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1780]

THE BRITISH ATTACK CHARLESTON.

269

CHAPTER XVI.

CAMPAIGN OF 1780. — FALL OF CHARLESTON. PARTISAN

WARFARE IN THE SOUTH. — BATTLE OF CAMDEN.

371. THE winter of 1779-80 was passed by one division of the northern army of the United States at West Point, under Gen. Heath; by the other, at Morristown, N. J., under Washington. Lincoln commanded at the south; and, as all hope of recovering Georgia had vanished with the repulse at Savannah, he confined himself to efforts in behalf of South Carolina, particularly Charleston, now threatened by the British. On the 10th of February, 1780, a fleet of the ene

my landed a strong body of troops on the islands in the harbor. The British ships sailed past the American forts with little or no loss, and batteries

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were erected at various points. Gen. Clinton now demanded the surrender of the city; but Lincoln, who had been reën

371. Where did the northern army of the United States spend the winter of 1779-80 ? To what did Gen. Lincoln confine his attention? Give an account of the investment of Charleston. [See Map.—What large island southeast of Charleston ? At the mouth of what creek did the British galleys lie? Near what river was

forced, resolved to hold out as long as possible. A destructive fire was at once commenced by the enemy.

General Hu'-ger had been stationed near the head of Ashley River with a body of cavalry. On the 14th of April, his detachment was surprised and dispersed by Tarleton. Four days after, Cornwallis arrived from New York with 3,000 additional men. An incessant cannonade was maintained, and the condition of the inhabitants was deplorable in the extreme. Cannon-balls were continually flying through the air, shells exploding, buildings falling, and flames crackling. It was impossible to hold out longer. On the 12th of May, articles of capitulation were signed. Four frigates,

, 400 pieces of artillery, and 5,000 Americans, of whom the garrison constituted about one-half, thus fell into the hands of the

enemy. 372. The British followed up their success at Charleston with active measures for completing the subjugation of South Carolina. Garrisons were stationed at different points, and 2,000 men were despatched towards North Carolina to overawe the whigs in that direction. Tarleton, with 700 horsemen, overtook a party of retreating Americans under Col. Bu'-ford at Waxhaws, and put them to the sword while asking quarter. For a time the patriots of Carolina seemed paralyzed. Many consented to recognize the king's authority, on condition that they would not be required to serve in the war; and Clinton, believing that South Carolina was “ again entirely English”, left Cornwallis in command of the southern

army,

and returned to New York. 373. Soon after his departure, the overbearing conduct of the British, and their violation of the terms of the surrender, opened the

of the people, and awakened a determined spirit of resistance. Some of the principal citizens of Charleston were seized and imprisoned. More than a thousand per

eyes

the British hospital ?] What befell Huger's detachment of horse ? By whom was Clinton reënforced ? Describe the situation of the besieged city. What took place on the 12th of May? What did the British gain by the surrender? 372. How did the British follow up their success? Give an account of Buford's defeat. What did Clinton think with respect to South Carolina ? Whom did he leave in command of the southern army? 373. After Clinton's departure, what course was

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PARTISAN WARFARE IN THE SOUTH,

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sons were deprived of their property and driven from their homes. Reports of these outrages were not long in spreading over the state, and no stronger argument against making terms with the enemy was needed. Sumter, Wynn, and others, organized parties, with the determination of keeping the field till their country was free. Living in the woods on the precarious food they afforded, ready for march or battle at a moment's notice, these brave hearts were the scourge of the British and tories,-appearing when least expected, cutting off straggling parties, swooping down on the rear of their armies, always fearless and generally victorious. Sometimes they met the enemy with but three rounds of ammunition to each man; and often part of a company took the field unprovided with arms, waiting to obtain those of their companions who should fall.

374. In June, 1780, Cornwallis despatched a party of cavalry and tories to crush some of these troublesome rebels. On the way, they stopped at the house of a Mrs. Bratton, and asked where her husband was. “In Sumter's army,” was the reply Incensed at this avowal, the commander was prevented from killing her only by the solicitation of a brother officer. During the night, the patriots in the neighborhood learned of the arrival of the enemy. A small force assembled, and the British were captured. Among the prisoners was an officer, on whom, for previous offences, sentence of death was pronounced. As a last favor, he begged to be led into the presence of Mrs. Bratton. Recognizing him as her preserver,

she interceded in his behalf, and his life was granted to her prayers.

