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under the auspices of Charles II. of England. In 1663, this monarch, in defiance of former charters and the counterclaims of France and Spain, bestowed the territory in question on Edward Clar'-en-don, Lord Al-be-marle, the Earl of Shaftesbury [shafts-ber-ry), and others.

Clarendon and his associates contemplated founding a great empire. Shaftesbury was appointed to draw up a constitution. He called to his aid the philosopher Locke, who constructed a “Grand Model”, which gave almost unlimited power to a body of nobles and entirely overlooked the rights of the people. This constitution was signed in 1670. There was then neither church, court-house, nor printing-press, in Carolina. But it was the land of peace and plenty, and its great natural advantages had already attracted settlers. Some had fixed their abodes near Albemarle Sound Others had purchased a tract on the Cape Fear River, and established a flourishing trade in staves and shingles. The intermediate country was mostly a wilderness.

Such was the condition of Carolina, when Locke's “Grand Model" of a constitution arrived. Nothing could have been less adapted to the people. There was no room for a grand series of lords among men who dressed in deer-skins and homespun. The hardy people of Carolina," the freest of the free,” had learned to govern themselves, and every effort to enforce the new constitution utterly failed.

181. The same year in which this instrument was signed, a company of emigrants sailed for Carolina under William Sayle (sale], and landed near the mouth of the Ashley River. Though they established a republican government and representative Assembly, they tried to carry out Locke's absurd constitution, but found it impossible. As they were at some distance from the Albemarle and Cape Fear settlements, they thought it best to form an entirely distinct government; and

Clarendon and his associates contemplate? Who was appointed to draw up a constitution ? Whom did he summon to his aid? What was the instrument thus constructed called ? What was its character? When was it signed? What was the state of things in Carolina at this time? Where had settlements been made? What was the result of the efforts made to enforce Locke's “ Grand Model"! Why was this? 181. What took place the same year in which the new

hence the division into NORTH and SOUTH CAROLINA. The Indians, influenced by the Spaniards of Florida, displayed an unfriendly disposition; and the new colonists, when gathering oysters on the coast, or engaged in other work, carried guns for their protection.

In 1672, a few graziers erected their cabins on the spot where Charleston now stands [see Map, p. 151], and eight years later the town was formally founded. The surrounding country was a paradise. The river's banks were lined with stately pines, up which the yellow jasmine climbed, loading the air with the perfume of its flowers. Immigrants arrived from the northern colonies as well as England, and among the rest fifty families sent over by Charles II. to introduce the culture of grapes, almonds, olives, and the silkworm. The attempt failed, but a valuable addition in the form of thrifty and industrious laborers was thus made to the colony. The population was further increased in 1685 by the arrival of many Hu'-gue-nots, or French Protestants, driven from their country by persecution, among the descendants of whom were some of the bravest heroes of the Revolution.

182. The same fondness for self-government that prevailed in North Carolina was also rife in the Southern colony; and Governor Col-le-ton, sent over by the proprietors with enlarged powers to awe the people into submission, was met with open resistance. The Assembly boldly asserted its rights, defied the governor, and imprisoned his secretary. In vain he called out the militia ; the people triumphed. When the news of the revolution which placed William and Mary on the throne of England was received, Colleton was banished from the province. Similar measures were taken

constitution was signed? Why was the territory divided into North and South Carolina ? What feelings did the Indians display towards the settlers ? Give an account of the founding of Charleston. Describe the surrounding country. With what view did Charles II. send over fifty families ? What was the result ? How was the population increased in 1685 ? 182. What spirit was soon manifested in South Carolina ? Give an acccunt of Gov. Colleton's difficulties with the Assembly. Where were similar measures taken? What was the state of things in both colonies in 1689 ?




in North Carolina ; and in 1689 we find the cause of popular rights triumphant in both colonies, and in both the prospect of a highly prosperous future.



183. CRUELLY persecuted in New England and the mother country, a number of Quakers in 1675 took refuge in New Jersey. Within a year, one of the proprietors sold out his interest to several persons, among whom was William Penn. Longing to provide a happy home for the people of his creed, Penn resolved to try his "holy experiment” on a larger scale. In 1681, he obtained from Charles II. an extensive tract west of the Delaware, in payment of a claim against the government for £16,000, left him by his father. The king himself gave it the name of Pennsylvania,“ the woody land of Penn".

