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1662]

CAUSES OF HOSTILITY.

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the colonists were obliged to acknowledge his authority. Commissioners were sent to England by the people of Massachusetts, to make their peace with the king for having sided against his father, and to procure from him a confirmation of their charter. The king complied with their wishes so far as to confirm the charter, and grant pardon for past offences; but in turn required the Puritans to take an oath of allegiance, to tolerate the Church of England, and to extend the right of voting to those who were not church-members. To these demands the colonists returned an evasive answer; and four commissioners were sent over by the king, whose report might have led him to punish by force of arms the independent spirit of New England, had not the great plague and the fire of London called off his attention. At this time, New England contained 120 villages and about 60,000 inhabitants.

168. Scarcely had these troubles ended, when the New England colonies became involved in a long and bloody In

It is known as King Philip's War, and broke out in 1675. The faithful Massasoit had died some years before, leaving two sons, Alexander and Philip. Alexander succeeded his father, but shortly afterwards died of a fever brought on by mortification at being arrested and imprisoned by the English. His death left Philip chief of the Wampanoags, who now numbered about 700 warriors.

The English settlements having extended on all sides, the Wampanoags at last found themselves confined to two small peninsulas. They had sold a great part of their land, and could no longer enjoy the forest freedom which was necessary to their happiness. They now began to understand the meaning of those mysterious marks which they had made from time to time on deeds conveying their possessions away forever. The white men were daily increasing in number, and the natives became alarmed lest they should be driven

dian war.

peace with the king? With what success did the commissioners meet? What did the king demand in turn? What followed ? How many villages and inhabitants did New England now contain ? 168. In 1675, what broke out in New England? Who was King Philip? How had he become chief of the Wampanoags? How large was this tribe? What was their condition? What did

out even from the little that remained to them of the land of their fathers.

Several unfortunate occurrences increased the suspicion and hostility of the natives. In 1674, a chief who had been required for some offence to give up his arms, was again summoned to Boston for examination. Instead of obeying the order, he, with some others, killed the informer; and the murderers, having been arrested and found guilty, were publicly hanged. The Indians immediately revenged themselves by attacking Swanzey, a settlement near Mount Hope, and killing eight or nine of the inhabitants.

169. Philip wept when he heard that the war had begun, nor was he ever afterwards seen to smile. He felt that it must result in the destruction of his tribe. The English far outnumbered the Red Men, and were well provided with arms, ammunition, and the necessaries of life. The Indians, though they had learned the use of fire-arms, were poorly supplied with them, and lacked the discipline and confidence of their enemies. Yet Philip resolved to do all that could be done by a great warrior. He would at least leave his enemies a victory which they would have cause to mourn.

Within a week after the attack on Swanzey, a body of troops from Boston reached the vicinity.

The Indians were obliged to retreat. Their route was traced by burning houses, and poles fixed in the earth bearing the scalps and heads of their unfortunate victims. Great consternation prevailed; but volunteers continued to take the field, and the Wampanoags were soon driven from Mount Hope (see Map, p. 84]

170. Philip was now a fugitive, but he was more terrible than ever. Moving rapidly among the neighboring tribes, he exhorted them, with burning eloquence, to join the common cause of their race. His appeals were successful. From

they begin to fear? What occurrences increased their suspicion? What was the first act of hostility committed by the natives ? 169. What were Philip's feelings on hearing of this ? Why? What reasons had he for fearing the worst? What did he resolve to do? What was the first movement of the colonists? In what did it result ? [See Map, p. 84.-Into what water does the peninsula on which Mount Hope lies, project ?] 170. What course did Philip now pursue ?

1675]

THE ATTACK ON HADLEY.

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Maine to Connecticut, the whole Indian population, with a few exceptions, rose to this sanguinary war. Even the Narragansetts, who had promised to remain at peace with the English, finally joined the league,-their chief no doubt remembering the wrongs of his father Miantonomoh.

The whole frontier was thus kept in constant alarm. The terrible war

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oSpringfield In the midst of the confusion, when the Indians were about commencing their bloody work, a strange being bowed down with age made his appearance, recalled the people to their senses, formed them in line, led them to the charge, and completely defeated the savage assailants. He vanished as suddenly as he had appeared, and for some time the people attributed their deliverance to an angel.

It was afterwards found that this mysterious personage was no other than Goffe, the regicide, who had been a general in Cromwell's army. Seeing the danger of his countrymen from his place of concealmient, he had come forth for their rescue.

