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The whole hight is twenty-six hundred feet ;* its first leap is over fifteen hundred feet, the stream then runs foaming and roaring down a stony, deep channel, and then makes a leap of five hundred feet until it reaches a perpendicular hight of six hundred feet above the valley, where it splashes or rather drags itself down the side of the rocks, into its wide basin below. The rapids between these falls are nearly three-quarters of a mile in width.

Mammoth Tree Grove.—The valley in which these trees are situated, is about midway between Mariposa and the Yo Semite Valley. The grove consists of three hundred and seventy-five trees, of which nearly one hundred and fifty are over forty feet in circumference; the largest measuring one hundred and two feet. There is a portion of a monster tree lying on the ground which is estimated to have been, when standing, over four hundred feet in hight, and one hundred and twenty feet in circumference, the largest tree yet discovered.

Finances, May, 1858.-Funded debt, $10,334, ten per cent. ; floating, $21,492 ; interest on registered portion, ten per cent; cash in Treasury, $2,787 79; actual debt, $29,038 21; receipts for fiscal year, $34,000; expenditures, same period, $24,000.

Attorneys.—Mariposa : S. B. Alison, H. Clark, Nicholas Cleary, R. H. Daly, Alex'r Deering, B. B. Harris, Samuel A. Merritt, L. W. Talbott, A. F. Washburn, H. G. Worthington.

Physicians.—Bear Valley: Dr. Moore, Dr. Riddle; Coulterville: Dr. Thompson; Hornitos: A. D. Boyce, H. S. Brockway, Dr. Lewis, Dr. MacCaffrey, E. S. Prescott, Dr. Rhidenaugh; Mariposa City: J. L. Clarke, W. D. Cowan, A. J. Grandvoinet, W. S. Kavanaugh.


Mendocino County was created by act of the Legislature, 1850, but has not as yet been organized. Boundaries: North by Humboldt, east by Colusa and Napa, south by Sonoma and the Pacific Ocean and west by the Pacific Ocean.

Topography.—There is a large extent of land in this county well adapted for agricultural and grazing purposes. The growth of timber is very abundant; principally oak, redwood and pine. Many of the trees will measure from fifty to seventy-five feet in circumference. Number of acres in cultivation, two thousand five hundred.

This county, for judicial and election purposes is attached to Sonoma County.

Agricultural Resources. There are some of the most productive farms in the State to be seen in this county; every description of produce is raised in abundance. Products: Wheat, 502 acres; barley, 250 acres ; oats, 212 acres;

* The Horse Shoe Falls of Niagara are 150 feet perpendicular by 700 feet broad; the fall on the American side is 164 feet perpendicular by 1,050 feet broad.—[ED.

† The agricultural products, etc., of this county are included in the aggregates of Sonoma, but as they have been reported separately, we have arranged them under their proper head. -[Ep.


rye, 315 acres; beans, 87 acres; potatoes, 169 acres; hay, 256 acres, 300 tuns; vegetables, 125 acres.

Fruit Trees.-Apple, 1,492 ; pear, 62; cherry, 14; grape, 3,160.

Live Stock.- Horses, (American,) 353, (Spanish,) 5,470, total, 5,823 ; mules, 95; cattle, (American,) 4,720, (Spanish,) 5,652, oxen, 500—total, 10,872; sheep, 1,433; goats, 15; swine, 2,053.

Manufactures.-Grist mills, 2-water; run of stone, 3; saw mills, 4-water; run of saws, 67; lumber sawed per day, 80,000 feet.

Mineral Springs.—There are several mineral springs, yielding large quantities of carbonate of soda; they also emit carbonic acid gas.

Indian Reservation.— The Mendocino Reservation is located in this county, and there are now gathered thereon several hundred Indians, who appear to be well satisfied and contented with the provisions made by the Federal Government for their care and protection.*

Population.—Number of men, 979; women, 238; children, 254; Indians, 3,820.

Taxable Property.—Assessed value of property, $974,501.


COUNTY SEAT-SNELLING'S. Merced County, organized 1855. Boundaries: North by Stanislaus and Tuolumne, east by Mariposa, South by Fresno and west by Santa Clara.

Topography. The land in this county is well adapted for agricultural and grazing purposes, but a small portion thereof is mineral. Timber is generally found in abundance in the vicinity of the streams, and it consists of oak and willow, with a small proportion of ash of an inferior quality. Number of acres in cultivation, seventeen hundred and fifty.

