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50,000 volunteers; and the respective states were directed to arm and equip their proportion of 100,000 militia for the defence of the coast and frontier. Import duties generally were doubled, and a loan of $11,000,000 was authorized.

While the country was anxiously waiting for Great Britain's final response, Louisiana was admitted as the seventeenth state of the Union (April 8th, 1812), and the Territory of Missouri was organized, with St. Louis as its capital, Soon after, the answer of the British ministry arrived. They would abandon no measures, however injurious or offensive to the United States, which the war with France made it their interest to employ. All hope of peace was now laid aside. Clay, Calhoun, and others, took the ground that further submission would be incompatible with the honor of America. Accordingly, war was declared by a vote of 79 to 49 in the house, and 19 to 13 in the senate. On the 18th of June, 1812, President Madison signed the bill, and war was formally proclaimed the following day.

CHAPTER V.

MADISON'S ADMINISTRATION (CONTINUED), 1812.

466. On the declaration of war, Gen. Dearborn, of Massachusetts, was appointed commander-in-chief of the American army. His force consisted mostly of New York militia, stationed at Plattsburg and on the Niagara frontier. Twelve hundred Ohio volunteers, raised while the question of war was still under discussion, together with 300 regulars, were placed under the command of Gen. William Hull, whose Revolutionary services entitled him to the confidence of his countrymen. Gen. Hull had been governor of Michigan taken, in anticipation of war? When was Louisiana admitted ? What territory was organized ? What answer did the British ministry finally make to the demands of America ? What ground was taken by Clay, Calhoun, and others ? When and by how large majorities was war declared ?

466. Who was appointed commander-in-chief of the American army? Of what did his force mainly consist? To whom was the command of the northwestern army intrusted ? Of whom did it consist ? What office did Gen. Hull hold ?

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1812]
HULL'S INVASION OF CANADA.

345 from the time of its organization as a territory in 1805; and his representations, as well as the hope of stopping the machinations of British agents and the Indian outrages which they had caused, led the U. S. government to project an invasion of Canada as the first step in the campaign. Hull hastened to Dayton, Ohio, to take command of his men, and led them by slow and laborious marches through the wilderness towards Detroit. He soon realized that this small force was totally inadequate to the object proposed; and the men, on their side, became equally convinced of the inefficiency of their commander.

467. Gen. Hull had expected that war would be declared, but by some mismanagement no news of that event reached him till some time after it was known to the British.

The very day he received the intelligence, a boat containing his baggage, stores, official papers, &c., was captured by the enemy. On the 9th of July, Hull received instructions to proceed with the invasion of Canada; and three days afterwards he crossed to Sandwich, on the British side of the Detroit River.

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Through his representations, what did the U. S. government project ? Where did Hull

go, to take command of his men? On the road to Detroit, what did they mutually find ? 467. What was the first loss on the part of the Americans? By what was it caused ? On the 9th of July, what instructions did Hull receive ? Three days afterwards what did he do? What would have been his only chance

ery movement was characterized by indecision and delay. By the time the American general was ready to attack Malden, the first British fort that lay before him, it was strongly garrisoned with regulars and militia. New difficulties now arose. Tecumseh called his warriors to the field, and joined the British army. Supplies were cut off, and the invaders suffered for food. An intercepted letter stated that all the Indians of the north were preparing for a descent on the United States. Gen. Dearborn had agreed with the gove ernor of Canada to suspend hostilities, except on that part of the frontier occupied by Hull; and Gen. Brock, thus released from the necessity of defending Niagara, was hastening with reënforcements to the relief of Malden. Hull was not the man to hazard an attack with all these dangers before him. Hastily retreating, he abandoned the Canada shore and returned to Detroit.

468. Mackinaw was at this time one of the most exposed posts belonging to the United States. It was a great empo rium for furs, traders from Albany and Montreal resorting thither at certain seasons to buy from the Indians the products of their traps and rifles. Before the feeble garrison at this place had heard that war was declared, they were attacked by a force of British and Indians, and obliged to surrender.

