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a few of the subjects that required the immediate attention of government, added to which was the ever-pressing want of money. After long deliberation, Congress determined to raise a revenue by laying duties on the tonnage of vessels and all imported articles.

424. One of the first acts of Congress was to create three departments, the heads of which were known as the Secretary of Foreign Affairs (afterwards Secretary of State), the Secretary of the Treasury, and the Secretary of War. These, together with the Attorney General, were to act as advisers of the president, constituting what was called his Cabinet. Two new departments have since been created (the Navy and the Interior), the heads of which, with the Postmaster General, have seats in the cabinet. The secretaryship of state is the highest cabinet office; this Washington bestowed on Thomas Jefferson, who had been governor of Virginia for two years, and had represented his country at the French court from 1784 to 1789. Alexander Hamilton was made secretary of the treasury. Gen. Knox, who had been at the head of the artillery department throughout the Revolution, was appointed secretary of war, and Edmund Randolph, of Virginia, attorney general.

425. Having directed the secretary of the treasury to present at the next session some plan for restoring the national credit, Congress adjourned on the 29th of September. North Carolina accepted the constitution in November.

426. The president was at first overrun with visitors, who made serious inroads on his time. He soon found it necessary to appoint a fixed hour for their reception, and confine himself at other times to his official duties. Notwithstanding this precaution, he was compelled to labor incessantly, and during the first year of his presidency was twice prostrated by excessive toil. Soon after the adjournment of Congress, wbat means did Congress resort for raising a revenue? 424. What three executive departments were created by Congress ? What did their heads, with the Attorney General, constitute ? What departments have since been created ?. Which is the highest cabinet office ? On whom was it bestowed ? Name the other members of Washington's cabinet. 425. When did Congress adjourn ? What did it do before adjourning? When did North Carolina accept the constitution ? 426. How did Washington prevent his time from being consumed by




he set out on a visit to New England, and was received by the people with every mark of affection. On his return to New York he learned that Gen. Lincoln, who had been sent to treat with the Creeks of Georgia, had failed in his attempts. The Creek chief, at the head of 2,000 warriors, had met the American commissioner, but suddenly broke off negotiations and refused to sign a treaty. About a year afterwards, the attempt was repeated with success.

427. Congress had imposed upon Hamilton a difficult task. Amid financial embarrassments of every kind, it was required of him to provide a revenue for the government and to revive its credit. But his genius was equal to the work. He took the true ground, that, to maintain its credit, the country must pay its honest debts. This principle fortunately prevailed in Congress, and provision was made for the gradual payment of $54,000,000. From this time confidence was entertained in the integrity of the government, and with confidence prosperity returned. Too much credit can not be given to the far-seeing policy of Hamilton. In the eloquent language of Webster, “He smote the rock of the national resources, and abundant streams of revenue burst forth. He touched the dead corpse of public credit, and it sprang upon its feet.”

428. In May, 1790, Rhode Island adopted the constitution, and the confederacy then embraced all of the thirteen original colonies.

429. The insecurity of the settlers on the western frontier early engaged the attention of Congress. Emigrants from the Atlantic states had already penetrated to various points in the valleys of the Ohio and the Mississippi. In 1769, Daniel Boone, a bold hunter of North Carolina, with five enterprising men like himself, explored the wilds of what is now called Kentucky. Boone afterwards returned, and led a larger party to the fruitful region where he had determined visitors ? What is said of the labor required of him? How was he received on his visit to New England ? Give an account of the attempts of the United States to negotiate with the Creeks. 427. What is said of the task required of Hamilton? What ground did he take? What measure of Congress secured the confidence of the country? What does Webster say of Hamilton? 428. In May, 1790, what took place ? 429. What early engaged the attention of Congress ? Give an account of early explorations and settlements in Kentucky. What is said of the


to spend the remainder of his life. Hunting and trapping in luxuriant forests, living on what their rifles afforded, sleeping in cane-brakes, fighting and flying from the Indians by turns, now captured and anon escaping, this little band, increased from time to time by new-comers, underwent a variety of adventures that seem more like the fictions of romance than the truths of history. The natives, ever averse to encroachments on their domains, maintained a perpetual warfare, which required untiring vigilance on the part of the whites. The great chief Pontiac had fallen; but Little Turtle, a famous Miami warrior, was ever ready when a blow was to be 'struck at the hated pale-face.

