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the growth of the colony. Scotland and New England both contributed emigrants, who found in the rich soil and genial climate of Carolina all they desired. The Church of England was established by law, but other sects were tolerated.

215. Rice was first raised in 1696, from seed sent to Archdale from Madagascar. The attempt had been previously made, but without success. In 1698, it was first exported, 16 casks being sent to England.

The cultivation of cotton in America commenced at Jamestown, in 1621; but, not proving profitable, it was abandoned. In 1702, both cotton and silk were produced in South Carolina. The importance of the former was hardly appreciated till a century later.

CHAPTER XXV.

FRENCH SETTLEMENTS IN THE SOUTHWEST.-CHICKASAW WAR.

216. Though La Salle had taken possession of Louisiana in behalf of France, the Spanish also claimed it under the discoveries of Ponce de Leon and De Soto. Resolved to secure a region whose future importance he foresaw, the French king, immediately after the peace of Ryswick, sent out a company under D'Iberville [de-bare-veel'] to colonize the country. They entered “the hidden river” in 1699. Disappointed in what he saw, D'Iberville thought he was mistaken in the place, till the Indians brought him a letter that had been written to La Salle by his lieutenant, which they had kept with superstitious awe for thirteen years. He founded Biloxi [be-lok'-se], and in 1700, ascending the river to where Natchez now stands, selected a site for a military

a treaty? What was the condition of the colony at this time? 215. When was rice first raised? Where did the seed come from? When was it first exported ? When and where was the cultivation of cotton commenced? Where were cotton and silk produced in 1702? How long before the importance of cotton was appreciated ?

216. Who contested the French claim to Louisiana ? On what grounds ? What steps did the French king take to secure the country? When did they enter the Mississippi? What did D'Iberville at first think? What convinced him that he

1700]

THE MISSISSIPPI SCHEME,

145

station and named it Fort Rosalie [ro-za-le']. Thus was Mississippi first settled.

D'Iberville having died, the king of France in 1712 granted Crozat [kro-zah'] a monopoly of Louisiana for fifteen years. Finding no mines, and disappointed in the hope of increasing his wealth, in five years he surrendered the colony to the king, leaving in it only seven hundred souls.

217. The next thing tried for the advancement of French interests in Louisiana, was the grand Mississippi Scheme. John Law, a ruined gambler from Scotland, devised a plan for enriching himself and his partners by an indefinite issue of paper money.

A

company was formed in Paris, which obtained the sole right of coining money, and of trading with Asia, Canada, and the Mississippi valley. When the paper circulation was over $200,000,000, Law was made Minister of Finance. He kept up the value of his bills by ordering that any one who sought to exchange Mississippi money for silver should forfeit both. It was thought that untold wealth would be amassed, and the stock rose to nearly twenty times its nominal value. But soon the bubble burst; in May, 1720, the notes were worth only ten cents on a dollar, and the company was bankrupt. Thousands were ruined, and Louisiana gained nothing from this grand delusion,

218. In 1718, more French colonists were sent over; a city was laid out with much ceremony and named New Orleans after the Duke of Orleans, then regent. For several years

but little;

huts were put up without order; and the people who had been sent to build a city encamped on its borders, as an old historian tells us, “waiting for houses”. The proprietors of the colony introduced the culture of tobacco, indigo, rice, and silk, and opened the lead mines of Missouri in their search for silver; but, finding that

it grew

was in the right spot? What places did he found? Who, in 1712, obtained a monopoly of Louisiana ? How long did he retain it? What was then the population of the colony? 217. What was next tried for promoting French interests in Louisiana ? Who originated the Mississippi Scheme? Give an account of it. How did it result? 218. What city was laid out in 1718? After whom was it named? What was its condition for several years ? What did the colonists try

they were losing money, they surrendered their privileges to the crown.

Meanwhile, the Frenchmen at Fort Rosalie had required the high-spirited Natchez, " the children of the sun,” to give up their ancient city, that it might be turned into a plantation. Fired by this injustice, and incited by the Chickasaws, the Natchez, in 1729, fell on the fort, and put to death all it contained, except the women and children, and two mechanics. Early in the following year, a party of French from New Orleans revenged this massacre. The Natchez were almost exterminated. Such of the survivors as were not sold into slavery in St. Domingo, sought refuge with other tribes, and lost their very name.

