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The eighteenth Presidential term began on the fourth day of March, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-seven, and will expire on the third day of March, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-one.
Salary. JAMES BUCHANAN......Pennsylvania. ... President. ..... - $25,000 JOHN C. BRECKINRIDGE. ..Kentucky....... Vice-President...... 8,000
THE CABINET. The following are the principal officers in the Executive Department of the Government, who form the Cabinet, and who hold their offices at the will of the President;
Salary. LEWIS Cass ......
.Michigan. ... Secretary of State...... $8,000 HOWELL COBB . .Georgia . Secretary of the Treasury.. 8,000 JACOB THOMPSON. . Mississippi. . Secretary of the Interior... 8,000 John B. FLOYD. .Virginia... . Secretary of War..... 8,000 ISAAC TOUCEY.... ..Connecticut..... Secretary of the Navy.. 8,000 AARON V. BROWN...... Tennessee .Postmaster-General....... 8,000 JEREMIAH S. BLACK....Pennsylvania ... Attorney-General... 8,000
III.—CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES.
THE Congress of the United States consists of a Senate and House of Representatives, which is required by law to assemble, at least once in every year on the first Monday of December, unless otherwise provided by law. There are two sessions of each Congress, the latter of which expires on the third day of March of the second year thereof. Extra sessions may be convened by the President of the United States whenever he may deem such action necessary.
The Senate of the United States is composed of two members from each State, elected by the Legislatures thereof for the term of six years each. The terms of the members are so arranged that one-third expire biennially.
The Vice-President of the United States is the President of the Senate, and as the presiding officer of that body, has only a casting vote, which is given in case of an equal division of the votes of the Senators. In his absence, a President pro tempore is selected from among the Senators by the Senate.
The House of Representatives is composed of members from the several States elected by the people thereof, by separate districts composed of contiguous territory. No one district to elect more than one member. The Representatives are apportioned as follows: After the returns of the national census, which is taken decennially, are oficially known, the aggregate population of the United States is ascertained by the Secretary of the Interior, by adding to the whole number of free persons in all the States, including those bound to service for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, threefifths of all other persons. This aggregate is divided by two hundred and thirty-three, and the quotient, rejecting fractions, if any, is the ratio of apportionment among the several States. The representative population of each State is then ascertained in the same manner, and is divided by the above named ratio, and this quotient gives the apportionment of Representatives to each State. The loss by fractions is compensated for by assigning to as many States, having the largest fractions, as may be necessary, one additional member each for its fraction, so as to make the whole number of Representatives two hundred and thirty-three. If, after the apportionment, new States are admitted, Representatives are assigned to such States upon the above basis, in addition to the limited number, two hundred and thirty-three; but such excess continues only until the next apportionment under the succeeding census. The present number of Representatives is two hundred and thirty-seven, an additional Representative being temporarily assigned to California and three to Minnesota. There are also six Delegates, one each from the territories of Oregon, Utah, New Mexico, Washington, Kansas and Nebraska, who have a right to speak but not to vote.
The Speaker of the House is selected from among the Representatives, by the members thereof, for the term for which they have been elected.
By the Act of Congress of one thousand eight hundred and fifty-six, the compensation of each Member of Congress, (that is, each Senator, Representative or Delegate,) shall be six thousand dollars for each Congress, and the mileage now provided by law, (eight dollars for each twenty miles travel by the usual road, in going to and returning from Washington,) for two sessions only, to be paid as follows: On the first day of the session, the mileage for one session, and on the first day of each month thereafter, during the session, compensation at the rate of three thousand dollars per annum, during the continuance of such session, and the residue at the rate aforesaid, to be paid at the close of each session; and for the second session each member shall receive his mileage and compensation in like manner up to the close of his term, the third of March terminating the Congress, and on that day he shall receive the balance then due him of the six thousand dollars. If there be no Vice-President, or if the Vice-President has become the President of the United States, the President of the Senate pro tempore shall receive the compensation provided by law for the Vice-President, and the Speaker of the House shall receive twelve thousand dollars for each Congress, payable as in the case of the members. In case of death no mileage or pay shall be allowed, except what is actually due. Absence, except in case of sickness, to be deducted from the monthly pay of each member. This law to apply to the present Congress, each Member to be paid the difference between his per diem already received and the amount allowed hereby.
