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belonged to his fathers. Here, while trying to obtain rest, he was disturbed by gloomy dreams. Impressed with a foreboding of evil, he bade his men save themselves and leave him to his fate. It was time. Captain Church was upon him. An Englishman aimed at the chief, but his musket missed fire, and a friendly Indian in the company seized the moment to shoot Philip through the heart. Church's army raised three cheers, and treated the fallen king with savage indignity. His body was quartered. The head was cut off and carried to Plymouth, whence it was borne round the colony in triumph. The Indian who killed him received one of his hands as a reward.

Thus ended King Philip's War, to the great joy of the colonists. It had cost the lives of some of their best men, and destroyed a vast amount of property, including six hundred houses. It had obliged the colonists to contract.a heavy debt; but this, with honest pride, they determined to discharge without aid from the mother country.

CHAPTER XV.

BACON'S REBELLION. 175. Though the Virginians loved liberty, they still retained some of the old forms and customs of the English aristocracy. The eldest son inherited the whole of his father's estate; and, as the influence and wealth of the land owners increased, the dividing line between the higher and lower classes became more distinct. The Virginians were mostly royalists, and but few republicans were elected to the new legislature formed after the restoration of Charles II.

The loyal colonists, however, were not treated with the favor which they had a right to expect from the home gov

chief and his few followers finally take refuge ? Describe Philip's death scene. How was his body treated : What did King Philip's war cost the colonists? What resolution did they form respecting the debt they had contracted ?

175. What were still retained in Virginia ? What was the character of the legislature formed after the Restoration? How were the loyal colonists treated by Parliament? What measures, injurious to their commercial interests, were

1661

TROUBLES IN VIRGINIA.

115

ernment. Parliament soon ordered that the imports and exports of the colonists should be carried in English vessels alone, and that their chief productions should be shipped only to the mother country. A profitable trade which had sprung up with the West Indies was thus entirely cut off.

The measures of their own legislature were hardly less offensive than those of Parliament. The right of voting was restricted to householders. The forms of the English Church were enforced on all, and a fine of £20 was laid on those who absented themselves from public worship. A special law was passed against Quakers; and Baptists were denounced as “filled with new-fangled conceits of their own heretical invention". The members of this legislature had been elected for two years; but they continued in session without regard to the expiration of their term, and fixed their own salary at 250 pounds of tobacco a day. No public improvements were attempted. Neither roads nor bridges were constructed. Governor Berkeley, whom the long possession of power had made a tyrant, expressed the common sentiment of this royalist legislature, when he said, “I thank God that there are no free schools nor printing, and I hope that we shall not have them these hundred years.'

176. With such a government the people were justly dissatisfied, and, to add to their troubles, in 1675 an Indian war broke out. The Susquehannas, driven from their abodes by the Senecas, had fallen back on the Potomac and commenced depredations in Maryland. John Washington, great-grandfather of the first president of the United States, hastened to the aid of the settlers. The Indians sent to propose peace; but their ambassadors, in violation of law and justice, were put to death. The savages retaliated by devastating the frontier from the Potomac to the James, and murdering without

mercy
all who fell in their

power. The people solicited Gov. Berkeley to take measures for

passed? What offensive laws were enacted by their own legislature? How did this royalist legislature and the governor feel towards schools and printingpresses 176. What added to the troubles of the people in 1675? How did this war originate? Who hastened to the aid of the Maryland settlers ? What unjust act was committed by the colonists! How did the Indians retaliate? What did

the protection of their lives and property; but he paid no attention to their requests, and the work of death went on unchecked. In 1676, Nathaniel Bacon, who had but recently arrived from England, was urged by the people to lead them against the enemy. The governor would not commission him; but Bacon, moved by the solicitations of his friends, declared that if he heard of another murder he would take the field with no commission but his sword. He was shortly afterwards informed that several men had been killed on his own plantation. The brave young leader no longer hesitated. At the head of 57 men, he defeated the Indians, and then turned to meet the tyrannical Berkeley, who was already marching against him. So strongly, however, did the people express their disapprobation of the governor's course, that he concluded to abandon it. Concessions were made by Bacon, and he was reinstated in his former position. The old legislature was dissolved, and a new one of totally different principles was elected.

