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1780]

HE MAKES GOOD HIS ESCAPE.

279

already mentioned. Refusing to release him, even for ten thousand guineas, they bore him to the nearest American post. The officer there in command, not suspecting Arnold, sent Andre to his quarters with a letter explaining why he was detained; but, on consultation with others, the order was countermanded. Andre was taken to North Salem, whence he wrote to Washington, informing him of his name and rank, and the circumstances in which he was placed

On the morning of Andre's arrest, Arnold expected Washington at his quarters; but, as the latter did not arrive, he sat down to breakfast with his family. While there, a letter was placed in his hands, announcing Andre's capture. Calling his wife up-stairs, he told her that they must part at once, perhaps forever, and bade her a hasty adieu. Mrs. Arnold, who was unacquainted with her husband's treacherous designs, dismayed at his words, fell fainting to the floor. Hastily kissing his infant boy, who lay asleep in the cradle, the traitor left the house by an unfrequented path, and escaped in his barge to the Vulture, which lay a few miles below. Here he not only refused to give the boatmen their fee, but even offered to surrender them as prisoners to the British. The captain of the Vulture, however, despising his meanness, paid the men and let them go.

Washington presently arrived at the Robinson house, and, not finding Arnold, crossed to West Point.

Here he was equally unsuccessful. Returning to Robinson's, he soon had an explanation of Arnold's absence in the news of Andre's capture and the papers found on his person. Unfortunately, , it was too late to arrest the traitor. A letter was shortly after received from him, soliciting protection for his wife. It found her frantic with despair at her husband's disgrace. She was treated kindly by the American officers, and allowed to rejoin the unworthy object of her affection. Peekskill? What was the ground about Tarrytown, on which Andre was captured, called?] Where was Andre taken at first? Where, finally ? From North Salem, to whom did Andre write? State the circumstances under wbich Amold learned the discovery of his plot. Describe his parting interview with his wife. How did he escape ? How did he treat the boatmen to whom he owed his escape ? Meanwhile, who arrived at the Robinson house? Where did he seek Arnold ? What at length explained Arnold's absence ? How did his wife feel? How was

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was

were

383. Washington now fixed his head-quarters at Tappan, and Andre was conveyed thither under strong escort. He tried by a

2 3 2 court of fourteen generals, among whom

La Fayette, Greene, Steuben, and Stirling. The prison.

WASHINGTON'S QUARTERS AT TAPPAN. er conducted his own defence, and made a plain statement of the facts, denying that he was a spy, inasmuch as he had entered the American lines on the invitation of an American general. The court, however, after long deliberation, pronounced him a spy, and sentenced him to death. Andre was a brave, amiable, and accomplished man; and his sentence, though just, excited the sympathies of Americans as well as British. Clinton tried every means to effect his release. Washington proposed to exchange him for Arnold; but, gladly as the British general would have done this, he felt that he could not honorably break his faith even with a traitor, and reluctantly declined the offer. The sentence was carried into effect on the 2d of October. Andre showed no fear of death, but asked to be shot, instead of hanged. Even this last request Washington felt compelled to refuse. The remains of the unfortunate officer were buried near the place of execution, but were afterwards disinterred and taken to London, where they now rest in Westminster Abbey. The three honest

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she treated ? 383. Where did Washington now fix his head-quarters ? Who was brought there? Give an account of Andre's trial and defence. What was the verdict? What was Andre's character? What efforts were made by Clinton ? What did Washington propose ? How was this proposal received by Clinton ? When was the sentence carried out? What was Andre's last request? What

1780]

ATTEMPT TO CAPTURE ARNOLD.

281

patriots who refused his bribes, were rewarded by Congress with a silver medal and a pension of $200 a year.

384. Washington could not give up the hope of punishing Arnold for his perfidy, and with the aid of Major Lee laid a plan to capture him. A Virginian named John Champe undertook the dangerous enterprise, which was kept a profound secret. Champe left the American camp late at night. An alarm was given; but Lee, aware of the cause, managed to give the pretended deserter sufficient time to make good his escape to a British boat. He played his part so well that he was received without the least suspicion into Arold's legion of loyalists and deserters. The traitor's quarters were in the lower part of Broadway, New York. Champe's plan was to seize him in the garden back of his house, gag him, and convey him in a boat across the river.

He was prevented from executing it by Arnold's accidentally changing his quarters. Compelled to accompany his regiment to Virginia, he at last found an opportunity of rejoining his old companions, among whom the story of his risks awakened no little interest. Arnold received the promised reward, and wreaked his malice on America by devastating different parts of the country; but, on his arrival in England, he was treated with universal contempt. In his native country, his name was always mentioned with detestation. “I was born in America,” said Arnold years afterwards to a French statesman, “I lived there to the prime of my life; but, alas ! I can call no man in America

my

friend.” 385. After his success at Camden, Cornwallis proceeded to overrun North Carolina.

