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The Indians trusted his words, and received his presents, giving him in return a belt of wampum, the emblem of friendship. “We will live," said they, “with William Penn and his children in love so long as the moon and the sun shall endure.” This treaty was never broken. The Red Men handed down the words of Penn from generation to generation; and, while other white settlements suffered severely from Indian wars, not a single Quaker is known to have been molested by the natives. Penn often visited their wigwams, and took part in their sports and exercises.

187. The only difficulty that disturbed the peace of Pennsylvania was the settlement of the line that separated it from Maryland. Penn and Baltimore could not agree on a boundary. The quarrel was carried to England, and there settled by a grant of half the land between Chesapeake Bay and the Delaware to Penn. The present boundary was fixed by two surveyors, Mason and Dixon, in 1761, and is often referred to as Mason and Dixon's line. The territory now called Delaware was thus at first included in Pennsylvania, under the name of “the three lower counties”; but afterwards, in consequence of the dissatisfaction of the people, it was made a separate colony.

188. The government established by Penn was strictly republican. An Assembly was formed of six members from each county, who held office for a year. All sects were tolerated. Every freeman who believed in God and abstained from labor on the Lord's day, could vote and hold office. Parents were required to bring up their children to some useful trade. The only crime punishable with death was murder.

Immigrants arrived in great numbers from Holland, Germany, and Great Britain. The peaceful colony grew and prospered. In August, 1683, Philadelphia consisted of three

with the Indians. What did he tell them? What reply did they make? How did the Indians show their regard for it? How did Penn display his friendship for them ? 187. What difficulty disturbed the peace of Pennsylvania ? How was the quarrel settled? What is meant by Mason and Dixon's line? What is said of the territory now called Delaware ? 188. What was the character of Penn's government? Mention some of its provisions. From what countries did




or four cottages, and the deer ran among the trees on which the surveyor had “ blazed out” the courses of the streets. In 1685, it contained 600 houses. It grew more in three years than New York did in half a century.

In 1684, Penn left his colony, now firmly established and containing a population of 7,000, for the mother country. During his absence, difficulties arose. The Assembly encroached on his rights; and the rents, which were his only remuneration for the expense of planting the colony, were appropriated in part to the public service. After trying for a time to enforce his authority, Penn yielded to the Assembly, reserving to himself only the right of veto.

189. With the fall of James II., who both as Duke of York and as king had been a firm friend to Penn, ended the favor which the pure and peaceful Quaker had enjoyed. He was charged with abandoning his principles and favoring the cause of the deposed king. His proprietary rights in Pennsylvania were taken from him; and, while the colony which owed every thing to his wisdom and integrity was growing in power and importance, he closed his life in obscurity and gloom. He died encumbered with debt in 1718; at which time, the population of Philadelphia amounted to about 10,000.



190. THE tribe that received William Penn in the friendly manner just described belonged to the Algonquin family, and were called Len'-ni Len'-a-pees in their own language, and Delawares in English. According to their traditions,

immigrants arrive ? Describe Philadelphia, as it was in 1683. In 1685, how many houses did it contain? How did its growth compare with that of New York ? In 1684, wbat did Penn do? What difficulties arose in his absence? How were they settled ? 189. Throughout his whole career, how did James II. conduct himself towards Penn ? On his fall, what happened? What is said of the close of Penn's life? When did he die? What was the population of Philadelphia at that time?

190. What tribe was it that received William Penn? To what family did they belong? What did their traditions say about their former history? What did


they had once lived far off in the northwest, and had united with the Iroquois in driving out the mound-builders from the valley of the Mississippi. In the fertile region thus acquired, they lived for a time in peace; till their hunters, having ascended the mountains on the east, announced that great streams flowed down from them into a vast salt lake beyond, watering a pleasant and unoccupied land. On this, part of the Lenapees migrated eastward, and took possession of the region traversed by the Susquehanna, the Delaware, and the Potomac. Those who remained in the west became known at a later day as Illinois.

Shortly before their interview with Penn, the Delawares had been defeated by their former allies, the Iroquois, and reduced to so powerless a state that they were called “ menby their conquerors. But they had never acknowledged the Iroquois as masters. The renowned Tam'-a-nend, the greatest of their warriors and statesmen, was still living at this time. He was afterwards known as St. Tam'-ma-ny, and different associations have since been called by his name.

