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reply. A soldier belonging to the marauding party was afterwards wounded and taken prisoner by some Americans. One of the ladies whom he had plundered, returning good for evil, hastily tore up her only remaining handkerchief to bind his bleeding arm.

365. The winter of 1778–79 was passed by the northern American army at Middlebrook, N. J. In preparing for the spring campaign, Washington found both the men and officers of the New Jersey brigade disposed to abandon the service, in consequence of the backwardness of Congress in paying them and providing for their wants. Their beloved general could not blame them, for he had often expostulated with Congress on the subject; but his tender solicitations and warm appeals to their love of country induced them still to suffer in the holy cause.

366. To command the Hudson at the crossing called King's Ferry, about 40 miles from New York, Washington selected for fortification two elevated headlands on opposite sides of the river, known as Stony and Verplanck's Point. Before the defences were completed, Gen. Clinton moved up the river with a strong force. The troops at Stony Point retired at his approach, and the other garrison, unable to stand the heavy fire of the British from the opposite heights, surrendered (June 1st, 1779) as prisoners of war. The fortifications were completed without delay, and Col. Johnson was left in command of Stony Point, with a garrison of 600 men.

While these posts remained in the enemy's hands, AmeriWhat took place at Mrs. Wilkinson's ? 365. Where did Washington pass the winter of 1778–79? What disposition was manifested by the New Jersey brigade? How were they induced to remain in the service? 366. How did Washington propose to command King's Ferry ? [See Map.-What two forts on the Hudson north of Stony Point? What village south of Stony Point? What mountain southwest of West Point?] Who attacked the defences at Stony and Verplanck's

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STONY POINT AND VICINITY.

1779]

WAYNE SURPRISES STONY POINT.

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can messengers had to take a circuit of many miles in bearing communications between the east and south; Washington, therefore, determined to recover them, and intrusted the difficult enterprise to Gen. Wayne. On the 15th of July, Wayne's detachment of light infantry mustered 14 miles below Stony Point. The day was spent in marching through narrow defiles and over ragged rocks. At eight in the evening, they halted about a mile from the fort. From this point they were guided by a negro named Pompey, who was in the habit of visiting the garrison after his day's work to sell them strawberries. Accompanied by one or two of Wayne's advanced guards, Pompey boldly approached the outposts, and gave the countersign, while his companions, watching their opportunity, seized and gagged the sentinels.

Thus the Americans reached the base of the bluff undiscovered. The fort, as they gazed up at it, seemed almost impregnable. It lay on a rocky height, accessible only by a steep and narrow path. At half past eleven, Wayne's army commenced the ascent. They were not observed till within a few feet of the pickets. Here they received several shots, but pressed forward with the bayonet. The roll of the drum roused the sleeping garrison, and quick discharges of cannon and musketry met the advancing columns. Wayne was wounded, and bade his aides carry him forward that he might die at the head of his men. He soon found, however, that his injury was not mortal. His comrades pressed gallantly on, and the British were obliged to surrender. Their loss amounted to 63 killed and 543 made prisoners. Wayne had but 15 killed and 83 wounded. The next morning, the cannon were turned on the works at Verplanck's Point. But before any impression was made on them, Wayne, fearing an attack from New York, destroyed the fort and beat a retreat. Congress had a gold medal struck in honor of this brilliant achievement.

Point? What was the result? Who was left in command of Stony Point? What enterprise was projected by Washington ? To whom did he intrust it? When and where did Wayne's light infantry muster? How did they succeed in passing the outposts ? Describe their ascent of the bluff. Give an account of the assault. What was the result? State the loss on each side. What was done the next morning? At length what did Wayne deem it prudent to do? How did Con

367. About this time, the merciless Tryon was sent to New Haven, with 2,500 men, to burn the shipping in that port. The militia rallied in its defence, but were driven back; and several vessels, together with large quantities of military and naval stores, were destroyed. Tryon then visited Fairfield, Norwalk, and Greenwich, all of which he reduced to ashes.

368. The massacres of Wyoming and Cherry Valley were still fresh in the memory of the Americans; and in August Gen. Sullivan was sent, with nearly 5,000 men, to punish the Iroquois by destroying their villages and devastating their country. On the Ti-o'-ga River he was met by the Indians in full force under Brant, and a band of tories headed by Sir John Johnson. They had thrown up works in European style, and bravely defended them till the Americans gained some high ground on their flank, when they gave way in confusion. Fleeing to swamps and forests, the Red Men left their pleasant villages and luxuriant corn-fields, from the Susquehanna to the Genesee, eptirely at the mercy of the invaders. Fearful was the vengeance inflicted. Whole villages were given to the flames. At Wyoming, no mercy was shown but the hatchet; here, none but the firebrand. On the 14th of September, Sullivan reached the metropolis of the Genesee valley; 128 buildings and 160,000 bushels of corn were there destroyed. The whole region was swept as by a tornado; and the terrible vengeance of "the Town-destroyer", as they called Washington, was never forgotten.