THIRTY-FIFTH CONGRESS-SECOND SESSION,
THE SENATE-SIXTY-FOUR MEMBERS.* John C. Breckinridge, President, ex officio; Benjamin Fitzpatrick, President, pro tem.; Ashbury Dickens, Secretary.
..1861 Robert W. Johnson ......1861 Hannibal Hamlin ........1863 Benjamin F. Wade........1863 CALIFORNIA.
Simon Cameron.............1863 CONNECTICUT.
MASSACHUSETTS. Lafayette S. Foster........1861 Henry Wilson .............. 1859
RHODE ISLAND. James Dixon ................1863 Charles Sumner............1863
Phillip Allen (d)...........1859 DELAWARE.
James F. Simmons........1863 Martin W. Bates..........1859 Charles E. Stuart .... .1859 James A. Bayard .........1863 Zachariah Chandler ......1863
Arthur P. Hayne..........1859 FLORIDA.
MINNESOTA. David L. Yulee
James H. Hammond.....1861 ..1861 James Shields
.1859 Stephen R. Mallory......1863 Henry M. Rice.............1863
JOHN BELL (e)............ .1859 Robert Toombs (a)........1859 Albert G. Brown (a)...... 1859 Andrew Johnson...........1863 Alfred Iverson..............1861 Jefferson Davis ..........1863
SAMUEL HOUSTON (f).....1859 Graham N. Fitch .........1861 James S. Green...... 1861
..1863 Jesse D. Bright....... ..1863 Trusten Polk
Jacob Collamer... 1861 Stephen A. Douglas......1859 John P. Hale (a).... .1859
Solomon Foot ............1863 Lyman Trumbull .........1861 Daniel Clark ...............1861
...1863 James M. Mason.... ..1859 KENTUCKY. NEW JERSEY.
WISCONSIN. JOHN B. THOMPSON (C)...1859 William Wright .. ..1859 James R. Doolittle (a) ... 1859 JOHN J. CRITTENDEN......1861 John R. Thomson...... .1863 Charles Durkee .... .1861
Democrats (in Roman), 38; Republicans (in Italics), 20; Americans in SMALL CAPS), 5. Vacancy, 1. Total, 64.
(a) Re-elected for six years from March, 1859. (6) James W. Grimes elected as his successor. (c) Lazarus W. Powell elected. (d) Henry B. Anthony elected. (e) A. O. P. Nicholson elected. (J. W. Hemphill elected.
2.-HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 237 MEMBERS. James L. Orr, of South Carolina, Speaker; Jas. C. Allen, of Illinois, Clerk.
6 W. R. W. Cobb,
* Joseph Lane and Delazon Smith have been elected Senators from Oregon, which will increase this number to sixty-six when that State is admitted into the Union.
+ Occasioned by the death of J. Pinckney Henderson,
2 Samuel Arnold,
13 Abraham B. Olin, 3 Sidney Dean, 1 James A. Stewart,
14 Erastus Corning, 4 William D. Bishop.
2 JAMES B. RICAUD,
15 Edward Dodd,
4 HENRY W. DAVIS, 17 Francis E. Spinner, 1 William G. Whiteley. 5 Jacob M. Kunkel, 18 Clark B. Cochrane, 6 Thomas F. Bowie.