Legal Distances.-From Sacramento, one hundred and fifteen miles; from Stockton, seventy miles, and from San Quentin, two hundred miles.





Term Expires Salary.

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County Judge.... J. W. Fitzhugh... Snelling's.
District Attorney. Wm. M. Stafford..
County Clerk.. E. G. Rector...

George Turner

G. W. Holstead.

Wm. C. Hoge Merced River
Surveyor. Erastus Kelsey.

Pub. Administrator
Sup. Com. Schools. B. F. Howell..... Snelling's.


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* For description of this reservation, see p. 135.

Thirteenth Judicial District.Hon. Nicholas Cleary, Judge District Court. Sessions, first Monday in February, June and October.

Sixth Senatorial District.–Senator: Hon. Samuel A. Merritt; term expires January, 1861.

Members of Assembly.-Hons. A. J. Gregory and G. H. Crenshaw.

Agricultural Products.—Wheat, 600 acres, 12,000 bushels; barley, 1,000 acres, 25,000 bushels; oats, 5 acres, 100 bushels; corn, 100 acres, 3,000 bushels; beans, 200 acres, 4,080 bushels; onions, 10 acres, 500 bushels; hay, 300 acres, 300 tuns; broom corn, 4 acres, 8,000 pounds; cheese, 2,000 pounds; eggs, 20,000 dozen ; wool, 10,000 pounds.

Fruit Trees.— Apple, 3,510; peach, 3,290; pear, 395; plum, 200; cherry, 100; nectarine, 50; quince, 50; apricot, 250 ; fig, 100; almond, 50. Vines; Strawberry, 5,000; grape, 15,000.

Every description of fruit appears to thrive well, peach trees often producing fruit in two years from the seed.

Live Stock.—Horses, (American,) 300, (Spanish, tame,) 1,000, (Spanish, wild,) 2,000—total number of horses, 3,300; mules, 300; asses, 100; stock cattle, (including cows and calves,) 20,000, beef cattle, 1,000, oxen, 200—total number of cattle, 21,200; sheep, 4,000; hogs, 1,000; poultry, 7,274.

Stock raising is an important pursuit with many of the citizens, and it will not be many years before this county will be second to no other in this branch of business.

Manufactures.—Number of grist mills, 3—water; total run of stone, 5; assessed value, $8,000.

Bridges and Ferries.-Number of bridges, 1, value, $10,000; ferries, 2, value, $3,000.

Finances.-Floating debt, $4,000, cash in treasury, $400 — total debt, $3,600; receipts for past fiscal year, $5,600 ; expenditures same period, $5,950; assessed value of property, $769,687.

Attorneys.-Forlorn Hope; J. W. Smith; Merced Falls: R. B. Hall; Merced River: S. H. P. Ross; Snelling's: L. W. Talbot.

Physicians.—Mariposa Creek: John W. Bradford ; Merced River: Wm. J. Barfield, Joshua Griffith ; Snelling's: J. W. Fitzhugh, David C. McCroskey.


COUNTY SEAT-MONTEREY. Monterey County, organized 1850. Boundaries: North by Santa Clara and Santa Cruz, east by the Coast Range, south by San Luis Obispo and west by the Pacific Ocean.

Topography.—This county is principally a stock-raising district. There is an abundance of timber, consisting of pine, redwood, ash and a species of white oak-nearly as firm as the best of the Eastern States. It is estimated that within the limits of the county, there are about two hundred and fifty thousand acres of land susceptible of cultivation, a large part of which, including the valleys of Pajaro, San Juan, Carmelo, and the northern portion of the Salinas, is of the finest quality. Number of acres in cultivation, two thousand nine hundred and fifty-four.


Legal Distances.-From Sacramento, two hundred and forty-five miles ; from Stockton, two hundred and forty-five miles, and from San Quentin, one hundred and thirty miles.


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Third Judicial District.Hon. Sam Bell McKee, Judge District Court. Sessions, fourth Monday in April, August and December.

County Courts.—Terms of the Court of Sessions: First Monday of February, April, June, August, October and December. County Court and Probate Court immediately thereafter. Special terms whenever necessary.

Third Senatorial District.–Senator: Hon. D. S. Gregory; term expires January, 1860.

Member of Assembly.-Hon. M. Malarin.