430. When Great Britain gave up the war in 1783, the western tribes under Little Turtle resolved to continue it. A party of unprincipled men had shortly before murdered some Indians who had been converted by Moravian missionaries and had taken no part in the war. Thirsting for vengeance, the Ohio tribes carried devastation far and wide, putting to death their prisoners with cruel tortures. The whites, though they had now become more numerous and powerful, were hardly strong enough to repel the fierce Algonquins.' In August, 1782, a party of savages appeared before Bryan Station, five miles from Lexington, Kentucky, and tried to draw the garrison out from their log defences. Failing in this, they pretended to depart; but the old hunters, skilled in all the artifices of Indian warfare, felt sure that they were lying in ambush near the fort. At this critical time their water gave out, and it was necessary to obtain a fresh supply. The spring was a short distance off, near a thicket of trees and bushes in which it was supposed the savages were concealed.

If the men went out, it was almost certain they would be shot down and a rush made for the fort; but it was thought, if the women went to the spring, the enemy would refrain from firing and wait for a more favorable opportunity. The heroic women of the fort undertook the per


adventures of Boone and his comrades? How did the natives feel towards them? What chief was ever ready to strike a blow at the whites ? 430. What did the western tribes do in 1783? What provocation had they shortly before received ! same

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HEROISM OF THE WOMEN OF BRYAN STATION, KY. ilous task. Going carelessly to the spring, as if they suspected nothing, they filled their vessels and bore them back to the fort. Five hundred rifles were aimed at them while they were dipping up the water, but not one was fired. The shrewd pioneers of the wilderness had judged Indian character aright. The next day, the surrender of the fort was demanded; but a spirited refusal was returned, and no further attempts were made on its brave defenders.

431. Congress having purchased of the Indians a large tract north of the Ohio, a new impetus was given to emigration. In 1788, a party of New-Englanders commenced the first permanent settlement in Ohio at Marietta. In the

year, Matthias Denman bought the land on which the city of Cincinnati stands. With the aid of a school-master he laid out a town there, the first log hut being built in December, 1789, on what is now the corner of Main and Front streets.


How was this injury avenged? Tell what happened at Bryan Station. 431. What gave a new impetus to emigration ? Give an account of the first permanent settlement in Ohio. What was the origin of Cincinnati ? What occasioned great

The exposed condition of these important settlements in the Ohio valley, as well as the intrigues of the Spaniards, who were trying to detach the west from the Union, was a source of great anxiety to both Washington and Congress. Gen. St. Clair, a Revolutionary officer of high character, was appointed first governor of the territory; and a fort (named after. Washington) was erected within the present limits of Cincinnati, on a spot where the aboriginal mound-builders had constructed one of their vast works. In purchasing the tract referred to, great care had been taken to get the sanction of all the tribes supposed to have an interest in it; but others, who had not signed the treaty, afterwards claimed to be part owners of the land, and assumed so threatening a tone that Congress had no alternative but war. In the fall of 1790, 1,400 men, ill disciplined and poorly equipped, were sent under Gen. Harmer against the Miami villages, on the present site of Fort Wayne, Ind. They reached their destination in safety, and the fields of the Miamis were devastated." Harmer then divided his army into detachments, for the pursuit of the scattered Indians. One of these was soon defeated by Captain Wells, a Kentuckian, who had been carried off by the

savages when a boy and was now one of their chiefs ; another was led into an ambuscade by Little Turtle, and cut to pieces. The remains of the unfortunate army with difficulty made their way back to Fort Washington.

432. The news of Harmer's reverses produced general dissatisfaction; and the president hastened to send a more efficient army into the wilderness. Gen. St. Clair was selected as its leader. Advancing gradually into the enemy's country, he found himself on the 3d of November, 1791, encamped with 1,400 men near a branch of the Wabash, at a place afterwards called Fort Recovery. The Indians were in strong force near at hand, and that very night held a council to decide upon their course. Their leading spirit was Little Turtle,

anxiety to Washington and Congress? Who was appointed first governor of the North-west Territory? What fort was erected? What claims were soon raised ? What was Congress compelled to do? Give an account of Harmer's expedition. 432. What was the consequence of Harmer's reverses? Who was selected as his successor? Where did St. Clair find himself, November 30, 1791 ? What was

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