219. The French did not forget the part the Chickasaws had acted, and in 1736 the forces of New France were ordered to concentrate in the Chickasaw country. D’Artaguette (dar-ta-get'], governor of Illinois, with the young and accomplished Vincennes (vin-senz'], descended the river at the head of a few French and about a thousand Indians. Not daring to wait for the army from New Orleans, on account of the impatience of his red allies, D'Artaguette attacked the foe; but, after carrying two of their posts, he fell mortally wounded in storming a third. The Indians fled, leaving the two French leaders in the enemies' hands. Five days afterwards, Bienville [be-ang-veel'] made his appearance from below; but the Chickasaws were now strongly fortified by the aid of English traders, and his assaults were repulsed. Within three days, a retreat was ordered. The invaders threw their cannon into the river, and started for home; and the Red Men celebrated their victory by burning D’Artaguette, Vincennes, and the rest of their prisoners, at the stake.

A similar attempt was made by the French in 1739; but

to raise ? What mines did th open ? Notwithstanding this, what did they find it best to do? Meanwhile, what had taken place at Fort Rosalie ? How did the French revenge this massacre ? What became of the few Natchez that survived ? 219. What tribe had incited the Natchez against the French? How did the French seek to punish them? Give the history of D'Artaguette's expedition. Of Bienville's. How did the Chickasaws celebrate their victory? What was the result of a similar expedition in 1739? After this, how long did Louisiana remain tranquil ?

1739]

QUEEN ANNE'S WAR.

147

the loss of many of their soldiers by disease, led them to conclude a peace with the Chickasaws. After this, Louisiana remained tranquil till its cession to Spain in 1762.

CHAPTER XXVI.

QUEEN ANNE'S WAR.

220. THE peace of Ryswick did not remain long in force. Jealous of the increasing power of the Bourbon family, William III., early in the eighteenth century, declared war against France and Spain, which were both at the time under Bourbon princes. Dying soon after, William was succeeded by Queen Anne, whose name has been given to the war which followed. In the new world, hostilities were commenced in South Carolina. Gov. Moore attacked the Spanish at St. Augustine [see Map, p. 151], in the autumn of 1702. He took the town without difficulty, but the Spanish bravely defended the castle, and sent a messenger to the French commander at Mobile, to come to their aid. Two Spanish vessels soon appeared on the Florida coast, and Moore was obliged to abandon his stores and retreat. Unable to pay the expenses thus incurred, the authorities of South Carolina issued bills of credit, or paper money.

221. Another expedition, undertaken soon after against the Indian allies of the Spanish and French on Ap-pa-lach'-ee Bay (see Map, p. 10], was more successful. St. Marks and other villages were burned, a number of prisoners were taken, and several tribes submitted, and were received under the jurisdiction of Carolina.

222. In 1706, a French fleet from Havana made an attack

220. How did William III. feel towards the Bourbons ? What did this feeling lead him to do? What is the war called, and why? In the new world, where were hostilities commenced ? Give an account of Gov. Moore's expedition. How did the authorities of S. C. meet its expenses ! 221. Against whom was the next expedition undertaken? What was its result? [See Map, p. 10.-Where is Appalachee Bay ? What Indians lived north of it? What tribe, east? In what direction did the South Carolinians have to go, to reach Appalachee Bay ?] 222. What

on Charleston, which was successfully resisted by the people, without aid from the proprietaries. Three hundred Frenchmen were killed or taken prisoners in trying to effect a landing, and one of their ships was captured.

223. In the mean time, the Indians of Maine and New Hampshire, who were in the interest of the French, after lulling the fears of the English by declaring that the sun was not more distant from the earth than their thoughts from war', suddenly fell upon the frontier settlements, made a general massacre, and retired beyond the reach of pursuit. In the course of the winter, they assailed Deerfield, in northern Massachusetts (see Map, p. 111]. This place was surrounded by palisades, and guarded nightly by sentinels. On the last day of February, 1704, a party of French and Indians, after a toilsome march from Canada on the crust of the snow, approached the town. Just before dawn, while the sentinels were absent from their posts, they effected an entrance, the snow having drifted against the palisades, and rendered them useless as a defence. The town was soon in flames. Fortyseven of the inhabitants were killed, and 112 made prisoners. The latter, during the march to Canada, suffered intensely from cold and hunger. Not a few sunk by the wayside under the accumulated horrors of the journey, and welcomed the savage tomahawk which ended their sorrows,

CHAPTER XXVII.

SETTLEMENT OF GEORGIA.

224. THE pleasant region west of the Savannah, though claimed by England, remained unsettled for years after Carolina had become a flourishing colony. At last James Ogle

movement was made by the French in 1706? How did it result? 223. By whom were the frontier settlements of the English attacked ? What village was assailed ? [See Map, p. 111.–Near what river is Deerfield ?] Give an account of the attack on Deerfield. How many of the inhabitants were killed and made prisoners? What befell the latter ?

224. Who was the first to colonize Georgia ? For whose benefit did he do it?

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