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On the 5th of July, 1758, 9,000 provincial troops and 6,000 British regulars embarked in a thousand boats on the shore of Lake George, for the strong French fort at Ticonderoga, held by Montcalm with about 3,600 men. The


and popular Howe was unfortunately killed in an encounter with a party of French, just as he reached the scene of action, and the sole command thus devolved on the incompetent Abercrombie. An attack on the French lines was unwisely ordered before the artillery had been brought into action. It was conducted with unsurpassed intrepidity, but as bravely repulsed by Montcalm, who had every advantage of position. The English army lost nearly 2,000 in killed and wounded; and Abercrombie, who had taken care to keep out of danger during the assault, retreated to the head of the lake, and sent his artillery and stores to Albany. Nothing was effected during the remainder of the campaign, but the capture and destruction of Fort Frontenac and some armed vessels on Lake Ontario, by a detachment under Gen. Bradstreet.

251. The third expedition owed its success solely to Washington. Contrary to his advice, General Forbes, instead of following Braddock's route, commenced a new road to Fort Du Quesne. His progress was slow, and 300 of his men were cut off by an ambuscade. On this, it was resolved to abandon the expedition for the season; but Washington, having satisfied himself of the weakness of the fort by the accounts of deserters, obtained the general's permission to proceed against it alone with his Virginia Rangers. The French, on his approach, set fire to the works, and fled down the Ohio. Washington raised his country's flag over the smoking ruins (Nov. 25th, 1758), and changed the name of the place to Pittsburg, in honor of the great Pitt. Intrusting its defence to a company of his rangers, he returned to his native state, already illustrious by his achievements, though

Ticonderoga? By whom was this post held ? What befell Lord Howe ? On wbom did the sole command then devolve? Give an account of Abercrombie's operations. What was their result? What was the British loss? What was Abercrombie's next movement? What was effected during the remainder of the campaign ? 251. To whom is the success of the third expedition attributable ? What course was pursued by Gen. Forbes ? What was the advice of Washing




not yet twenty-seven years


age. He was received with distinguished honor, and elected to the House of Burgesses, where he commenced his career as a statesman. Meanwhile, Abercrombie was recalled, and General Amherst was appointed commander-in-chief of the army and governor of Virginia.



1759-1760. 252. ALIVE to the importance of prosecuting the war in the new world with vigor, Pitt zealously prepared for the campaign of 1759. A well-digested plan of operations was arranged, which there seemed little prospect that Montcalm, left unsupported by the French government, his province already exhausted of men and resources, could successfully oppose. Gen. Stanwix was ordered to reduce the country between Pittsburg and Lake Erie; Prideaux [prid-o), to take Niagara. Ticonderoga was assigned to Gen. Amherst; and Wolfe was to attack Quebec. The first two of these expeditions were successful, though at the siege of Niagara Prideaux was killed. On the approach of Amherst, the French abandoned Ticonderoga and descended Lake Champlain. It was expected that the commander would then march to the north and aid in reducing Canada ; but, delaying unnecessarily, he left this difficult enterprise entirely to the intrepid Wolfe.

253. The strength of Quebec was well known, and a powerful armament assembled at Louisburg for its attack. Twenty-two ships-of-the-line and an equal number of smaller vessels, containing 8,000 men and a vast amount of stores

ton? How was the fort finally taken ? What followed? Where did Washington then go ? How was he received and rewarded ? What change was made in the command of the British army?

252. What was the plan of operations for 1759, on the part of the British ? What was Montcalm's condition? What was the result of the first expedition ! What, of the second ? What, of the third ? 253. Where did the force intended

and ammunition, reached the Isle of Orleans, opposite Que bec, on the 26th of June, 1759 (see Map, p. 216]. Opposed to this powerful array was the renowned Montcalm, in a fortress deemed impregnable, with a force superior in number to the English, though no match for them in spirit or discipline.

