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Massachusetts in trying to obtain a charter from William III. They finally succeeded, though the instrument was of a totally different character from what they had expected. Many of their privileges were taken away, including the election of officers, who were thenceforth to be appointed by the governor or the crown. The boundaries of the colony were extended to the St. Lawrence, and an exposed frontier was thus added, which it cost much to defend. To reconcile the people to these changes, a native of New England, Sir William Phipps, was appointed governor of Massachusetts. He had acquired a large fortune by raising plate, jewels, and treasure from the wreck of a Spanish vessel in Hispaniola; but, being ignorant and bigoted, he did little to advance the interests of the colony.

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203. A MUTUAL jealousy had long existed between the French and English in America. The former were far inferior to the latter in number and strength, particularly after their disastrous war with the Iroquois. But they had some strong posts left, and claimed a vast tract, including Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, Labrador, Hudson's Bay, Canada, the valley of the Mississippi, and Texas. Their title to these extensive regions rested on the explorations of French Jesuits, who had set up the arms of France in various parts of the wilderness, and acquired great influence with the native tribes.

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204. In 1689, while still ignorant of the burning of Montreal, the French government formally declared war against

people of Massachusetts spend the next two years ? Mention some of the provisions of the charter they obtained. How was it sought to reconcile the people of New England to these changes ? How had Phipps acquired a fortune ? What was his character ?

203. How did the French and English in America feel towards each other? How did they compare in number and strength? What regions did the French claim? On what did their claim rest? 204. What did the French government

1689]

RAVAGES OF THE ABENAKIS.

135

England. Count Frontenac was made governor of Canada, with instructions to protect the French possessions, to destroy the English stations around Hudson's Bay, and to make a descent on New York in conjunction with a French fleet. On reaching the St. Lawrence and learning the losses of his countrymen, he found it necessary to alter his plans; and, sending out emissaries, he excited the tribes in alliance with France to dig up the tomahawk against the English. The Abenakis [ab-e-nak'-eez], a branch of the Lenni Lenapees living in Maine (see Map, p. 10), were the first to commence hostilities. They had been treacherously dealt with by English settlers thirteen years before, and rejoiced at this opportunity of revenge.

Two of their squaws were sent to the house of an aged English magistrate named Waldron, and, pleading fatigue, obtained permission to lodge there for the night. Rising after the family had retired, they opened the doors to their confederates. The savages placed Mr. Waldron on a chair on his own table, and bade him “judge Indians” now, as he had done before. A number of them owed him

money

for goods. Each, drawing his knife with inhuman barbarity across the old man's breast, cried in turn, “ Thus I cross out

At last, fainting from loss of blood, the unfortunate man fell to the floor. The Indians, after burning his house and others in the neighborhood, returned to their villages with 29 captives. The English settlements on the Penobscot and St. John's were attacked in like manner, and in a short time the Abenakis recovered the whole of their former hunting-grounds.

205. Frontenac now resolved to strike a bold blow, in the hope of inspiring the Iroquois, the old enemies of his nation, with respect for French prowess, and winning them over from the side of the English. Accordingly, in 1690, he fitted

my account.”

do in 1689? Whom did they send out to Canada ? What were his instructions ? What made him alter bis plans ? What means did he take for injuring the English? Who were the first to commence hostilities? What made them rejoice at the opportunity? Give an account of their barbarous murder of Mr. Waldron. How many captives did they carry off? What English settlements were attacked at the same time by the savages ? 205. In 1690, what did Fronte

out a force of French and Indians for an attack on the New York frontier. A rapid march of twenty-two days brought them to the neighborhood of Schenectady [ske-nek'-ta-de]. About an hour before midnight, they entered one of the gates in the palisade wall that surrounded the village, and found all the inhabitants asleep, even to the sentinel at his post. The terrible war-whoop was raised, and the work of massacre went on for two hours. Completely taken by surprise, the settlers hardly attempted resistance. Some were butchered in their beds; others hid themselves till the flames of their burning dwellings drove them on the tomahawks of their foes; a few escaped half-dressed into the woods in the hope of reaching Albany, but were either lost amid the snow or suffered incredible hardships. At sunset, there had been forty well-built houses in this thriving village; the next morning, hardly one was standing. About sixty of the inhabitants had fallen.