191. During the establishment of the various European settlements, important events were transpiring among the Indians of America. The chief of these was the formation of the Iroquois confederacy, about the year 1539. It embraced five nations, the Mo'-hawks, Oneidas [o-ni-daz], Onondagas [on-on-dav'-gaz], Cay-u'-gas, and Sen'e-cas. With these the Tuscaroras afterwards united, when they were known by the name of “the Six Nations”. This confederacy was the work of a great and wise chief, Hiawatha [he-a-wah'tha). The Indians regarded him as the special favorite of the Great Spirit, and believed that he was taken up to heaven in a snow-white canoe amid strains of celestial music.

The original seat of the Five Nations was in what is now the central part of New York. But, after a series of bril

part of the Lenapees do? What were those who remained afterwards.called ? What had happened shortly before the interview of the Delawares with Penn! Who was still living at that time? What have been named from Tamanend ! 191. What important confederacy was formed about 1539? What nations did it embrace? Who brought it about? What was the belief of the Indians respecting Hiawatha ? What was the original seat of the Five Nations? How far did




liant conquests towards the close of the seventeenth century, they claimed the whole country from the St. Lawrence to the mouth of the Ohio. Their victorious career was for a time stopped by the Miamis and Illinois, who with savage ferocity drank from the skulls of their slaughtered chiefs, and ate the still quivering hearts of their tortured warriors. But at last these also were vanquished. Such was the success of the Iroquois that even to remote tribes their very name became a terror,

192. We have described the efforts of Eliot to convert the Indians of Massachusetts. Some time before, Jesuit missionaries had taken the field among the northern and western tribes.

The Mohawks had been visited in 1617, a mission had been established among the Hurons, a college and convent had been founded at Quebec, and the standards of the Roman Catholic Church and of France had been set up at various points from Maine to Lake Huron.

193. Passing over several who perished in the wilderness from accident and hardship, and others who suffered martyrdom in the war between the Hurons and Iroquois, we come to Allouez [al-loo-ā']. In 1665, he explored the country about Lake Superior, and discovered the Pictured Rocks on the southern shore, where the sandstone, 300 feet high, is worn into forms resembling the hoary walls and broken columns of an ancient ruin. Here he taught the Chippeways and Sioux, and was told by the latter of the Mississippi, or “great river".

194. Marquette [mar-ket'], a devoted Jesuit missionary, next took the field. After establishing the important station of Mack'-i-naw, in northern Michigan (see Map, p. 158], he started with Joliet [zhole-'], in 1673, to discover the Mississippi. Two bark canoes bore their dried meat and corn.

they extend their conquests ? What enemies stopped their victorious career for a time? 192. Among what Indians did Eliot labor? Who had taken the field before him? What was done by these early Jesuit missionaries ? 193. Who is the first specially mentioned ? Give an account of his discoveries. What did he learn from the Sioux? 194. Who next took the field ? What station did he establish ? [See Map, p. 158.-Between what two lakes is Mackinaw situated ?] Whom did he take as a companion! What advice did they receive from the

The Indians they met advised them to give up the journey, declaring that they would have to encounter, not only hostile nations and intense heats, but monsters and demons that would certainly destroy them. The zealous Frenchmen, however, were not discouraged. Passing through Green Bay, they found a village where Allouez had been before. The cross he had erected was loaded with bows and arrows, skins and belts, hung there as offerings to the Great Spirit. They soon struck the Wisconsin, and finally, to their inexpressible joy, reached the Mississippi. Descending the river, they held intercourse from time to time with the Indians on its banks, whom they found gentle and friendly, though brave, and already supplied with arms from the European settlements. After reaching the mouth of the Arkansas, feasted by the natives at different points with hominy and dog-flesh, they retraced their course in safety to Green Bay.

The zealous Marquette soon after undertook another expedition, to the Indians of Illinois, whose hearts were won by his gentleness and love. While sailing along the eastern coast of Lake Michigan, on his return, he went ashore to perform a religious ceremony. His men waited long for his reappearance; and, on going to seek him, found that he had died during his prayers. They buried him near the mouth of a stream, called from him the Marquette. Years after, when the Indian was tossed on the boisterous surface of the lake, he would seek to calm the tempest and still the waves by calling on the name of the pious missionary.

195. La Salle [lah sal] next engaged in explorations in the west, under a commission from Louis XIV., of France. Though possessed of limited means, La Salle was a man of wonderful courage, endurance, and enterprise. With the Jesuit Hen'-ne-pin, who wrote an account of his discoveries, he started from Fort Fron'-te-nac (see Map, p. 158], in the

Indians ? What did they find, shortly after leaving Green Bay ? What river did they finally reach? How far did they descend it? What kind of tribes did they find on its banks ? What other expedition did Marquette undertake ?

Give an account of his death. Years after, what were the Indians in the habit of doing ! 195. Who next explored the western country? By whom was he commissioned ? What was his character? Whom did he take as a companion ? [See Map, p.

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