369. On the 1st of September, Count D'Estaing, who had gained some victories in the West Indies, appeared off Savannah with his fleet. The British under Prevost were still in possession of the city, and Gen. Lincoln hastened to cooperate with the French against them. Prevost was summoned to surrender by the French admiral, but was unwisely allowed a day for consideration. Employing this time in

gress commemorate this victory? 367. Give an account of Tryon's expedition to Connecticut. 368. Who was sent to punish the depredations of the Iroquois ? Give an account of the battle with Brant. What followed on the part of Sullivan ? What place was reached by the Americans, September 14th ? What were there committed to the flames? What name did the Indians give Washington ? 369. On the 1st of September, who appeared off Savannah ? By whom was the city still held ?

1779]

UNSUCCESSFUL ATTACK ON SAVANNAH.

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strengthening his defences, the British commandant finally announced his determination to hold the city. A heavy cannonade was opened by the besiegers. The town suffered severely. The inhabitants were driven to their cellars, and ventured in the streets only at the peril of their lives. Prevost could not have held out more than ten days; but the restless D'Estaing was in a hurry to leave, and gave the Americans their choice, either to raise the siege or carry the place by storm. Though it was risking a victory already certain, Lincoln would not allow his allies to depart, but declared himself ready for the attack.

On the 9th of October, the French and Americans advanced against the British works in three divisions. They were received with a heavy fire, which mowed down whole platoons, and wounded the French leader. Still they pressed on, and the flags of France and South Carolina were soon waving from the parapet. In a moment, the men who placed them there fell by a discharge of musketry. Sergeant Jasper, the hero of Fort Moultrie, beheld the flag of his state in the act of falling ; springing forward, he fixed it securely on the parapet, and fell, mortally wounded, in the act. Just then a charge of fresh troops from the garrison swept the assailants from the works.

In other parts the attack was equally unsuccessful. The gallant Pulaski, one of America's noblest defenders, rushing forward with the consecrated banner placed in his hand by Moravian nuns, was struck down by a cannon-ball, to rise:

His followers were driven from the field; and the British obtained a complete victory. Lincoln wished to renew the attack; but D'Estaing refused to do so, and withdrew his fleet. The American general, mortified at the failure of an enterprise which nothing but the caprice of his ally had defeated, led his diminished army to Charleston.

370. Among the names conspicuous in American history at this period, is that of John Paul Jones. A native of ScotWho hastened to join in the attack? Give an account of the siege of Savannah. What unwise course was proposed by D'Estaing ? Describe the assault. Give an account of Jasper's fall. Of Pulaski's. D'Estaing proceed to do? Whither did Gen. Lincoln move? 370. What is said

no more.

What was the result? What did

land, he early embarked in the naval service of the United States, and was the first to unfurl the banner of the Republic on the Delaware. The capture of 16 prizes in little more than six weeks proved his activity and prowess. In 1778, he enlarged his sphere of operations, and kept the coast of Scotland and England in constant alarm. Boldly entering the harbor of Whitehaven, he took two forts, and fired the shipping they protected. Hurrying from point to point, wherever a prize was to be taken or a daring deed to be achieved, he seemed everywhere present and always invincible. In September, 1779, in the Bon Homme Richard [bo-nom' re-shar'] (good man Richard), of 40 guns, accompanied by the Alliance and several smaller vessels, Jones encountered, off the coast of Scotland, a British merchant fleet returning from the Baltic under convoy of two frigates. The commander of the Serapis, a 44-gun frigate, bore down on the Americans, and one of the most terrible actions recorded in naval history followed. Jones, that the enemy might have no advantage from the superior size of their guns, brought his vessel so close to the Serapis that their sides touched. Broadside after broadside was poured in by both parties. The Serapis was soon in flames, and the Bon Homme Richard, little more than a shapeless hull, had most of her guns silenced. The British attempted to board the latter, but were repulsed. The Alliance now came up, and, after first giving her consort a broadside by mistake, turned her guns on the

enemy.

The Serapis struck. Her flames were arrested, and Jones, finding that his own vessel was sinking, hastily transferred his crew to the captured frigate. Of 375 men, with whom he had begun the action, 300 were either killed or wounded. Meanwhile the consort of the Serapis had also surrendered, and the American victory was thus complete. With some difficulty, Jones brought his shattered prizes to the coast of Holland.

of John Paul Jones ? At the commencement of the war, how did he prove his prowess ? In 1778, what did he do? Relate his exploit at Whitehaven. What was his vessel called? On the 23d of September, what did he encounter? Give an account of the engagement with the Serapis. How did it result? How many men did Paul Jones lose? What did he do with his prizes ?

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