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1678]

LA SALLE'S EXPEDITION.

129

first sail-boat that ever crossed Lake Ontario. After losing his vessel, performing a long journey partly overland and partly with canoes, building forts and trading-houses, and meeting with a variety of romantic adventures, La Salle finally returned to Canada.

A portion of his company, among whom was Hennepin, reached the Mississippi, and gave the name of St. Anthony to the falls in the upper part of that river. In 1681, he again started, and this time reached the Mississippi himself. After sailing down it to the Gulf of Mexico (1682) and taking possession of the country for his king, in whose honor he named it Louisiana, he returned, and crossed the ocean to France for further means.

He was there intrusted with the command of an expedition fitted out for the purpose of colonizing Louisiana. Attempting to reach the scene of his former discoveries from the south, he was unable to find the great river he had descended. In the effort his store-ship was wrecked, and there was no alternative but to seek the desired spot by land. At one time we read of him in Texas, at another in northern Mexico. His men sunk under their hardships, and La Salle himself became soured and discouraged. 66 The hidden river” was nowhere to be found, and at last he resolved to traverse the continent in search of it as far as Canada, and, if still unsuccessful, to return to France for a new outfit. He had reached a branch of the Trinity River, in Texas, when he was murdered by some of his men, whom repeated disappointments incited to the crime. But few of La Salle's company survived the hardships of this journey to Canada. They had left a colony on the Colorado [col-o-rah-do]; but it was soon destroyed by the Spaniards, who based on this conquest a claim to Texas.

158.-Where is Fort Frontenac ? What place now occupies its site ?] Give an account of La Salle's first expedition. What did some of his companions succeed in doing? What falls did they name? In 1682, what did La Salle do? In whose honor did he name the country? On his return to France, with what was he intrusted ? How did he attempt to reach Louisiana? Recount his efforts. What resolve did he at last form? What prevented him from carrying it out? What became of most of his companions? Where did they leave a colony? What was its fate ?

CHAPTER XIX.

NEW YORK, TO 1689.-FRENCH AND IROQUOIS WAR.

196. NICHOLS, who took New York from the Dutch in 1664, acted as governor for three years. Contenting himself with extorting large sums of money from the land-owners, he neither attempted reforms, nor granted the people any greater liberty than they had before enjoyed. In 1667, Nichols was succeeded by Lovelace. War soon after broke out between England and Holland. An attack was expected by the authorities of New York, and the city was put in a state of defence. The Dutch made their appearance in the harbor, as had been anticipated; but, instead of attempting an assault, they bribed the officer in command of the fort, and thus quietly obtained possession of the city and the whole province.

197. By a treaty made in 1674, New York was restored to the English, and Sir Edmund An'-dros became its governor under a new patent granted to James, Duke of York, One of his first acts was to punish the traitor who had admitted the Dutch into the city, by having his sword broken over his head in front of the City Hall. The new governor tried to extend his authority over Connecticut and New Jersey, but was firmly resisted and failed in both attempts. The people of New York, also, complained loudly of his encroachments on their rights, and demanded a voice in their own government. The Duke of York, whose instructions had been faithfully followed by Andros, at a loss what course to pursue, applied to William Penn for counsel. This friend of popular liberty advised him to abandon his arbitrary measures; and without delay Andros was recalled, and Thomas

196. Who took New York from the Dutch ? How long did he act as governor ? What is said of his course? By whom was he succeeded ? What happened during the war between England and Holland which soon after broke out ? 197. What took place in 1674? Who became governor of New York ? What was one of his first acts ? What did the new governor try to do? What difficulties did he encounter in New York? To whom did the duke apply for counsel ?

1683]

FRENCH AND IROQUOIS WAR.

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Dongan was sent over as governor, with directions to recognize the authority of the Assembly (1683).

198. The most important act of Dongan's administration was the conclusion of a treaty with the Iroquois. Anticipating an invasion by the French, the chiefs of the Mohawks and other tribes met the governors of New York and Virginia at Albany, and interchanged pledges of friendship. They were none too soon; for the next month. [August, 1684], De la Barre [bar], governor of Canada, made a descent upon their hunting-grounds. Before he encountered the Indians, sickness prostrated most of his soldiers. The cunning Frenchman then sought to make the Iroquois believe that he had come. merely to smoke the pipe of peace. Though they understood the state of the case, the Red Men allowed their enemies to depart, and the invaders returned in disgrace to Canada.

