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mendation and placed under his direction. Securing all the gold that he could obtain in the United States, he redeemed the bills of the bank as they were presented, and then privately sending round agents, again got possession of the gold, and was ready to redeem more. It was out of his power to make good the $200,000,000 of continental money already issued; but the engagements entered into from this time were promptly met, and the army was kept from disbanding

387. Congress, in 1777, had agreed upon certain “ Articles of Confederation”, to serve as a basis of union for the states. Several years elapsed before these articles were ratified by all the members of the confederacy. Maryland was the last to accept them, March 1st, 1781.

388. On his appointment to the command of the southern department, General Greene reorganized the army, and stationed detachments at various exposed points. A division of 1,000 men under Gen. Morgan, one of the heroes of Stillwater, was posted at the junction of the Broad and Pac-o-let' Rivers (see Map, p. 286]. Tarleton, with a superior force, was despatched against them. The Americans fell back to a favorable position at the Cowpens; and there, on the 17th of January, 1781, an obstinate engagement took place. Tarleton's men charged with that fierce impetuosity, which in former battles had at once insured victory by throwing the American militia into confusion; but on this occasion they were received with a firmness they had not expected, and the deadly aim of men used to the rifle. This brave resistance made the British veterans waver, and a vigorous charge of Col. Washington's cavalry, supported by the infantry under Col. Howard, decided the fortune of the day in favor of the patriots. The Americans lost about 70 men, of whom but 12 were killed. The British loss amounted to 100 killed and 533 captured. Valuable spoils, including 35 baggage

by Mr. Morris to sustain the credit of Congress. 387. What is said of the "Articles of Confederation”? 388. What was Gen. Greene's first care on assuming command? Where was Morgan posted ? [See Map, p. 286.-Describe the Broad River. The Pacolet. Where were the Cowpens situated ?] Who was sent against Morgan's detachment? Where did Morgan and Tarleton meet! Give an account

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the 1781] MORGAN'S MEMORABLE RETREAT.

285 wagons and 100 dragoon horses, fell into the hands of the victors.

Tarleton, who had been wounded by Col. Washington in a personal encounter during the battle, could not forgive his antagonist. Some time afterwards he remarked in company that he had heard Col. Washington was so ignorant he could not write his own name.*Ah! colonel,” replied a whig lady who was present, " you should know better; for you bear evidence that he can make his mark.

389. Cornwallis was much chagrined at Tarleton's defeat. Destroying his heavy baggage, he set out with all speed in had made for Virginia. By rapid marches the Americans reached the Catawba, and crossed it. just two hours before the British army arrived at the bank. As the day was nearly spent, Cornwallis concluded to wait till morning; but during the night a heavy rain set in, and the river was so swollen that for three days it was impassable. At the expiration of that time, the pursuit was resumed.

Meanwhile Gen. Greene, who had hastened to Morgan's aid, assumed command of the retreating army. While Cornwallis was crossing the Catawba, the American general entered the town of Salisbury [sawlz-ber-re], drenched with rain and overcome with fatigue. The hostess of the inn at which he put up, hearing him say that he was “hungry, alone, and penniless," after preparing his dinner, brought him all the money she had, and bade him take it, at the same time assuring him that the people were still devoted to the cause of liberty.

390. Encouraged and refreshed, Gen. Greene continued the retreat with all possible haste. That same evening he reached the Yad'-kin, a few miles north of Salisbury, and Cornwallis passed the night at the latter place. Before dawn, the whole American army had crossed the river. Hardly were they safe on the other side, when another heavy of the battle of the Cowpens. What anecdote is told of Tarleton? 389. Where did Morgan go after his victory at the Cowpens ? diately do? Give an account of the crossing of the Catawba. Who now assumed the command of the American army? What story is told of the landlady at Salis

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rain commenced; and, by the time the British came up, they found a swelling flood which it was impossible to cross. Cornwallis marched up the west side of the river to Huntsville, effected the passage at that place, and pressed on to intercept the weary Americans before they should reach the fords of the Dan.

