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An express was sent to consult the government on the subject, and instructions were returned to Gen. Wayne not to insist on the line he had proposed, but to accept that offered by the Indians. Before these orders arrived, however, he had extorted from some of the chiefs a reluctant assent to his terms, and, throwing the instructions just received upon the table, he declared that the treaty should be signed as it then stood. He carried his point. The treaty was signed, and the contest of years was ended.

"Mad Anthony Wayne” was long remembered by the Indians of the west. He is said to have told them, that, if ever they violated their treaty, he would rise from his grave to fight them.

Whether this threat kept them faithful to their agreement or not, it is certain that for years the frontier enjoyed a security which it had never before known. Having thus creditably performed his task, Wayne embarked on Lake Erie, on his way to Philadelphia. While the blasts of December (1796) were tossing his vessel on the boisterous waves, his spirit took its flight from earth. The hero was buried at Presq’ Ile, now Erie.

438. The Indian War having been brought to a successful close, the republicans next seized on the foreign policy of Washington as a subject for the most violent condemnation. On the breaking out of the French Revolution, it was thought in this country that the people were honestly struggling for liberty; and many, gratefully remembering the aid extended to America in her hour of need, proposed engaging actively on the side of France in the wars that followed. Washington immediately issued a proclamation to the effect that strict neutrality must be maintained. Genet, the French minister, finding the government firm, threatened to appeal to the people. This Washington regarded as an insult to the nation, and at his request the obnoxious minister was recalled.

was this offer met by the Indians ? What instructions were received from the government? How were they treated by Wayne ? What did Wayne tell the Indians ?

What was the state of the frontier after his victory? What became of Wayne? Where was he buried ? 438. Of what did the democrats next complain? What had been the feelings of many in America on the breaking out of the French Revolution : What course was pursued by Washington ? What threat was made

1795]

HE RETIRES TO PRIVATE LIFE.

325

A storm of abuse from the opposite party followed. The president was unjustly accused of a criminal regard for British interests, and even of drawing money from the treasury without due authority.

When the news arrived that John Jay, after long negotiations, had concluded a treaty with the English government, which provided for the surrender of the posts in the west, and established more friendly relations between the two countries, the excitement was increased. Mr. Jay was burned in effigy, a copy of the treaty was consigned to the flames before his house in New York by a large concourse, and Hamilton, who attempted to address them, was driven from the ground with stones. The republicans had a majority in the house of representatives; and the violent language used by their leaders before that body convulsed the whole country. The people were at last alarmed for the consequences, and the opposition gradually became less violent. Washington, though urged to serve for a third term, declined a reelection. In 1797 he withdrew to private life, having previously, in a Farewell Address, laid before the nation his views respecting their true policy. This parting advice has ever been regarded by the people of the United States as one of the most valuable treasures left them by the father of his country.

439. In 1796, a third new state, Tennessee, was admitted into the confederacy. It was originally a part of North Carolina, and its pioneer settlers had gone through their share of trial and suffering. In 1790, North Carolina relinquished its claim to the country, and it had been organized by Congress as “the Territory south-west of the Ohio". In 1795, Tennessee had a population of 77,000.

hy Genet? What followed ? What tone was assumed by the republican leaders ? What unjust charges did they bring against Washington ? What news was soon received ? How did the anti-federalists express their disapprobation? What party had a majority in the lower house of Congress? What course was pursued by their leaders ? What was done by Washington in 1797 ? 439. When was Tennessee admitted ? What is said of its previous history? What was the population of Tennessec in 1795 ?

CHAPTER II.

JOHN ADAMS'S ADMINISTRATION, 1797-1801. 440. JOHN ADAMS, of Massachusetts, was chosen as Washington's suc cessor, and Thomas Jefferson was at the same time elected vice-president. The former was regarded as the head of the federal party, which, though still in the majority, was fast losing ground before the republicans, of whom Jefferson was the acknowledged leader.

441. Early in Adams's administration, difficulties with France assumed a serious aspect. The American minister was not only refused an audience by the French Directory, but ordered out of their territory. At the same time the U. S. flag was insulted on the ocean, a number of vessels being captured by French cruisers. These outrages silenced even the warmest advocates of French interests, and preparations were made for

An army was organized, and, in compliance with the general voice of the nation, Washington was appointed commander-in-chief.

