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its device a snake, on the head of which were the letters N. E. [New England), while the body was divided into several pieces, marked with the initials of the other colonies. The motto, Join or die, explained its meaning In New Hampshire, on the morning of the eventful day, the bells tolled, and the people assembled as if for a funeral procession. A coffin bearing the name of LIBERTY was borne to a grave on the shoulders of eight persons, to the sound of minuteguns. A funeral oration was pronounced, and the coffin was lowered into the grave. Suddenly signs of life appeared. It was raised to the surface, and now bore the inscription LIBERTY REVIVED.

Enthusiastic shouts from the multitude, and the triumphant sound of drums and trumpets, greeted the resurrection.

The meaning of these demonstrations was not to be misunderstood. It was evident that the Stamp Act could be enforced only by a resort to arms, and from this Parliament shrunk. The wiser part began to urge its repeal, and Franklin, the agent for Pennsylvania, was brought before the House of Commons (February 13th, 1766), and examined on the various points involved in the controversy. His bold and candid answers increased the high reputation he already enjoyed, and called forth the lasting gratitude of his countrymen. In March, Parliament gave way to the determined spirit of the Americans by repealing the odious act, though it reässerted its right “to bind the colonies in all cases whatsoever".

274. Harmony might now have been restored, had not the enemies of America, mortified at their recent defeat, succeeded in passing through Parliament an act for imposing a duty on all tea, glass, paper, and painters' colors, imported into the colonies. At the same time, officers were appointed to enforce the Acts of Navigation and Trade, and the authority of the Assembly of New York, which had refused to quarter British troops at the expense of the colony, was sus

in New York? What, in Boston? What significant device was adopted by a newspaper? What took place in New Hampshire? What was evident from these demonstrations ? Did Parliament like to resort to arms ? What did the wiser part urge? Who was examined before the House of Commons ? What is said of Franklin's answers? What was done in March, 1766 ? 274. What now

1768]

MEETINGS AT FANEUIL HALL.

195

pended till it should comply with the requisitions of Parliament.

This injudicious course again roused the indignation of the colonists, which was increased in the fall of 1768 by the announcement that Parliament had determined to send several regiments to Boston, to reduce the people to submission. A day of fasting and prayer was appointed. Town-meetings and a general convention of delegates from all parts of the province were held at Fan'-eu-il Hall, at which the course of

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the home government was freely denounced. On the 1st of October, the troops landed. The council refused to furnish them quarters, and it was with difficulty that accommodations prevented harmony from being restored ? What injudicious enactments followed ? What feeling was awakened in the colonies ? How was it increased in the fall

What action was taken by the people? When did the troops land ? What difficulty awaited them? What took place at the next meeting of the Gen

of 1768 ?

were procured for them, even at the expense of the crown. When the next General Court met, an armed force was found stationed in the hall. Otis and others protested against so tyrannical an attempt to overawe the members; and, when the governor called on the House to pay for the quartering of the troops, they firmly refused to do so.

275. The governors of the colonies at this time were in the interest of the king, and constantly tried to extend their authority at the expense of the people. Their subordinates followed their example, and sought to enrich themselves by all kinds of extortion. In North Carolina, this was done by sheriffs, constables, and other officers, to such an extent, that the people in some of the southern settlements, unable to bear the burdens thus unjustly imposed, rose in their own defence. They assumed the name of Regulators, and determined to resist the payment of all taxes that were not authorized by law and honestly appropriated. Governor Tryon chose to regard this movement as an insurrection; and, a corrupt grand-jury supporting his views, he proceeded against them with the militia of the colony. The Regulators assembled in alarm when they heard that their fields were being devastated by Tryon's forces; but, lacking arms and ammunition, they were easily defeated. A number of the prisoners were hanged. Some of the best estates in the country were confiscated to the governor and his satellites; and the persecuted Regulators, though convicted of nothing more than a desire to have existing laws honestly executed, were obliged to submit or flee to the west. Not a few chose the latter alternative. The Cherokees granted them land, and they founded a republic which afterwards became the state of Tennessee. Tryon soon went to New York, of which he had been appointed governor, leaving North Carolina to discharge a debt of $200,000 contracted by his reckless proceedings.