De la Barre was superseded by Denonville [-nong-veel']. The latter proceeded to establish a fort at Niagara, despite the remonstrances of the governor of New York. At this time (1686), began the conflict between French and English claims which afterwards led to a destructive war.

199. Instructions were received by the new governor to capture as many Indians as he could and send them to France. Accordingly, a number of Iroquois were enticed into a French fort, under pretence that a treaty was to be made, and were there seized. They were afterwards sent to Marseilles [mar-sālz'], and consigned to the galleys. A large army of Indians immediately assembled to attack Montreal. Denonville appeased their fury by complying with their demands; and the war would probably have ended, had it not been for the machinations of a Huron chief. Fearing an attack from the Five Nations, if peace should be made, he craftily led them to believe that the French were dealing treacherously, and had invited him to aid in their destruc

What advice did he receive? What was the consequence ? 198. What was the most important act of Dongan's administration ? Where was this treaty made? What took place the next month? Give an account of De la Barre's expedition. By whom was he superseded? What cause of difficulty arose between Denonville and the governor of New York? 199. What instructions did Denonville

tion. Incensed beyond measure, the Iroquois no longer delayed the invasion of Canada (1689]. They suddenly fell on Montreal, laid waste the city, massacred a thousand of the inhabitants, and overran a great part of Canada. The French in despair blew up Forts Frontenac and Niagara. Their power was now nearly extinguished, not a single town remaining in their possession between the St. Lawrence and Mackinaw.

CHAPTER XX.

NEW ENGLAND UNDER ANDROS AND PHIPPS.

200. WHEN the Duke of York became King of England under the title of James II. (1685], he revoked the charters of the northern colonies, and made Sir Edmund Andros governor of all New England. Remembering how he had been treated a few years before in New York, Andros determined to carry out to the letter the principles of his despotic master. Every right that the people had enjoyed, was now denied them, while their taxes were largely increased. The Church of England was established contrary to their wishes, and meetings of the people, except for the choice of town officers, were prohibited.

201. After dissolving the Assembly of Rhode Island, Andros proceeded to Connecticut and demanded the surrender of its charter. Governor Treat remonstrated with him, but in vain. The Assembly, then in session at Hartford, engaged in an earnest debate on the subject, which was protracted till evening; and the people crowded into the hall to hear the discussion, and take a last look of the precious parchment

receive? How were they carried out? What did this wanton act provoke the Indians to do? Give an account of their invasion of Canada. Upon this reverse, what did the French do? What is said of their power in the new world at this time?

200. What did James II. do on becoming king? What course did Andros pursue ? Mention some of his offensive measures. 201. What did Andros do in Rhode Island ? What, in Connecticut ? What took place in the Assembly

1687]

EXPULSION OF ANDROS.

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which lay open on a table. Suddenly the lights were extinguished, and when they were reproduced the charter could not be found. A patriot named Wadsworth had escaped with it through the crowd and concealed it in the hollow of a stately oak. This tree was called, in commemoration, the Charter Oak, and was

carefully preserved until overthrown by

a violent storm in the year 1856. Though the instrument on which their liberties were founded was thus saved, Andros assumed the government. His next step was to supersede Dongan in New York. Thus, in 1688, all the English possessions north of Pennsylvania were united under one despotic government.

This state of things, however, did not last long. In the spring of 1689, news reached Boston, where Andros had fixed his head-quarters, that James II. was no longer king, but had been displaced by William of Orange. The people immediately arose in open revolt. Their former magistrates were restoredAndros was arrested, and sent to England for trial. Representatives were elected, and it was voted that the rights before enjoyed should be resumed. Similar movements were made in the other colonies; and in Connecticut the venerable parchment was drawn uninjured from the hollow oak.

202. The next two years were spent by the people of

[graphic]

hall? Where was the charter concealed ? What became of this oak? What was the next step of Andros ? What put an end to his authority? After his expulsion, what measures were taken by the people ? 202. In what did the

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