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SETTLEMENT OF GEORGIA.
thorpe [oʻ-gl-thorp], a benevolent member of Parliament, who had visited the prisons of the kingdom and restored to freedom hundreds of unfortunate men confined for debt and small offences, proposed to establish in this part of America a colony for the poor and helpless. In 1732, he obtained a charter from George II., in whose honor the new colony was called GEORGIA. The next year, Oglethorpe with his first company of emigrants reached the Savannah, and selected a site for a city.
The surrounding region was owned by a small band of Muscogees, whose chief received the strangers kindly, and presented Oglethorpe a buffalo-skin adorned on the inside with the head and feathers of an eagle. “The feathers of the eagle,” said he,“ are soft and signify love. The buffaloskin is warm and is the emblem of protection. Therefore love and protect our little families.” Other Muscogee war
In what philanthropic movement had Oglethorpe previously engaged ? From whom was Georgia named? On what river did Oglethorpe choose a site for his city? By whom was the surrounding region owned ? What passed between
riors hastened to welcome the English. “The Great Spirit,” said one, “who dwells everywhere and gives breath to all men, has sent the English to instruct us.” Oglethorpe was not insensible to their kindness, and sought to repay it by sending Moravian missionaries among them.
225. Early in 1733, the city of Savannah was founded. The streets were regularly laid out; the houses were built of uniform size, and surrounded with gardens of fruit and vegetables. Encouraged even beyond his expectations, Oglethorpe returned to England for more emigrants. A company
of Scottish mountaineers were sent over under his auspices, and made a settlement at Darien. The governor himself returned in 1736, accompanied by John and Charles Wes'-ley. The former came with the determination to convert the Indians and make Georgia a religious colony; but within two years he returned to England, and subsequently became distinguished as one of the founders of the Methodist church. Another noted divine, the eloquent Whitefield [whit'-field], passed some years in the colony, and established an orphan asylum at Savannah, where he preached with great
226. Feeling the necessity of defences on the south, Oglethorpe built a fort on St. Simon's Island, at the mouth of the Altamaha [awl-ta-ma-law'], and fixed on the St. John's River as the southern boundary of the English possessions. The Spanish regarded this as an encroachment on their territory, and detained the messengers of the English governor as prisoners. Oglethorpe at once prepared for war. His Indian friends hastened to his aid. The Uchees marched to Savannah in their proudest war-paint, and joined the no less valiant bands of Muscogees that had there assem
Oglethorpe and the Muscogee chiefs ? How did Oglethorpe seek to repay their kindness ? 225. In what year was Savannah founded ? Describe the city in its infancy. For what did Oglethorpe return to England ? Where did the next emigrants come from? Where did they settle? Who accompanied Oglethorpe to Georgia in 1736 ? What church was afterwards founded by John Wesley? What other noted divine passed some years in Georgia ? 226. Where did Oglethorpe build a fort? [See Map.-Where is St. Simon's Island ? What place is upon it! What Indian tribe east of the Savannah? On which bank of the Savannah River is Savannah? Where is Darien ? Where is St. Augustine? What island is near
DIFFICULTIES WITH THE SPANISH,
bled. Wise negotiations, how
santee River U CHEES ever, for a time put an end to the difficulty.
In 1739, England declared war against Spain, and Oglethorpe Em undertook an expedition against St. Augustine. It failed, on account of the strength of the place and the prostration of the invaders by sick
St. Johns R. ness. In 1742, the Spanish became the assailants,
Mantanzas Inlet and a strong fleet appeared before
Ww.Lon:81° St. Simon's. Oglethorpe had but a small force, and was in danger of being cut off; but, by cunningly making his enemies believe that British ships were expected, and that an attack was to be made on St. Augustine during their absence, he frightened them into a retreat.
227. In 1743, Oglethorpe went back to England, nor did he ever revisit his colony. His labors in its behalf had been entirely disinterested; no part of the large grant obtained
GEORGIA AND THE VICINITY IN 1740.
it? What river forms part of the present boundary between Georgia and Florida ?] What river did Oglethorpe fix on as the boundary between Georgia and Florida ? How did the Spanish regard this ? How did they treat the English messengers ? What did Oglethorpe do? Who hastened to his aid? What, for a time, put an end to the difficulty ? When was it revived ? In what did Oglethorpe's expedition against St. Augustine result? How did the Spaniards retaliate in 1742? How did Oglethorpe save himself? 227. In 1743, what did Oglethorpe do? What evidence is there that his labors were disinterested? What was the condition of the colony ? What were produced in the Moravian settlements ? What is said of agriculture in other parts of the colony? Of what did the settlers complain? What did the trustees find it expedient to do? After this, what is said of the agricultural interests of the colony? What took place in 1752 ?
through his influence did he keep for himself or his family. Notwithstanding his efforts, the colony had hardly yet begun to prosper. Except in the Moravian settlements, where indigo was raised and 10,000 pounds of silk were produced annually, but little attention was paid to agriculture. The settlers complained of a clause in their charter which prohibited slavery, and the trustees at length found it expedient to disregard the regulations on this subject. Slave labor became common, and agriculture began to flourish. In 1752, the trustees resigned their charter to the king. The liberties of the people were extended; and, when the cession of Florida to the English rendered the frontier secure, nothing remained to interfere with the prosperity of Georgia.
KING GEORGE'S WAR, 1744 to 1748. 228. As the new world increased in population, it became evident that the conflicting claims of France and England would have to be settled by force of arms. No boundary line had yet been drawn between their possessions on the north or west. The English based their claim chiefly on the Indian titles which they had purchased. To secure such further rights to the soil as the Indians retained, commissioners from Virginia and Maryland, with the governor of Pennsylvania, met the Iroquois chiefs in 1744; and bought, for £200 in gold and a like amount in goods, their title to “all lands that are, or by his majesty's appointment shall be, within the colony of Virginia”.
228. What difficulties arose between the French and English ? On what did the English base their claim ? How did they seek to strengthen it? How did the French view this movement ? What English post did they attack ? [Sce
The French viewed this movement with distrust, and lost no time in commencing hostilities. An English garrison at Can'-so, on the eastern point of Nova Scotia, was captured, and eighty prisoners were conveyed to Louisburg,
of the chief strongholds of the French in the new world. These men were afterwards al
Lighthouse lowed to return to Boston, and the information they gave respecting the fortifications of Louisburg led the legislature of Massachusetts to undertake an expedition against that post. An army of 3,800 men was raised, and placed under the command of Sir William Pep'per-ell. This force consisted of a strange medley. Hunters, farmers, mechanics, and clergymen, formed into line by the side of well-trained veterans.
General Pepperell's force soon reached Louisburg, and commenced operations by attacking a battery of thirty guns on the shore.
It was speedily carried. The enemy had spiked the cannon, to render them useless to their assailants; but a North-amp-ton gunsmith drilled out the touch-holes,
Map.-Where is Cape Canso? What bay is north of it? What bays does Canso Strait connect ? What gulf nearly divides Cape Breton ? Where is Louisburg ? What bay is near it?] What became of the prisoners taken at Canso? What did their statements lead the legislature of Massachusetts to do? Describe the force that was raised. How was the place defendedHow long did the garrison