The honor of America was gallantly vindicated on the ocean by Captain Truxton and a few brave seamen. Truxton had taken many prizes from the British during the Rev

[graphic]

JOHN ADAMS.

war.

440. At the next election, who were made president and vice-president? What were their politics ? 441. What difficulties arose early in Adams's administration ? What preparations were made by the U. S.? Who was appointed commanderin-chief? By whom was the honor of America vindicated on the ocean ? What

1799]

DEATH OF WASHINGTON.

327

olution, and was now one of the six captains of the infant navy of the United States. In February, 1799, while cruising in the frigate Constellation, he fell in with the French vessel L'Insurgente [lang-soor-zhont'], which surrendered after a spirited action. The next year, he encountered another French frigate, La Vengeance [lah vong-zhons'). After an action of five hours, the enemy was silenced; but a gale separated the combatants, and the French vessel escaped. She afterwards entered port in a shattered condition, with 160 men killed or wounded.

442. Gen. Washington did not live to see peace restored. Exposure to a slight rain brought on inflammation and fever, which proved fatal on the 14th of December, 1799. When he found that death was approaching, he said to his physician, “I am dying—but I am not afraid to die.” Calmly the good and great man met his end. The death of Washington was regarded as a national bereavement. Due honors were paid to his memory in Congress. Party spirit was for a time forgotten, and the whole country mourned its illustrious father.

443. Alarmed at the bold appeals of the partisans of France and their violent denunciations of the government, the federalists succeeded in passing through Congress two bills, known as the Alien and the Sedition Law. The former authorized the president to require all aliens, or foreigners, whom he considered dangerous to the peace of the country, to depart within such a time as he should specify. The latter forbade, under certain penalties, conspiracies against government, and all publications designed to bring it into disrepute. The passing of these bills awakened more violent opposition than ever. The legislatures of Virginia and Kentucky declared them unconstitutional and void. Happily the conclusion of peace, in 1800, with Napoleon, who had become First Consul of France, allayed the excitement, and

is said of Truxton's previous history? Give an account of his achievements in 1799 and 1800. 442. Give an account of Gen. Washington's death. How was it regarded ? 443. What bills were passed through the influence of the federalists ? State the substance of the Alien and the Sedition Law. What followed their pas

rendered it unnecessary to put the Alien and Sedition Laws into execution.

444. In December, 1800, Congress met for the first time at the city of Washington, which has ever since been the national capital. It is situated in the District of Columbia, a tract originally ten miles square, presented to the general government by Maryland and Virginia. The portion given by Virginia was afterwards ceded back to that state, so that the District is now confined to the Maryland side of the Potomac. The city was laid out in 1792; and its population in 1800 amounted to over 8,000. It lay in the midst of a wilderness, described as containing “here and there a small cottage, without a glass window, interspersed among the forests, through which you travel without seeing any human being”.

445. The first census of the United States was taken in 1790; another was completed in 1800. They show the following results :Whole Population.

Exports. In 1790, 3,929,328 697,696

$20,205,156 In 1800,

Slaves.

Post-offices.

75

5,309,758 896,849 903 70,971,780 446. At the close of Adams's term, he was again put in nomination by the federalists, in conjunction with Charles C. Pinckney, of South Carolina ; the republicans supported Thomas Jefferson, and Aaron Burr, of New York. When the electoral votes were counted, it was found that Jefferson and Burr were in advance of the other candidates, both having the same number. This threw the election into the house of representatives, which gave the presidency to Jefferson and made Burr vice-president.

sage? How did it become unnecessary to put them into execution ? 444. Where did Congress meet in December, 1800 ? How is Washington situated? What was the original size of the District of Columbia ! To what is it now confined ? When was Washington laid out? What was its population in 1800 ? What was the state of the surrounding country? 445. When was the first census of the U. S. taken? Compare the whole population in 1790 with that in 1800. The slaves. The post-offices. The exports. 446. Who were the candidates of the two parties at the close of Adams's term ? On whom did the election devolve ? Who were finally chosen ?

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