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William

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169 (Sept. 8th, 1755); and Dieskau, pursuing them vigorously to their camp, would no doubt have defeated Johnson's whole army had he not been deserted by his Indian allies. As it was, he was driven back, himself mortally wounded. A large part of his force was cut off, and Johnson, who had retired from the field early in the engagement, received the credit of a victory wholly due to the colonial troops and their own gallant officers. Instead of following up his success, Johnson (afterwards made a baronet for his victory) allowed the French to intrench themselves strongly at Ti-con-de-ro'-ga, and employed himself in erecting Fort William Henry. On the approach of winter, he garrisoned this post with 600 men, and disbanded the rest of his army.

243. The fourth expedition projected by Braddock had in view the extension of the British possessions on the northeast, and was undertaken by the people of Massachusetts. In May, 1755, a strong force sailed from Boston against the French forts near the Bay of Fundy. These were speedily taken, and their reduction was followed by the subjugation

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LAKE GEORGE AND THE VICINITY.

directed ? To whom was it intrusted ? How many men were raised ? Where did Johnson encamp ? [See Map.-In what state is Lake George? What fort is at its southern extremity? What river runs south of it? What creek at its northern extremity? What larger lake just east of it?] For what did Johnson wait? Give an account of Dieskau's movements. What took place, Sept. 8th. 1755? What prevented Dieskau from obtaining the victory? What was his fate, and that of his army? Who received credit for the victory? To whom was it really due ? How was Johnson rewarded ? What advantage did he allow the French? [See Map.-Where is Ticonderoga? What mountain near it ?] In what did he employ himself ? On the approach of winter, what did he do ? 243. What was the object of the fourth expedition projected by Braddock ! By whom

of the whole region between Maine and Nova Scotia, now known as New Brunswick. Nova Scotia had been in possession of the British for some years. It was called A-ca'di-a, and was inhabited chiefly by a simple and happy race descended from the original French settlers, few English colonists having found their way to this northern region. Left to themselves, the Acadians had prospered greatly, and were now in possession of fine farms and abundant flocks. Coveting these, the British authorities, made secure by the conquest of New Brunswick, proceeded to deprive the inhabitants of the fruits of their frugality and industry. The Acadians were cruelly ordered to leave the province. Seven thousand of them were driven on board of ships, and taken to the southern colonies. Wherever they went, they were maltreated and oppressed. “I know not,” says Bancroft, "if the annals of the human race keep the record of sorrows so wantonly inflicted, so bitter and perennial, as fell upon the French inhabitants of Acadia."

244. In May, 1756, war was formally declared, after it had been raging in the new world several years. Montcalm [montkahm'], a distinguished French general, was sent to Canada, and commenced a series of movements which resulted in the capture of Fort Oswego, with its garrison of 1,600 men, 120 cannon, three chests of money, and abundant stores. The churches of Three Rivers, Montreal, and Quebec were

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MONTCALM.

was it undertaken? In May, 1755, what was done? What posts did they take ! What region did they subjugate? In whose possession had Nova Scotia been ? What was it called ? By whom was it inhabited ? What was their condition ? What unjust treatment did they receive at the hands of the British authorities ? How many were driven away? Where were they taken? How were they treated there? What does Bancroft say of the Acadians ? 244. When was war formally declared ? Whom did the French government send to Canada ? What place did he capture: With Oswego, what fell into Montcalm's bands? Where

1756)

FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR.

171

adorned with its colors. Lord Loudoun [lou'-dun], the newly-appointed governor-general of the English colonies, had arrived shortly before, but he attempted nothing for the relief of Oswego. The season having been wasted, it soon became necessary to provide winter-quarters for his troops; and the colonists, to their chagrin, found themselves obliged to support thousands of British soldiers who had not as yet struck a blow in their behalf.

CHAPTER XXXII.

FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR (CONTINUED).-CAMPAIGNS OF

1757-1758. 245. DURING the winter of 1756-57, Fort William Henry was occupied by a band of hardy American rangers, who defied cold and storms. Among them was John Stark, afterwards a successful general in the Revolution. With the aid of skates and snow-shoes, several expeditions were undertaken against the enemy. An army of 1,500 French and Indians from Canada, with dogs to draw their sleighs, and bear-skins for their only protection at night, marched 180 miles for the purpose of surprising the fort, but found the vigilant garrison on their guard, and returned as they

came.