171. The colonists, finding vigorous measures necessary, determined to invade the country of the Narragansetts. A What tribe joined the league, in violation of their promise ? What probably incited their chief to do so? What was the state of the whole frontier ? What places were burned? [See Map above.-Which of these places was farthest east? Farthest south ? Farthest north? What river are Springfield and Deerfield near? Where is Hadley ? Near what mountain ? In what state are these places ?j Give an account of what happened at Hadley. Who was the mysterious person

How many men were age ? 171. What was the next step of the colonists ?

SETTLEMENTS IN WESTERN MASSACHUSETTS.

thousand men were raised. Josiah Winslow was placed at their head; and in December, 1675, the expedition was commenced. The ground was covered with snow, through which the invaders painfully forced their way. They found the enemy strongly intrenched in a swamp and defended by palisades. As they approached, a destructive fire was opened by the savages; but the place of those who fell was filled by others, and after a severe struggle of two hours the fort was taken. The victors fired the cabins of the Indians, and destroyed their winter stores. Many old men, women, and children, perished in the flames. A thousand warriors fell, the settlers showing as little mercy as they had received.

The power of the Narragansetts was thus utterly broken. The few survivors wandered through the cedar-swamps, with no shelter but the evergreens, and no food save the groundnuts which they dug from under the snow.

Still the proud chief Ca-non'-chet declared, “We will fight to the last man. The following April (1676), he was taken captive; but his spirit was still unsubdued. When interrogated by a young man, he refused to answer a child”, but said he would talk with a chief. On being told that death awaited him, he exclaimed, “I like it well ! I shall die before I speak any thing unworthy of myself.”

172. In February, 1676, Philip assailed Lancaster. Fortytwo persons took refuge in the house of Mary Rowlandson, who describes that day as the “dolefulest” she ever saw. Some were fighting for their lives, others weltering in blood, the house on fire, and the savages ready to massacre those whom the flames drove forth from its shelter. Attempting to escape, Mrs. Rowlandson received a bullet in her side, and her child was wounded in her arms. Gro'-ton, Medfield, Weymouth, and Marlborough [marl-brúh], were burned. Captain Wadsworth [wodz'-wurth], on his way to relieve Sudbury, was surprised and lost most of his party. Those who

raised? Who commanded them? Give an account of the expedition. How many Indians were killed and captured ? What became of the survivors ? What stories are related of Canonchet? 172. What place did Philip attack in February, 1676 ? Relate what took place there. What villages were next burned ? What befell Captain Wadsworth ? How were the prisoners treated ? What is

1676]

CAPTAIN CHURCH TAKES THE FIELD.

113

were unfortunate enough to be taken, were cruelly tortured. The Indians, says the quaint Cotton Math'-er, deliberately roasted their prisoners out of the world.

Philip allowed himself no rest. He was everywhere present, yet seen by no one. Wherever an unprotected village invited attack, wherever a well-planned ambuscade could cut off an inexperienced enemy, there at the right moment was the watchful chief. It became necessary to trace him to his secret hiding-places. Captain Turner started in his pursuit, and came upon him at the Falls of the Connecticut. A night attack was made, and most of the Indian braves were killed on

the spot or driven down the cataract. 173. The New Hampshire tribes having abandoned the war, Philip now found his forces reduced to a feeble remnant. Driven from place to place, they often suffered the greatest extremities for food. On one occasion, 300 of his men had to go many miles to the coast, to sustain life on the clams it afforded. Still the brave chief kept the field. He even struck dead one of his followers for proposing peace.

In June, 1676, a strong force, raised with the view of exterminating the savage foe, was placed under command of the celebrated Captain Church. In the course of the summer, he killed and captured many of the dispersed Wampanoags. Among others, the wife and child of Philip were taken. “My heart breaks,” cried the chieftain; “now I am ready to die!” The child alluded to was a boy of nine years, the last of the family of Massasoit. Forgetting all they owed his grandfather, the Puritans sold him as a slave in Bermuda.

174. The condition of Philip was now indeed hopeless. Deserted, betrayed, hunted down, he could hope for relief only in death. With his few remaining followers he took refuge in a swamp, in the broad hunting-grounds which had

said of Philip's movements ? What did it become necessary to do ?

Give an account of the night attack at the Falls of the Connecticut. 173. What tribes had abandoned the war? What was the condition of Philip's men ? How did the chief feel respecting peace In July, 1676, what steps were taken by the colonists? During the summer, what did Church succeed in doing? Who were among the captives? What was the fate of Philip's son ? 174. Where did the

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