Advancing as far as Charlotte, he waited for Major Ferguson, who had been sent to the mountain-region to enroll the royalists, and overawe those that favored the patriot cause. Ferguson met with more resistance than he anticipated. At one place, a lady at whose house he stopped, after waiting on him and his officers at ta

became of Andre's remains ? How were his captors rewarded ? 384. Who laid a plan to capture Arnold ? By whom was the enterprise undertaken? Give an account of Champe's adventures. What is said of Arnold's subsequent history? What remark did he make to a French statesman ? 385. What were Cornwallis's movements, after gaining the victory of Camden? Who was sent to the moun

ble, stole from the room, mounted a wild young horse, rode to a neighboring encampment of Americans, and warned them that they were in danger of attack. She was absent so short a time that she escaped suspicion; and, when the British attempted to surprise the Americans shortly before daylight, they found the latter ready to receive them with loaded rifles. In the battle which ensued, the British were repulsed with great loss.

By this time the mountaineers were collecting in numbers, under Colonels Campbell and Shelby and other distinguished officers. Even the want of ammunition did not keep them from the field. They made their own powder, from nitre found in the mountain caverns and charcoal burned by the women on their own hearths. A thousand of these determined men gave chase to Ferguson's detachment, and overtook it at King's Mountain on the 7th of October. Encamped on the top, the British felt secure; but with such impetuous courage and deadly aim were they attacked, that their leader and many of his best officers fell, and the rest, finding themselves hemmed in on all sides, surrendered. Their total loss in killed, wounded, and prisoners, amounted to over 1,100 men. The Americans had but 20 killed, though a large number were wounded. Ten tories, who had been active in robbing and murdering their countrymen, were hanged the following morning.

CHAPTER XVIII.

CAMPAIGN OF 1781.—THE COWPENS.-GUILFORD COURT

HOUSE. — NINETY-SIX.—EUTAW SPRINGS.

386. The commencement of the year 1781 found the affairs of America in a more hopeless condition than ever.

tain-region? For what purpose? Tell how a body of Americans was saved from surprise. Under what leaders did the mountaineers collect? How did they get powder ? Where did they overtake Ferguson's detachment? When? [See Map, p. 286.-Where is King's Mountain ?] Give an account of the engagement. What was the loss on each side? What was done to ten of the captured tories?

1781]

MUTINIES IN THE AMERICAN CAMP.

283

Congress had resolved to have an efficient army in the field by the 1st of January. But men would not enlist when the sufferings of those already in the service were known throughout the land; and it was even feared that the few already enrolled, would have to be disbanded for want of food. On the night of January 1st, 1781, the Pennsylvania regiments broke out into open mutiny, declaring that they would march to Philadelphia, and compel Congress to redress their wrongs. Gen. Wayne, who was a great favorite with his men, tried to no purpose to restrain them. They presented their bayonets to his breast, and 1,300 strong commenced their march to Philadelphia. Washington was at New Windsor; and, not feeling sure of the disposition of the other troops, he thought it best to let Congress settle the difficulty. A committee of that body met the disaffected men, and succeeded in satisfying them. While still insisting on their rights, they were as stanch patriots as ever; not only had they no idea of joining the royal army, but they even handed over to Gen. Wayne, as spies, several emissaries, who had come to seduce them into the British service.

The example of the Pennsylvanians was soon followed by the New Jersey brigade; and Washington found it necessary to put down the mutiny by force, and execute its leaders on the spot. These demonstrations showed Congress the necessity of more earnest efforts for obtaining funds and · properly supporting the army. As the resources of America seemed to be exhausted, an agent was sent to France for the purpose of obtaining a loan. In February, 1781, Robert Morris was appointed superintendent of finance. By using his private credit for the government, he restored confidence in the honesty of Congress and its ability to pay its debts. The Bank of North America was established by his recom

386. Describe the state of affairs in America at the commencement of 1781. What apprehensions were entertained ? What took place, January 1st, 1781 ? What passed between the insurgents and Gen. Wayne? Where was Washington? What did he deem it best to do? How did Congress settle the difficulty ? What did the mutineers do to the British emissaries? By whom was this example of mutiny followed? What course was pursued by Washington ? What was the consequence of these demonstrations ? Where was it attempted to obtain a loan? What office was conferred on Robert Morris ? State the measures taken

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