206. At last the English were roused to a sense of their danger; and in 1690, at the suggestion of Massachusetts, delegates from all the colonies as far south as Maryland assembled in New York. They resolved to fit out two expeditions for the conquest of Canada, –a land force to invade the country by way of Lake Champlain, and a fleet to operate against Quebec. The command of the latter was given to Sir William Phipps. After taking Port Royal, Phipps sailed leisurely up the St. Lawrence. But meanwhile Frontenac had received intelligence of his approach through an Indian

When Phipps, therefore, arrived before Quebec, he found it prepared for the attack. His summons to surrender was treated with contempt; and, as the land force which he expected, had not arrived, without attempting an assault, he reëmbarked his troops and sailed for home. Violent storms shattered his ships; and, when Phipps returned to Boston, it was found that nothing had been gained by the expedition but an exhausted treasury.

runner.

nac do? Give an account of the attack on Schenectady. How many houses were destroyed? How many of the inhabitants perished ? 206. What did the English colonies do in 1690? How many expeditions did they resolve to fit out!

1690]

HEROISM OF MRS. DUSTIN.

137

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207. King William's War continued to afflict the colonies till the peace of Rys'-wick, in 1697. The later movements of the French were directed principally against the Iroquois, who still remained faithful to the English. Frontenac invaded their country several times, burned their crops, destroyed their castles, and took a number of prisoners, who were cruelly tortured by the “ Christian Indians” in his employ. The latter, also, made descents from time to time on the frontier settlements of the English. One of these furnishes a remarkable instance of courage in a feeble woman.

In March, 1697, a party of Indians attacked a house in Haverhill ['-ver-il], Mass. (see Map, p. 84]. Its owner, Mr. Dustin, was at work in a neighboring field, and before he could get home the Indians had dragged his sick wife from her bed and dashed out the brains of her new-born infant. Mr. Dustin tried to defend his seven remaining children, bidding them run to the woods while he kept the Indians off with his gun. The party that had taken Mrs. Dustin drove her and her nurse, almost overcome by fatigue and cold, several miles beyond Concord, N. H. Here they stopped for a time; but Mrs. Dustin, hearing that she was to be taken to a distant village, resolved to escape or die. There was a boy in the family of her captor, who had been a prisoner for a year. This boy, at her request, asked his master the proper mode of striking a blow so as to cause instant death. The Indian willingly gave the desired information, and also showed him how to take off a scalp. These instructions being communicated to Mrs. Dustin, shortly before dawn she silently awoke the boy and her nurse, and assigned their respective parts. The work was quickly done. Ten of the sleeping Indians were killed, one woman escaped, and a child was spared. After scalping the savages, that she might prove her story on her return, Mrs. Dustin armed herself with

gun and tomahawk, and started for the Merrimack

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To whom was the command of the naval expedition intrusted ? Give an account of Phipps's operations. 207. How long did King William's War afflict the colonies? Against whom were the later movements of the French directed ? How were the Iroquois treated ? From whom did the frontier settlements of the

with her companions. Having procured a canoe, they descended the river, and were soon among their friends, who had mourned them as dead.

CHAPTER XXII.

WITCHCRAFT IN NEW ENGLAND,

and great

208. In 1692, while King William's War was still at its height, New England suffered from a strange delusion, which originated with a few superstitious ministers and magistrates. Some children of Mr. Parris, who was settled over the church of Salem (now Danvers), Mass., being affected in an unusual manner, their father fancied that they were bewitched, and scourged an Indian servant till she confessed that she was a witch, and had caused their illness. Cotton Mather, an ea centric but influential minister, took the matter up, excitement spread through the colony. Public prosecutions were commenced, and a gallows was erected for the guilty at the end of the town. In June, a poor and friendless old woman was tried. Convicted on the evidence of her neighbors, who charged her with being the cause of various misfortunes that had befallen them, she was forthwith hanged. The wildest assertions were blindly credited. Mather himself tells us that the old woman only looked at the spacious meeting-house of Salem, and an invisible demon tore down a part of it.

209. Five women, “all of blameless lives,” were convicted at the next session of the court; and these, with five others afterwards found guilty, were hanged. The officer ordered to arrest them refused to assist in what he considered murder, and was himself seized and executed. The excitement became intense. People actually fancied themselves

English suffer? Tell the story about Mrs. Dustin. [See Map, p. 84.–Where js Haverhill ?]

208. From what did New England suffer in 1692? Where did this delusion originate? In whose family? Who took the matter up? What punishment was decided on for the guilty? What took place in June? What does Mather tell us about this old woman? 209. Soon after this, how many were hanged on

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