After reconnoitring the harbor, and erecting a battery at Point Levi, opposite the city, which destroyed the lower town, though unable to reach the citadel, Wolfe chose and fortified a position on the east bank of the Montmorenci [mont-moren'-se). A continuous ledge of rocks, defended by batteries on every side, guarded Montcalm's intrenchments. The only practicable point of attack appeared to be the French camp on the opposite side of the Montmorenci. A violent assault was made, but the English were repulsed with a loss of 400


The months of July and August passed, and still nothing was accomplished. Left unsupported through the culpable inactivity of Amherst, Wolfe found his most strenuous efforts baffled by the strength of the fortress and the vigilance of its commander. Aware that the eyes of the whole English people were upon him, and thirsting for military glory, he resolved that the season should not pass without a decisive conflict. Three desperate plans of assault he submitted to his council of officers, but all were rejected. As a last resort, it was proposed to effect a landing above the city, and, by ascending to the Plains of Abraham, to force Montcalm to an engagement. A close inspection of the side of the cliff revealed a narrow path, which seemed, from the tents on the top, to be guarded by no more than a hundred men. If these could be surprised, the whole army might ascend in safety. The undertaking was desperate; but there was a

for Quebec assemble? Of how many men and ships did it oonsist ? When did they reach the scene of action? [See Map, p. 216.-How is Quebec situated ? In what direction from it is Point Levi?] Describe Montcalm's position. What were Wolfe's first movements? How were the French intrenchments defended ? Give an account of the first attack. By what were Wolfe's efforts baffled ? What resolve did he form ? How many plans of assault did he submit ? What was proposed, as a last resort? What means was there of ascending the cliff? How was it guarded? What night was fixed upon for the attack? Give an account




chance of success, and for a brave man like Wolfe this was enough.

The plan was carefully kept secret, and the night following September 13th was set apart for carrying it into execution. An hour after midnight, the English forces floated down with the tide to the appointed spot. Having silently landed, they commenced the difficult ascent, supporting them

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selves by the boughs and shrubs that skirted the narrow path. The Canadian guard on the summit gave way after a few shots; the road to Quebec was gained; and, when day

of the landing. What followed ? 254. How did Montcalm receive the news? Of

dawned, Wolfe and his army, inspirited by their success, stood on the Plains of Abraham.

254. Montcalm could hardly believe the tidings, yet hastened to meet the enemy, summoning to his support the detachments stationed at different points to guard the heights. He had but 2,000 regulars; the rest of his army

consisted of brave but inexperienced Canadians. The French general began the attack. His charge was gallantly received by the English, who reserved their fire till his men were within 40 yards. Before their deadly discharge, the undisciplined Canadians gave way in confusion, and all Montcalm's efforts could not rally them. At this critical point, Wolfe decided the fortune of the day by a well-timed charge with the bayonet. The French on all sides fled. At the moment of victory, Wolfe, already twice wounded, received a third ball in his breast. An officer stood near. “Support me," cried Wolfe, “let not my brave fellows see me drop.” He was carried to the rear; it was plain that his last hour had come. “They run! they run !” exclaimed the officer who supported him. “Who run ?" asked Wolfe, awaking from the lethargy of death. “The French-they give way everywhere.' The spirit of the hero was roused, as he gave

his last commands; then sinking back, he exclaimed, “Now, God be praised, I die happy !” And so he perished, having gained the proudest victory yet won by English arms in the

new world.

Montcalm, who had conducted himself with equal gallantry, met with a fate hardly less glorious. Everywhere present in the thickest of the fight, he did all that mortal could do to redeem the day; but for once fortune deserted him. Twice he was wounded, the last time mortally. “Death is certain," said the surgeon, “you have but ten or twelve hours to live.” “I am glad to hear it,” gasped Montcalm; “I shall not live to see the surrender of Quebec.” He died the

what did his army consist? Give an account of Montcalm's charge. How did Wolfe decide the fortune of the day? What took place at the moment of victory? Describe Wolfe's death-scenę. How did Montcalm conduct himself? What befell him? What appeal did he make to the English commander? What marks

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