276. The soldiers brought over for the extinction of lib

eral Court? 275. What is said of the governors of the colonies at this time? What, of their subordinates ? What took place in North Carolina ? How did Governor Tryon choose to regard this movement? What steps did he take? What was the result? What was the origin of the state of Tennessee? Where did Tryon

1770]

THE BOSTON MASSACRE.

197

erty, imbibing the spirit of their masters, conducted themselves so offensively that difficulties with the inhabitants constantly occurred. In New York, early in 1770, they cut down a liberty-pole which had stood three years in the Park. An affray followed, in which the people had the advantage, and a new pole was erected in the upper part of the city. In Boston, the excesses of the soldiers, and the injustice of their officers in screening them from punishment, gave the people just grounds for complaint. A collision between the troops and the citizens in March, 1770) was the natural result. Three of the latter were killed, and several wounded. This event was called “the Boston Massacre". It produced the deepest excitement, and fatally widened the existing breach. The townsmen, with Samuel Adams at their head, insisted on the immediate withdrawal of the troops, and their commander was obliged to remove them to the neighboring fort.

An occurrence at Providence, also, showed the temper of the times. A royal schooner, the Gaspee, cruising near that place, kept annoying the inhabitants by taking their property, firing at market-boats, and illegally seizing the cargoes of such vessels as it overhauled. While chasing a packet, in June, 1772, the Gaspee ran aground. This opportunity was not to be lost. The same night, a party from Providence boarded the stranded vessel, and set fire to it, after putting the crew ashore. Every effort to punish the perpetrators of the act failed.

277. The merchants of America adhered to their resolution not to import British commodities, and the effect began to be felt across the Atlantic. An appeal was made to Parliament by London merchants; and, in 1770, Lord North having become prime minister, the offensive duty was removed from every article except tea, on which it was retained, to show that Parliament still claimed the right. It was against this

soon after go? 276. How did the soldiers conduct themselves towards the inhabitants ? What took place in New York ? What, in Boston ? On what did the people of Boston insist? What was the result? Give an account of the burning of the Gaspee. 277. To what determination did the merchants of America adhere? Where did the effect begin to be felt? What was the consequence ? On what ar

alleged right, however, and not the tax itself, that the Americans had contended; and they were by no means satisfied with such tardy and partial concession. The use of tea was voluntarily laid aside; and, to insure united action, the friends of liberty (now known as Whigs, in contradistinction to the Tories, or advocates of Parliamentary taxation) established committees of correspondence in the various colonies.

No orders being received from America, tea rapidly accumulated in the English warehouses. The duty before laid on its exportation was now removed, with the view of lowering the price, and thus inducing the colonists to purchase it in spite of the import tax. Cargoes were sent to different American ports, but the result showed that the spirit of the colonies was not yet understood. At New York and Philadelphia, the ships, prevented from landing their cargoes, were sent back as they came. At Charleston, the tea was stored in damp cellars, where it was spoiled. At Boston, the captains would have complied with the demands of the citizens and returned to London, but the governor and custom-house officers withheld their permission. Finding the authorities determined to force the tea upon them, the people settled the question for themselves. Seven thousand men assembled in town-meeting on the 16th of December, 1773, a day memorable in history. Fearless speeches were made by Adams, Quincy, and others; at the close of which, an hour after dark, a war-whoop was raised, and about fifty persons, disguised as Indians, were seen to pass the door in the direction of the wharf where the three tea-ships were moored. The vessels were boarded; and the contents of 340 chests of tea were emptied into the water. No resistance was offered, and all the proceedings were conducted in the most orderly manner, in the presence of a vast concourse.

As the party were returning, they passed a house at which Admiral Montague was spending the evening. Raising the

ticle was the tax retained ? Why? How did the Americans show their aversion to the principle ? To insure united action, what did the friends of liberty do ? What was done in England, to induce the colonists to purchase tea? Where were cargoes sent? What was the result in New York and Philadelphia ? In Charleston? Who prevented the ships sent to Boston from returning? What took

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