Primary astronomical stations in SMALL CAPITALS ; the series of observations at these stations extend through not less than two or three lunations. Positions determined by trigonometrical connection with astronomical stations, in Italics. All other determinations by chronometric connection with primary astronomical stations for longitude, and independent observations for latitude. The localities of the astronomical stations and observatories can be more definitely determined by

reference to the published maps, etc.

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III.-TIDES AT SAN FRANCISCO, CAL.

[By Prof. A. D. Bache, Superintendent U.S. Coast Survey.] Besides the ordinary changes in the time and hight of the tides known to all navigators, it is important to note the following, generally applicable to the Western Coast, and particularly to San Francisco Bay. They relate to peculiarities in the tides which occur on the same day, the necessity for knowing which is shown by the fact that a rock having three and a half feet of water upon it at low tide, may, on the same day, at the succeeding low water, be awash:

1. The tides at Rincon Point, in San Francisco Bay, consist generally of a large and small tide on the same day; so that of two successive bigh waters in the twenty-four hours, one is much higher than the other, and of the two successive low waters, one is much lower than the other.

2. The difference in hight of two successive tides, either high or low waters, varies with the moon's declination. When the declination is nothing, the difference is nothing or very small. When the declination is greatest, whether North or South, the difference is greatest. When the moon's declination is nearly nothing, the intervals between two successive high, or two successive low waters, are nearly twelve hours, and differ most from this when the moon's declination is greatest.

3. The inequalities in the hights of successive low waters are more considerable than those of successive high waters; while, on the contrary, the inequalities in the times high water are more marked than those of low.

4. The average difference between the hights of two successive high waters is one foot four and a half inches, and of two successive low waters two feet four inches. The average difference of these same hights, when the moon's declination is greatest, is for the successive high waters two feet, and for the low waters three feet six inches.

5. The average variation from twelve hours, in the interval between two successive high waters, is three-quarters of an hour, and between two successive low waters, half an hour. The average variations of the same intervals when the moon is furthest from the Equator, are, respectively, one hour, and three-quarters of an hour.

6. When the moon's declination is North, the higher of the two high tides of the twenty-four hours is the one which occurs about eleven and a half hours after the moon crosses the meridian ; and when the moon's declination is South, the one which occurs about one and a half hours after the moon's

meridian passage.

6. Bis. Or, the following rule may be used, which applies when the moon crosses the meridian between midnight and 111 A. M., or between noon and 11] P. M.

If the moon is South of the Equator and passes the meridian in the morning, the high water will be higher than the afternoon high water; if it passes the meridian in the afternoon, the afternoon high water will be the higher.

If the moon is North of the Equator, and passes the meridian in the morning, the afternoon high water will be the higher.

7. The lower of the two successive low waters of the twenty-four hours, occurs about seven hours after the higher of the two high waters.

8. The average difference between the hight of the higher high water and of the lower low water, is five feet eleven and a half inches, and the greatest difference is seven feet ten inches.

The above rules were drawn up so as to avoid technical terms.

IV. METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS, MADE AT SAN FRANCISCO, FROM JANUARY, 1851, TO JANUARY, 1858.

[By Henry Gibbons, M. D.] Most of the subjoined tables explain themselves sufficiently. Those relating to rain being of the greatest interest and importance to California, are given in detail. Table 6 shows every rain that has fallen since 1850. December appears to have been the most rainy month, but there is one day, the 8th of December, on which no rain fell in the entire period of seven years. A marked abatement of rain is observable from about the middle of January to the middle of February. One-third of the average yearly rain falls before the first of January, one-third in January and February, and the remaining third subsequent to the first of March. March and April supply nearly as much rain as any other two months. In 1853, there was nearly five inches in April, and in 1855 upwards of five and a half inches. In the latter year more than two inches fell in May.

1. TABLE OF MEAN TEMPERATURE, Showing the Mean Temperature of each Month at Sunrise and at Noon, and the Mean of the

extremes for each Month, from 1851 to 1857, inclusive; also, the Mean Temperature for each Year.

Sunrise.

Noon.

Mean of Extremes. 1851 1852 1853 1854 1855 1856 1857 1851 1852 1853 1854 1855 1856 1857 1851 1852 1853 1854, 1555 1856 1857