19 Oliver A. Morse, FLORIDA.
20 Orsamus B. Matteson, 1 George S. Hawkins.
21 Henry Bennett,
22 Henry C. Goodwin,
23 Charles B. Hoard, 1 James L. Seward,
3 William S. Damrell, 24 Amos P. Granger, 2 Martin J. Crawford, 4 Linus B. Comins,
25 Edwin P. Morgan, 3 ROBERT P. TRIPPE,
5 Anson Burlingame, 26 Emory B. Pottle, 4 Lucius J. Gartrell, 6 Timothy Davis,
27 John M. Parker, 5 Augustus R. Wright, 7 David W. Gooch,
28 William H. Kelsey, 6 James Jackson, 8 Chauncey L. Knapp,
29 Samuel G. Andrews, 7 JOSHUA HILL, 9 Eli Thayer,
30 Judson W. Sherman, 8 Alex. H. Stephens. 10 Calvin C. Chaffee, 31 Silas M. Burroughs, 11 Henry L. Dawes.
32 Israel T. Hatch, ILLINOIS.
33 Reuben E. Fenton. 1 Elihu B. Washburne,
MICHIGAN. 2 John F. Farnsworth, 1 William A. Howard,
NORTH CAROLINA. 3 Owen Lovejoy, 2 Henry Waldron,
1 Henry M. Shaw, 4 William Kellogg,
3 David S. Walbridge, 2 Thomas Ruffin, 5 Isaac N. Morris, 4 De Witt C. Leach.
3 Warren Winslow, 6 Thomas L. Harris,
4 L. O'Brien Branch, 7 Aaron Shaw,
5 John A. GILMER, 8 Robert Smith, 1 George L. Becker,
6 Alfred M. Scales, 9 Samuel S. Marshall. 2 William W. Phelps, 7 Burton Craige,
3 Jas. M. Cavanaugh. 8 +Thomas L. Clingman. INDIANA. 1 William J. Niblack,
OHIO. 2 William H. English, 1 Francis P. Blair, Jr. 1 George H. Pendleton, 3 James Hughes,
2 Thos. L. ANDERSON, 2 Wm. S. Groesbeck, 4 James B. Foley, 3 John B. Clark,
3 Charles L. Vallandigham, 5 David Kilgore, 4 James Craig,
4 Matthias H. Nichols, 6 James M. Gregg,
5 Sam. H. WOODSON, 5 Richard Mott, 7 John G. Davis, 6 John S. Phelps,
6 Joseph R. Cockerill, 8 James Wilson, 7 Samuel Caruthers.
7 Aaron Harlan, 9 Schuyler Colfax,
8 Benjamin Stanton, 10 Charles Case,
9 Lawrence W. Hall, 11 John U. Pettit.
1 Lucius Q. C. Lamar, 10 Joseph Miller,
11 Valentine B. Horton,
3 William Barksdale, 12 Samuel S. Cox, 1 Samuel R. Curtis,
4 Otho R. Singleton, 13 John Sherman, 2 Timothy Davis. 5 John A. Quitman. 14 Philemon Bliss,
15 Joseph Burns, KENTUCKY.
16 Cydnor B. Tompkins, 1 Henry C. Burnett, 1 James Pike,
17 William Lawrence, 2 Samuel 0. Peyton, 2 Mason W. Tappan, 18 Benjamin F. Leiter, 3 W. L. UNDERWOOD, 3 Aaron H. Cragin.
19 Edward Wade, 4 Albert G. Talbott,
20 Joshua R. Giddings, 5 Joshua H. Jewett,
21 John A. Bingham. 6 John M. Elliott,
1 Isaiah D. Clawson, 7 HUMPHREY MARSHALL, 2 George R. Robbins,
PENNSYLVANIA. 8 James B. Clay, 3 Garnet B. Adrian,
1 Thomas B. Florence, 9 John C. Mason, 4 John Huyler,
2 Edward Joy Morris, 10 John W. Stevenson. 5 John R. Wortendyke. 3 James Landy,
4 Henry M. Phillips, LOUISIANA.
5 Owen Jones, 1 GEORGE EUSTIS, Jr. 1 John A. Searing,
6 John Hickman, 2 Miles Taylor, 2 George Taylor,
7 Henry Chapman, 3 Thomas G. Davidson, 3 Daniel E. Sickles,
8 J. Glancy Jones, 4 John M. Sandidge. 4 John Kelly,
9 Anthony E. Roberts,
11 William L. Dewart,
12 Paul Leidy, 2 Charles J. Gilman, 8 Horace F. Clark,
13 Wm. H. Dimmick, 3 Nehemiah Abbott, 9 John B. Haskin,
14 Galusha A. Grow, 4 Freeman H. Morse, 10 Ambrose S. Murray, 15 Allison White, 5 Israel Washburn, Jr. 11 William F. Russell, 16 John A. Ahl, 6 Stephen C. Foster. 12 John Thompson,
17 Wilson Reilly, # Contested by J. P. Whye.
+ Elected to the Senate.