184. This eminent man was a son of Admiral Penn, who had won distinction by his conquest of Jamaica and brilliant achievements during the war with Holland. He was born in 1644, and at the age of sixteen was expelled from Oxford University for embracing the doctrines of the Quakers. Incensed at his expulsion, his fatḥer beat him and turned him out of doors, but afterwards sent him to travel on the continent, in the hope that his opinions would be changed by intercourse with the world. On his return to England, he commenced the study of law; but, on again listening to a Quaker preacher, he became so firm a convert that all his father's reproaches, and even a second expulsion from home, could not turn him from his faith.

The young Quaker was several times imprisoned for

183. Wbere did a number of Quakers settle in 1675? How did William Penn become interested in this colony? What did he resolve to do? How did he obtain an extensive tract on the Delaware? What and by whom was it named ? 184. Who was William Penn? Recount his early history. For what was he several times imprisoned ? Give an account of his interview with Stillingfleet.

pleading the cause of his brethren. Once, while he was undergoing this punishment, the learned Stillingfleet was sent to convince him of his errors; but Penn requested him to tell the king that “the Tower (the building in which he was confined) was to him the worst argument in the world.” On one occasion, a jury was starved two days and nights, to force them to convict him, but insisted on returning a verdict of acquittal, for which they were fined. At last, weary of persecution, Penn, with several others of his persuasion, embarked for Holland, that they might extend their doctrines on the continent. On this mission, Penn made the tour of Germany, preaching in palace and cottage. Returning to England, and finding all other efforts in behalf of his oppressed brethren useless, he became interested in the new world in the way that we have seen.

185. Within the domain granted to Penn, a number of Swedes and Dutch had already settled. These he had no desire to remove; and, soon after obtaining the grant, he sent over a copy of it with a message to the residents that he wished not to usurp their rights, but intended that they should still be governed by laws of their own making. Three vessels full of emigrants soon after set sail, with instructions for building a city. Each house was to have a large garden attached, so that it might be “a greene country town”.

In 1682, Penn himself sailed for the new world with a hundred settlers. He had a long and melancholy voyage of nine weeks, during which thirty of his companions died of small-pox. He was warmly welcomed on his arrival, and, sailing up the Delaware, soon reached a place fringed with pine-trees, where he determined to locate his city. The precise spot was fixed in February, 1683. The ground was

How was a jury that tried him once treated? What did persecution at last drive him to do? What was his object on this mission : 185. Who had already settled within the domain granted to Penn? What message did he send them ! How many vessels sailed soon after? What instructions were given to the emigrants ? What took place in 1682: Describe Penn's voyage. Give an account of the founding of Philadelphia. What does the name mean? From whom was the




bought from the Swedes, and the city thus commenced was named Philadelphia, brotherly love, in token of the feeling which, it was hoped, would prevail among the inhabitants.

186. Penn soon afterwards made a memorable treaty with the Indians, under an elm in what is now called Kensington. The tree was carefully preserved till 1810, when it was blown down during a severe storm. A monument has since been erected to mark


the spot.


Here, beside the Delaware, the grave chieftains of the woods assemble. The old men take their seats in the form of a half moon on the ground, while the younger warriors arrange themselves behind in a similar form.

The new governor, whose friendly messages and letters have inspired them with confidence, comes in the central space before them, distinguished from his companions only by the blue sash around his waist. “We meet,” he says,

on the broad pathway of truth and good will. No advantage shall be taken on either side, but all shall be openness and love. I will not call you children, for parents do sometimes chide their children too severely; nor brothers only, for brothers differ. The friendship between you and me I will not compare to a chain, for that the rains might rust or the falling tree might break. We are the same as if one man's body were divided into two parts. We are all one flesh and one blood.”

ground bought ? 186. Where did Penn make a treaty with the Indians ? When was this elm blown down? How is the spot marked ? Describe Penn's meeting

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