246. In January, 1757, the northern governors met at Boston, and determined to raise 4,000 men. Meanwhile, Loudoun complained to the ministry at home that the colonies would not tax themselves, and that he could not coerce them. This was untrue. The colonies were willing to be taxed, but wanted, as was natural, to spend the money themselves. They were tired of the imbecility of British officers.

were the colors of the captured fort taken? What British general had arrived shortly before? What is said of his movements ? What did the colonists find themselves obliged to do?

245. How did the garrison of Fort William Henry employ itself in the winter of 1756–57? What attempt was made by the French ? How did it succeed : 246. What took place in January, 1757? What complaint was made by Loudoun ?

In June, 1757, Loudoun went to Halifax, and collected there an army of 10,000 men. He spent most of the summer in drilling them, and then was deterred from attacking Louisburg, as he had intended, by the intelligence that the French fleet contained one more ship than his own. He soon left his parade-ground, and returned to New York.

247. While the English commander was thus trifling, the governor' of Canada was drawing the Iroquois and other northern Indians into an alliance. A grand army of French and savages, with Montcalm at its head, advanced towards the forts on the English frontier. Several minor successes were gained, and the Indians, always desirous of making good their escape when they had struck a blow, were eager to return. Montcalm remonstrated with them, and, producing the great war-belt of 6,000 shells, which bound them to remain till the expedition was completed, declared that his great object, the reduction of Fort William Henry, was still unaccomplished. The Red Men were at last persuaded; and on the 2d of August, 1757, 6,000 Frenchmen and 1,700 Indians invested the fort. It was defended by the intrepid Col. Monro, with 2,200 men.

To Montcalm's summons to surrender, Monro returned an answer of defiance, hoping for aid from Gen. Webb, who lay encamped at Fort Edward, only 14 miles off, with 4,000

Instead of advancing to the rescue, Webb wrote Monro a letter advising him to surrender. Still the gallant veteran held out, till his ammunition was nearly exhausted, and half his guns had burst. He then felt it his duty to capitulate on the honorable terms proposed by the French commander. One of the conditions was a safe escort to Fort Edward. But, when the retreat commenced, the faithless Indians, incited by the hope of plunder, fell on the ill-fated

men,

What was the true state of the case? What did Loudoun do in June, 1757 ? Give an account of his movements at Halifax. 247. Meanwhile, what was the governor of Canada doing? What expedition did he undertake? What did the Indians want to do? How did Montcalm dissuade them from their purpose? How many men invested Fort William Henry ? [See Map, p. 169.—Where was Fort William Henry ?] By whom was it defended ? To whom did Monro look for aid ? What message did he receive from Webb? How long did he hold out? On what terms did he finally surrender? What happened on the retreat? What is said of Webb

1757]

CAMPAIGN OF 1757.

173

English. Despite the efforts of Montcalm and his officers, a general massacre ensued. Only a part of the army reached Fort Edward in safety. Webb, as long as he was secure in his camp, cared little for the honor of his country or the safety of his comrades. Loudoun proposed fixing his quarters on Long Island, and thought that would be a sufficient defence for the continent. At the close of 1757, the French possessions in America exceeded in extent those of the English as twenty to one.

248. In the summer of 1757, the weakness of the English ministry bad become apparent, and Pitt, a man of the people, and the wisest of modern statesmen, was intrusted with the management of affairs. America was his first care. The imbecile Loudoun was recalled. The colonies were requested to raise troops, with the promise that the expense would be refunded; and their officers were allowed the same rank as British officers of their respective grades. New life was infused into every branch of the service. The American people had the highest confidence in Pitt, and new armies were soon enlisted.

Three expeditions were projected by the English. Amherst and Wolfe were to besiege Louisburg ; Lord Howe and Ab-er-crom'-bie, to attack Crown Point and Ticonderoga; and Gen. Forbes was to advance upon Fort Du Quesne and the Ohio valley.

249. The first of these expeditions was entirely successful. The French commander surrendered the fort, and 5,637 prisoners were sent to England. The British took possession of the whole of Cape Breton [brit'-ắn] and Prince Edward's Island. Abandoning Louisburg, they made Halifax their capital and stronghold in the northeast.

250. The second expedition was undertaken by the largest army that had yet marched through the forests of America.

and Loudoun? At the close of 1757, how did the French and English possessions in America compare in extent ? 248. What change was made in the British ministry in the summer of 1757? What first engaged Pitt's attention ? What action did he take in American affairs ? Enumerate the three expeditions that were projected. 249. What was the result of the first expedition ? 250. What is said of the army engaged in the second expedition? How many men embarked for

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