375. Among the most successful partisan leaders was Francis Marion, a descendant of the Huguenots of South Carolina, who had served in early life against the Cherokees, and subsequently at Fort Sullivan and Charleston. While hastening to join the American regiments, then on their march to the south, he organized a mounted band of about twenty pursued by the British? What was the consequence? Who organized parties to oppose the British? Deseribe the partisan warfare of this period. 374. Relate an incident that happened in June, 1780. 375. What partisan leader was particularly distinguished? Where had he seen service ? Describe Marion's "ragged

men and boys, some white and others black. Their wretched clothing gained for them the name of “the ragged regiment”, and led the proud Gates, who had just been appointed to the command of the southern department, to dispense with their services in the regular army, and send them to the interior of Carolina. Though Gates was ashamed of " the ragged regiment”, their gallant leader was not. Increasing their number from time to time, as circumstances allowed, he achieved with their aid a series of minor though brilliant victories.

Still Cornwallis remained master of South Carolina. Camden (see Map, p. 286] was his principal rendezvous in the upper country, and thither the tories flocked. Meanwhile, the American army just alluded to was slowly approaching. Its command had been intrusted to the veteran De Kalb; but, towards the end of July, Gen. Gates superseded De Kalb by the appointment of Congress. Elated by his former success, Gates resolved to strike a decisive blow, and pushed rapidly on, though his men were suffering much from sickness and scarcity of food. As he advanced, the British outposts fell back on Camden; and by the middle of August the two armies lay encamped within a short distance of each other, ready for battle.

376. The hopes of southern patriots were revived by the news of Gates's approach. A number of farmers, hunters, and others, who were tired of the British yoke, quickly appeared in the field; and Sumter, who was called to their command, soon found himself at the head of 600 men. With these he dispersed several bodies of the enemy near the Great Pe-dee'. On the 6th of August, he attacked a large detachment at Hanging Rock. The powder used on this occasion was saved by the heroism of two women. It had been

regiment". What did Gates think of it? What did it enable Marion to achieve? To what place did the tories flock? What was the American army doing? Who commanded it? What did Gates resolve to do? On what place did the British ontposts fall back? What was the position of the armies at the middle of August? 376. What effect had Gates's approach on the southern patriots? What partisan leader took the command ? Where did Sumter operate with success ? [See Map, p. 286.-Where is the Great Pedee? Where is Camden? On what river is Hanging Rock?] On the 6th of August, what did Sumter do? How was his

1780]

BATTLE OF HANGING ROCK.

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stored in a house occupied by Mrs. Thomas with her daughter and son-in-law, which was attacked by a party of the enemy. Aware that Sumter's army would be powerless if the ammunition were taken, they determined to defend it to the last extremity. The doors were barricaded. The two women loaded guns, and the son-in-law discharged them with such rapidity and effect, that the British supposed a body of men to be posted there, and gave up the attack. The powder was saved, but there was only enough to afford each man two charges. With this small allowance, the battle of Hanging Rock was commenced. Fortunately the tories fled early in the action, and the ammunition they left behind enabled Sumter's men to repel the bayonets of the British. Nothing but the arrival of reënforcements saved the latter from total defeat.

Among the boys who began a brave career under Sumter in the battle of Hanging Rock, was Andrew Jackson, not yet fourteen years of age. He and his brother were soon afterwards captured, but in the spring of 1781 they were set free by an exchange of prisoners. Both were sick with smallpox at the time; Andrew survived, his brother died. The account they gave of the sufferings of their countrymen on the prison-ships in Charleston harbor induced their widowed mother, with a few other intrepid women, to visit them, at the risk of insult and danger, with food, clothing, and medicine. Having contracted the fatal prison fever on board one of the ships, Mrs. Jackson died on her return, a short distance from Charleston, a martyr to the heroic spirit which animated the daughters of Carolina in “the times that tried men's souls”. The young Andrew, thus left without a single relative in the land of his birth, devoted much of his life from this time to the service of his country, who afterwards rewarded his fidelity with the highest office in her gift.

377. Sumter's success, added to the intelligence of Gates's rapid approach, alarmed Cornwallis, and he hastened from powder saved from the British ? How many charges did each man have? How was a further supply obtained ? How did the battle of Hanging Rock terminate ? Who began a brave career at Hanging Rock? How old was he! What befell Andrew Jackson and his brother? Give an account of their mother's fate.

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