J 417 44.6 47.642-344-7134 15.7 56.9 57.056.5 64.2 57.354 1 56 7 19 3 508 52 0 48 251.0 48.8512
F 42 0 457 48.2 47.9 50.3 47.3 46.1 60 000 460.159.2 63.3601 56.661.0 53 154 153 6 56.8 53.7 51.4
M44.0 45.2 49.6 47.251.8 479 49 163 7 60-762-161.067.0 63.9 627 53.852.9 55.9 54.7 59.4 55.9 55.9
A 48.2 45.4517 51.1 50-6 487 514 67.3 65.4618 68 4 64.963.1 66.1 57 -7 55'458 3598 57 7 55'9 58.8
M 49.6 47.853.4 49.050-1 49 350-564-362-368.0 64-664-463 364 657.0 55.1 60-756 8157 .7'56-357.5
J 50 951-952-7 50 1 52.0 50 9 53 466-7 68 9171.166.8 67.967 368-5 58 860-461.958 459.959-161.0
J 51.5 53:1 52 5519 519 52 052-664-369-7168.170.667-566.865 7 57.961:4 603613 61.2 59.4 59 2
A 55 -053.652-952-455 352-952-5 69.4 68.7 67.0 68 369 666 3 65-662.2 61.2 60.060.4 62.5 596 59 1
S 54.0 52.955:1 53-355-053 952-569.3 73.470 267.769 969 1 69.061.6 63.1 62 7 60 562 4 61.5 607
0 53 450.0 54.6 53.3 54.850-152-6 70-467.470.9 68168 365.1 68.7 61.9 587 62-760-761.6 57.6 60-6
N 53.4 49.8|5095)*7 46.6 47.4 46-663-6 61:363-065:1 59.2 59.3 62.5 56.3 55.5 57.0 57.952 953-3 54 5
D 461 462 467 47 0 433 42 0 42 9 56.6 55'4 57.460.7 52.2 52 056 251:3 50 852 153 8 47.8 47.0 49.5

M 488 489151 349 7150.8 49 350.564 464 2164964.664.462-663 6 56.6156.558.157.1 576 560 570

2. TABLE OF CLOUD AND MIST FOR 1857, Showing the proportionate Time in each Month when the Sky was clear and Cloudy, given in

Days; the number of Days when the Sky was clear, from Sunrise to Sunset, and the number Cloudy; the number of Days on which Rain fell, and the number of Days on which there was more or less Mist.

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3. TABLE OF WINDS FOR 1857. The direction of the Wind is noted three times a Day, so that three Observations in the Table

are equal to one Day. The proportion of Land Winds and Sea Winds is given in
Days, the Land Winds being from N. W. to E., and the Sea Winds from S. E. to W.
The number of Days when the Wind was high is given in the last Column.
Three Observations Daily.

Days.
MONTHS.

N. N. E E. S.E. s. s. w. W. N. W. Land. Sea. High.

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4. TABLE OF EXTREMES OF HEAT AND COLD, Showing the greatest degree of Heat and the greatest degree of Cold in each Month, from

December, 1850, to July, 1858.

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From the foregoing table it appears that the greatest degree of cold at San Francisco, in seven years, was twenty-five degrees, or seven below the freezing point. This may be set down as nearly the extreme cold ever felt here. In three of the years the mercury did not fall to the freezing point. In 1853 the lowest point was eight degrees above freezing.

The extreme of heat was ninety-eight degrees—a very unusual temperature for San Francisco, though much below the greatest heat in the interior. In 1856 the highest temperature was eighty-five, and in 1851 the thermomoter did not rise above eighty-four.

5. TABLE OF COMPARATIVE RAINS, Showing the amount of Rain fallen at stated times, in every Rainy Season from 1850 to 1858;

four stated Periods in each Month being given.

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1851. 1852. 1853. 1854. 1855. 1856. 1857.

1858. 2.85 10:49 18:18 3.68 6.75 6.22 8.36 8:11 8.01 2.85 10.49 21:46 6:38 7.20 9.47 8.40 9.64 9.67 2.85 10.49 21:46 7.71

7.22 11.65 9:36 12:44 10.40 2.95 11.97 21:59 7.95 7.52 14.66 9:36 12:44 11:06 3.05 12:02 21:59 9.00 7.69 14.691 10:33 12:47) 11.34 3:05 12:02 21:59 10.45 8:19 14.69 11.68 12.82 11.81 3.20 12.04 21.59 11:48 8:19 15.09 14:55 14:27 12:56 3.30 12.09 22.75 15.46 12.23) 15:09 17.89 14.27 14.15 3.30 16.79 22.75 15.66 13.81 15.09 18.44 14.27) 15:01 3.30 17.95 23.711 18.43 14.24) 16.04 18.60 14:79 15.88 4.05 17.95 23.71 18.56 14.24 16.04 18.94 15.10 16:07 5:18 18.49 27:56 18.63 16.54 16.93 20:16 19.92 17.93 5.67 18.49 27.56 18.63 16.61 16.99 20:16 21:33 18:18 6.12 18:49 28.68 18.92 21.67| 19:22 20:16 21:47) 19.34 6.32 18.64 32:19 19.62 22.07) 19.22 20:16 21:47 20:21 6.32 18.68 32-34 21.94 22:13) 19.87] 20:16 21:47 20.61 6.32 18.68 32:37 21.94 22:13) 19.87 20:16 21.47 20.62 6.32 18.68 32.65 21.94 23.87) 19.87 20:20 21:47 20:87 7.01 18.98 32.65 21.94 24.27) 20.63 20:20 21.81 20.94 7.01 18.98 32.69 21.94 24.27) 2071 20.22 21.81 20.951

..23 ..31

April .7

..15 ..23 ..30

May ..7

15 .23 31

6. TABLE OF DAILY RAINS, Showing the Date and Amount of every Rain from Summer of 1850 to Summer of 1858.

Date 1850 1851 1852 1853 1854|1855 1856|1857|To'l | Date. 1850 1851 1852 1853 1854 1855 1856 1857|Tool Sept.7

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