On the 7th of February, Greene and his men reached Guilford Court House, 150 miles from the Cowpens. A short rest was here allowed them, and a junction was effected with the remainder of the army. Still they were too weak to face the enemy, and the retreat was continued. Cornwallis, who had crossed higher up, moved by forced marches in a parallel direction, and both armies advanced at the rate of 30 miles a day. Greene reached the ford first, and on the 14th the bury? 390. What was the position of Greene and Cornwallis on the ensuing night? [See Map.-Describe the Yadkin. What is its name in South Carolina ? How is Salisbury situated ?] What detained Cornwallis here? What river was

next to be reached ? Give an account of the march of the hostile armies. Who

1781]

BATTLE OF GUILFORD COURT HOUSE.

287

whole army got over in safety. Cornwallis here gave up the pursuit, and retired to Hillsborough. Both Morgan and Greene displayed great ability in conducting this memorable retreat. The men bore their hardships with the most praiseworthy fortitude. Their clothing was wretched; their shoes were completely worn out. During most of the march they had eaten but one meal a day, and had slept in the open air, there being no time to pitch their tents.

391. As soon as his army had recovered from its fatigue, Greene again took the field, with the view of harassing the enemy. He avoided a general action by constantly changing his position, but sent out detachments which encountered the enemy with success. On one occasion, a band of tories mistook Col. Lee's troop for a company of their own men,

and were cut down by the Americans, while exclaiming, “God save the king!” For three weeks this kind of war was continued, and so scarce were provisions that the American general was often obliged to ask his soldiers for a piece of bread.

On the 15th of March, Greene determined to hazard an engagement. His

army had been increased by reënforcements to 4,400 men, more than half of whom were militia, and at Guilford Court House [see Map, p. 286] he offered battle to the enemy. Hardly had the action commenced, when the American militia, seized with a panic, gave way. The regulars allowed the retreating militia to pass through their ranks, and maintained the conflict for an hour and a half. The superior discipline of the British, however, finally prevailed. Gen. Greene, seeing his men forced back, and apprehending a failure of ammunition, drew off his army in good order, but was obliged to leave his artillery in the hands of the enemy. By the latter this victory was dearly bought. They had lost 600 men and many valuable officers. Four hundred and nineteen Americans were killed and

reached the ford first? Where did Cornwallis then proceed? Whåt is said of this famous retreat 391. What was Greene's next movement? What policy did he pursue? What mistake was made by a band of tories? What is said of the scarcity of provisions? Where did Greene make a stand on the 15th of March? With how many men ? Give an account of the battle of Guilford Court House. [See Map, p. 286.—Where is Guilford Court House ?] State the loss on each side.

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wounded, and many of the militia embraced the opportunity to desert. A dark, rainy night succeeded this day of slaughter. The dead and wounded were left on the field, and many perished for want of shelter.

392. Though a victor, Cornwallis deemed it prudent to retreat; and Greene, who had retired a short distance, was soon on his track. The British reached Wilmington early in April. Greene passed on with the view of recovering South Carolina. Cornwallis left the defence of that state to Lord Rawdon's division, which was already there, and towards the close of April set out with his army for Virginia. We must go back a few months, to note what was there transpiring

393. On the 4th of January, Arnold, who had sailed from New York with instructions to devastate southern Virginia, landed near Richmond with 1,600 men and destroyed a quantity of stores. Burning with hate against the patriots whom he had tried to betray, he sent out detachments in different directions, whose course was marked with blood and flames. With malignant pleasure he set fire to private as well as public property, and laid waste many a happy home and thriving plantation.

To stop these outrages, La Fayette was sent to Virginia with 1,200 men, and the French fleet was despatched from Rhode Island to prevent Arnold's escape by sea. A British squadron started in pursuit of the French; and an engagement took place off Cape Henlopen, which rendered it necessary for the latter to return. Clinton then sent a reënforcement of 2,000 men to the aid of Arnold, and the work of devastation was carried on more vigorously than ever.

La Fayette exerted himself to the utmost to protect the country, but his force was inadequate to the purpose. His men were chiefly from the north; and fears of the climate and the superior numbers of the enemy, led many to desert. La Fay

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What proved fatal to many of the wounded ? 392. After this victory, where did the British retire ? [See Map.-Where is Wilmington ?] Describe Greene's next movements. What did Cornwallis do? 393. Give an account of Arnold's proceedings in Virginia. What measures were taken to stop these ravages ? How were the French prevented from coöperating? How was Arnold reënforced ?

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