177. Peace was thus restored, but only for a short time. Bacon and his adherents were still resolved on obtaining the commission which Berkeley had promised but seemed determined to withhold. At last the republican leader appeared before Jamestown with nearly 500 followers, and obtained the governor's signature by force. But no sooner had he marched with his little army against the Indians, than Berkeley, dissolving the legislature, again raised his standard, and proclaimed Bacon a rebel. This proceeding gave general offence. Bacon returned, and appealed to the Virginians to overthrow a tyrannical government. The people rose in a body to support their leader, and Berkeley was compelled to flee beyond the Chesapeake.

During the temporary absence of Bacon on an expedition against the Indians, Berkeley once more got possession of

the people solicit Gov. Berkeley to do? How did he treat their requests? Whom did they then urge to lead them against the Indians ? What at first prevented him from complying with their request? What afterwards led him to do so ? Give an account of Bacon's expedition and the difficulties to which it led. How was peace restored ? 177. What new difficulties soon after arose? Give an account of the struggle which resulted in Berkeley's expulsion from Jamestown.

1676]

DEATH OF BACON.

117

Jamestown, but was a second time driven out. To prevent it from again falling into his hands, Bacon, before retiring, burned it to the ground. Several of the patriots applied the torch to their own dwellings. A new state-house and the oldest church in the Dominion were consumed by the flames.

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The people of Virginia seemed now to have gained the object for which they had struggled,-a liberal and efficient government,—when their worthy leader was seized with an illness which put an end at once to his life and their hopes. Though denounced as a traitor in his lifetime by the opponents of popular rights, Bacon has been regarded by posterity as a true friend of the people, a fearless champion of humanity, justice, and liberty.

178. No one could be found worthy of succeeding Bacon

During Bacon's absence, what advantage was gained by Berkeley? On his return, what took place? What did Bacon and his adherents do, to prevent Jamestown from again falling into Berkeley's hands? What buildings were deBtroyed ? What did the Virginians now seem to have gained? How were their hopes disappointed ? How was Bacon denounced in his lifetime? How is he regarded by posterity? 178. What became of the popular party after Bacon's

were

as the leader of the popular party. Berkeley was restored, and with his return began a series of fines, confiscations, and executions. All that had sided with “ the rebels" cruelly persecuted. Hansford, the first partisan leader that was taken, was condemned to death. The vindictive governor refused his request to be shot like a soldier; and he was hanged—the first white native of America that perished by the gibbet. “Take notice," said he on coming to the gallows, “I die a loyal subject and a lover of my country.” Drummond, another republican, was soon after taken. “You are very welcome," said Berkeley on beholding him; “I am more glad to see you than any man in Virginia. You shall be hanged in half an hour.” Twenty-two persons were executed before the vengeance of the implacable governor was satiated. The Assembly at last begged him to abstain from further bloodshed, and he reluctantly yielded to their request.

Berkeley soon after returned to England, where his conduct was severely censured. “The old fool," said the king, “has taken away more lives in that naked country, than I for the murder of my father.”

179. The avaricious Culpepper succeeded as governor in 1680. He enriched himself by taxing and impoverishing the colony. The king after a time recalled him, and, annulling the unjust grants he had himself made to unworthy favorites, declared Virginia once more a royal province.

a

CHAPTER XVI.

SETTLEMENT OF CAROLINA.

180. The region called CAROLINA was so named in honor of Charles IX., of France, but was first successfully colonized

death? How did the vindictive governor treat Hansford ? How, Drummond ? How many were executed? Who at last interfered! What became of Berkeley ? What did the king say about him? 179. Who succeeded as governor? What course did he pursue? What did the king soon after do?

180. From whom was Carolina so called? Under whose auspices was it first settled? Op whom did Charles II. bestow the territory in question? What did

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