History.The following interesting description of this county, is taken from the report of J. R. Porter, Esq., County Assessor, 1856:

"Its chief tropical characteristic is the Salinas Plain, which opens at the bay of Monterey and runs up to near the mission of San Miguel, a distance of some ninety miles in length, and in breadth from two to ten miles; it contains some two hundred thousand acres of good agricultural lands, the remainder is excellent pasture for horn stock, horses and sheep.

The valley of San Juan Bautista, and that portion of Gilroy belonging to the county, comprise some of the most fertile and salubrious lands in the State. The plain lands of the county are divided into about seven ranchos, which at present are mostly used for pasture. The Coast Range of mountains contains, also, its sub-valleys, which are in every respect admirably situated for the raising of stock for the supply of the southern gold mines, and these tracts have been more settled this year than before—many rancheros driving their stock from the western plains, and pasturing on the rich grasses of these sub-valleys and mountain slopes, and which have very materially assisted to keep the stock of the county in condition this year. These subvalleys of the Coast Range are better adapted for sheep raising than any other portion of California ; at one time the missions of San Miguel and San Antonio, both of which are situated some thousand feet above the sea, in plateaus of this range, had over one hundred thousand bead of sbeep.

In the valley of San Antonio Mission, which is very warm and dry, figs, peaches, apricots, grapes, apples, quinces, pears and olives, grow in great perfection, and have been cultivated there since 1775. The same fruits will grow in the missions of Soledad and San Juan.

The sides of the sub-valleys of the Coast Range generally abound in the pine, oak, roble, islay, and various other useful trees; the pines are generally those species containing the edible pine-nuts, called by the Spaniards, pinones.

The courses of the rivers and arroyas abound with the sycamore, cottonwood and other trees of similar habits. At least five-eighths of the superficial surface of the county is mountain land, and it is one of the most salubrious districts of country on the face of the earth.

Nothing is more interesting to the intelligent traveler in this country, than the most abundant exhibitions on its surface, and in its geological formations of fossil molusca, of fishes and vartebræ and animals, aqueous and terrestrial. They may be found on the tops of the highest mountains, the flattest plains and the ocean shores. The town site of Monterey, is an immense cemetery of fossiliffera of every kind. A few months ago, in digging a well in the upper part of the town, the tooth of an extinct species of bat or saurian animal was thrown out, of wedge shape, like an arrow-head, measuring three inches in breadth, of a polished blue-black color, and serrated on its two edges like the mandibles of a duck. The beds of indurated clay of the town, used for building, are filled with the remains of what seem to be fresh water molusca; when these beds intervene or occur in the vicinity, no drinkable water has been procured, as yet, from wells. These features in the geology of our county have attained great celebrity and interest from savans in Europe and the United States; but, as yet, the matter has been but slightly investigated.

The Coast Range of mountains which intersect the country from north-west to south-east, also contains great deposits of silver, lead, chrome and mercury Rich and valuable veins of these minerals are found in several places, which will no doubt, in time, become of great value. The argentiferous lead mineral of the Alizal mine is remarkably well situated for working to profit; the ore is easily fusible, as has been proved for twenty years.

The four rivers which intersect the county are the Salinas, the Carmelo, the San Benito and the Pajaro. None of them have ever been properly traced to their source, nor has the county ever been properly delineated on a map; this is an object every day becoming more necessary.

The Indian tribes who inhabited the boundaries of this county when the Spaniards arrived in 1770, were the Mutsunos and Ansaymas, in San Juan Valley; the Kathlendarucas, Sargentarucas and Sackhones who lived in the Mission of Soledad, which occupies a position midway in the length of the Salinas Valley; the Ensenes, Runsenes and Achastas, who occupied the land around the town of Monterey, the valley of the Carmelo and the neighboring mountains; and the Jolones, who were inbabitants of the valley of San Antonio Mission. These tribes were divided into numerous rancherias, whose sites may be seen at this day, not only around the town of Monterey, but in every valley of the county-near the coast by abundance of sea-shells, and in the plains by remains of mortars, arrow-heads, etc. On the line of the sea, the Indians lived on whale flesh, fish, aulones and muscles; off the coast, on deer meat, geese, elk, acorns, oat and grass seeds and pinones. The Indians of these missions, numbers of whom are still living, all assimilate in features; color, reddish brown; head, broad and bulging; hair, lank, coarse and black, and coming down low over the forehead; thick lips; iris of the eye, mahogany color; always with good teeth; figure squat, and seldom ex

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