18 John R. Edie,
5 Thomas S. Bocock,
6 Paulus Powell, 20 William Montgomery, 4 John H. Savage,
7 William Smith, 21 David Ritchie, 5 CHARLES READY,
8 Charles J. Faulkner, 22 Samuel A. Purviance, 6 George W. Jones,
9 John Letcher, 23 William Stewart,
7 John V. Wright,
10 Sherrard Clemens, 24 James L. Gillis,
8 F. K. ZOLLICOFFER, 11 Albert G. Jenkins, 25 John Dick.
9 John D. C. Atkins, 12 Henry A. Edmundson,
10 William T. Avery. 13 George W. Hopkins. RHODE ISLAND.
TEXAS. 1 Nathaniel B. Durfee,
WISCONSIN. 2 William D. Brayton. 1 Guy M. Bryan,
1 John F. Potter, 2 James H. Reagan.
2 Cadw. C. Washburne, SOUTH CAROLINA.
3 Charles Billinghurst.
VERMONT. 1 John McQueen,
1 Ezekiel P. Walton, 2 W. Porcher Miles,
DELEGATES. 2 Justin S. Morrill, 3 Lawrence M. Keitt,
Kansas-Marcus J. Parrott. 3 Homer E. Royce. 4 Milledge L. Bonham,
Minnesota—W.W.Kingsbury 5 James L. Orr,
Nebraska-F. Ferguson. 6 William W. Boyce. 1 Muscoe R. H. Garnett, New Mexico--M. A. Otero. 2 John S. Millson,
Utah-John M. Bernheisel. 1 Albert G. Watkins, 4 William 0. Goode, Washington—I. J. Stevens.
Democrats (in Roman), 132; Republicans (in Italic), 91; Americans (in SMALL CAPS), 14. Total 237.
IV.- DEPARTMENT OF STATE.
. Secretary of State ...... .. Assistant Secretary.
INTERCOURSE WITH FOREIGN NATIONS.* — - MINISTERS AND DIPLOMATIC
AGENTS OF THE UNITED STATES IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES.
1. Envoys Extraordinary and Ministers Plenipotentiary, Secretaries of Lega
Secretary Legation. Salary
Great Britain.. George M. Dallas... 1856 $17,500 London........... Philip N. Dallas..... $2,625 France
John Y. Mason ...... 1853 17,500 Paris... W.R. Calhoun 2,625 Russia. Francis W. Pickens 1858 12,000 St. Petersburg John E. Bacon.... 1,800 Spain. Aug. C. Dodge 1855 12,000 Madrid ... Buckingham Smith 1,800 Prussia... Jos. A. Wright.
1857 12,000 Berlin..... E. G. W. Butler, Jr. 1,800 China
Wm. B. Reed ........ 1857 12,000 Canton ........... S. Wells Williams... 5,000 Mexico John Forsyth..... 1856 12,000 Mexico ..... Walker Fearn....... 1,800 Brazil
Richard K. Meade.. 1857 12,000 Rio de Janeiro. Romain Dillon...... 1,800 Chili
John Bigler..... 1857 10,000 Santiago.. Fred. A. Beelen...... 1,500 Peru
John R. Clay.. 1853 10,000 Lima......... |Z. B. Caverly... 1,500
Austria..... Henry R. Jackson.. 1853
Portugal. Geo. W. Morgan. 1858
B. F. Angel...
9,000 Vienna........... Geo. W. Lippitt...
1,800 1,500 1,500 1,500 1,500 1,500 1,500 1,500 1,500
* Compiled from the New York State Register, May, 1858.