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didates were likewise asked to announce their positions. All did so favorably, except one gubernatorial candidate in the Democratic party. After giving this candidate every possible opportunity, the suffragists opposed him at the spring primaries and his defeat left us with all the gubernatorial candidates in favor of woman suffrage. The detailed methods of the campaign are embodied in its five departments of organization, finance, publicity, literature, and speakers bureau. In addition to the officers who are constantly active there are six field organizers.
From the publicity department the press chairman sends weekly bulletins to newspapers in every county, prepares advance notices for meetings and events in unorganized communities and attends to the general campaign publicity features. Eight special suffrage editions of daily newspapers have been issued in various cities and similar editions are planned for other towns during the remainder of the campaign.
The literature department serves to supply local organizations and individuals and has become a well established business, purchasing over $3,000 worth of literature and supplies in nine months in 1914. All general suffrage publications are kept in stock and leaflets applying especially to Pennsylvania are being printed. Among the latter are Women under Pennsylvania Laws, giving the legal discriminations against women in this state, The Status of Woman Suffrage in Pennsylvania and Opinions of Prominent Pennsylvania Catholic Clergy, the titles of which are self-explanatory. In great demand also are the novelties and supplies-votes for women fans, buttons, paper napkins, pennants, note-paper, drinking cups, lanterns, flowers, lead pencils, candy, children's toys. Three workers are kept busy filling orders in this department which occupies two rooms.
The speakers bureau serves as a non-profit making agency to bring the best speakers in the country into Pennsylvania, endeavoring to supply each locality with the speaker best suited to it and to distribute the famous speakers fairly over the state. Among those for whom tours have been or are being arranged are Jessie Ackerman, Sophonisba Breckinridge, Horace Bridges, Margaret Foley, Beatrice Forbes Robertson Hale, Clara S. Laddey, Rabbi J. Leonard Levy, Scott Nearing, Senator Helen Ring Robinson, Dr. Anna H. Shaw, Anna Garland Spencer, Mary Church Terrell, Charles Zueblin.
In the closing period of all campaigns, open air meetings become
necessary and popular. At these a group of workers take charge, one speaking more often from an automobile than from the historic soap box, others passing collection baskets and asking adherents to join by signing a membership card. Without an exception these meetings in Pennsylvania have been dignified and orderly, the crowds being uniformly respectful. Booths at county fairs are another form of summer activity. From these decorated stands, speeches are made, literature distributed and propaganda conducted appropriate to such occasions.
A prize suffrage poster contest was held in 1913, the award of $25 going to a young Philadelphia artist, Miss Iva Ritter. Suffrage plays by amateurs and moving picture films are also part of the educational work. Prizes for the best school essays have been given; debates have been held; organizations of all kinds addressed. The Pennsylvania State Grange (properly called the Patrons of Husbandry), the Pennsylvania Farmers Alliance, the Pennsylvania Federation of Labor, the State Women's Christian Temperance Union, the Yearly Meeting of the Society of Friends, the Eastern Pennsylvania Methodist Conference have all passed strong suffrage resolutions. We have also been benefited by the endorsement of such important national bodies as the General Federation of Women's Clubs, the National Women's Trade Union League, the National Education Association, and it is fully expected that the Pennsylvania branches of these bodies at their next state meetings will confirm these endorsements. More people have endorsed woman suffrage than have ever endorsed any one other public movement.
The funds for the campaign are raised chiefly by public subscription. Most of the organizations are non-dues paying and in all cases the dues are small, ranging from 25 cents to a dollar. Other incomes from sales of literature, collections at meetings, etc., are also comparatively small. Until the outbreak of the European war, the treasury was well supported, but that calamity has greatly decreased contributions. The special efforts which women are making in this period of stress are characteristic of their deep earnestness. One woman who lives on a farm is making cottage cheese which she sells in a neighboring town and by which she is giving $50 this year. At 10 cents a quart, this contribution means five hundred quarts patiently, quietly, constantly churned, sold and delivered. A $25 contribution comes as the result of giving up a new winter suit.
The hundreds of small contributions represent many sacrifices and are the foundation of the one $5,000 contribution from a Pennsylvania woman who wishes to be an anonymous donor.
Co-existent with their state work, Pennsylvania suffragists have always assisted with the national movement through the affiliation of the state association with the National American Woman Suffrage Association to the support of which $1,000 was contributed in 1914 and $500 additional paid for dues. The state congressional committee works in coöperation with the national congressional committee and consists of one member from each of the thirty-two congressional districts in the state. One of the most brilliant national suffrage conventions ever held met in Philadelphia in 1912 as the guest of the Pennsylvania state association.
As an organization, the Pennsylvania Woman Suffrage Association, like the national association, is absolutely non-partisan. By action of the state executive committee no state officer is permitted to become affilliated with any political party. Individual suffragists sometimes espouse political creeds, but leaders are urged not to join political parties. This attitude is due not only to the fact that partisanship would retard our progress but because of the not unnatural feeling that the women will wait until some party "makes good" and gives them their freedom.
To cite merely these facts and incidents about Pennsylvania's actual suffrage work is like putting bread on the table and nothing else. The woman suffrage movement is not an isolated issue—it is merely a vigorous compelling part of the whole world wide movement to secure social equality and political justice. Its progress is co-extensive with that of correlated struggles for human advancement, and as surely as the world grows better because juster and more humanly inclusive, so surely will the extension of the franchise be granted to women.
In November, 1915, another liberty bell will be ready to peal forth its message of freedom in Pennsylvania. This bell, the gift of Mrs. Katharine Wentworth Ruschenberger of Strafford, Pennsylvania, will be an exact bronze replica of the famous liberty bell. But, its clapper will be silenced by chains fastened to its yoke and will swing only when Pennsylvania women are free. This new liberty bell will make a tour of the state during 1915, arranged so that the bell will reach Philadelphia by November and be placed
in position to ring out its glad tidings after election day. In its way, this symbol, chained and mute, typifies the appeal which the women of Pennsylvania are making to their men. Not that we ask privilege but liberty-the same passionate desire that stirred in men's hearts a century ago is throbbing in our breasts today and for the same reasons. We, too, would be free to develop the finest race under the best conditions for the greatest good of all.
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