469. No sooner had Gen. Brock reached Malden and assumed command of the whole British army, than he led his forces to Sandwich, and prepared to attack Detroit. Tecumseh was the only one acquainted with the surrounding country, and the British commander called on him for information. Spreading a piece of elm-bark on the ground, he drew his knife, and without hesitation sketched an accurate plan of the whole region, with its hills, rivers, roads, and marshes. Brock was so pleased with this ready display of talent that he took a sash from his person and bound it round the waist of his ally. About this time, Tecumseh was made a general in the British army. of success ? What course did he pursue? What was the state of Malden by the time he was ready to attack it? What new difficulties now arose to embarrass

What did they lead him to do? 468. What is said of Mackinaw? Give an account of its capture. 469. What was Gen. Brock's first step, on assuming com

him?

1812]

HULL'S SURRENDER.

347

On the 16th of August, 300 British regulars, 450 Canadians, and 600 Indians, crossed the river a short distance below Detroit, under cover of several armed vessels. No attempt was made to prevent them from landing; but, on their march to the fort, they were annoyed by parties of Americans. The latter, also, stood ready to receive them at their advanced battery, which was favorably planted, in such a way as to sweep with grape-shot the approaching columns of the enemy. There was every prospect of a successful resistance; but, at the critical moment when the order to fire was expected, Hull, unable to repress his fears, seemed to lose all presence of mind. Hardly had shots been interchanged, , when, to the chagrin of his men, who are said to have wept when they beheld the disgraceful signal, he raised a white flag over the fort. No stipulations were made for the honors of war. Not only Detroit, with its garrison, stores, and public property of every kind, but the whole of Michigan, was surrendered to the British.

470. Gen. Hull was afterwards exchanged for thirty British prisoners, and tried by a court-martial for treason and cowardice. Col. Cass (afterwards U. S. senator from Michigan) and other officers who had served under him condemned him in unmeasured terms; at the same time, it was clear that government had ordered the invasion to be made with a very inadequate force, and had not properly supported the army of the north-west or attended to the suggestions of its general. Hull was found guilty of cowardice and sentenced to be shot; but, in consideration of his Revolutionary services, he was pardoned by the president.

471. About the time that Detroit surrendered, Fort Dearborn, on the present site of Chicago, was invested by a body of savages. The commander, feeling that he could not make mand of the British ? How did he obtain information respecting the surrounding country? How did he reward Tecumseh ? [See Map, p. 315.-What river separates Detroit from Sandwich ? What two lakes does the Detroit River connect? In what direction is Sandwich from Malden?] What movement was made by Brock on the 16th of August? How were the British annoyed on their advance? What is said of the Americans' advanced battery? What was the prospect? Give an account of Hull's conduct. What did the British gain by this surrender ? 470. Give an account of Hull's trial and sentence. 471. About

good a defence with his small garrison, proposed to surrender the post on condition that he and his men should be allowed to retire in safety. The Indians assented; but, learning that a quantity of powder and whiskey had been destroyed to prevent its falling into their hands, they attacked the retreating soldiers on their march, killed some, and distributed the survivors among the neighboring tribes. The next day, they burned Fort Dearborn to the ground.

472. The mortification of the American people at the loss of Detroit was relieved by the triumphs of their brave sailors. The whole efficient naval force of the country consisted of 8 frigates, 8 sloops and brigs, and 170 small gunboats. With these was to be encountered the proud mistress of the ocean, with her thousand vessels. About the middle of July, Captain Isaac Hull, in the American frigate Constitution, fell in with a British squadron and was chased by five vessels, but managed to escape by superior seamanship. On the 19th of August, while cruising near the Gulf of St. Lawrence, he encountered the Guerriere [găre-e-āre'], one of the finest frigates in the British navy.

She had for some time been on the lookout for Yankee craft, as her officers contemptuously called them, and carried at her mast-heads two flags, one with her name, the other bearing the inscription “Not the Little Belt," alluding to the vessel which had been roughly handled by the President before the war. The Constitution made ready for action, and approached the enemy. Broadsides were received from the Guerriere, and several men fell at the guns. The crew burned with impatience to return the fire; still no order was given. At last the experienced eye of Hull told him that he had reached the right position, and in a voice of thunder he gave the word. Broadside after broadside was poured in. The decks of the Guerriere were swept; her masts fell; she became unmanageable and this time, what fort was invested by savages ? What did its commander propose ? State what followed. What was done to the fort ? 472. How was the mortification of the Americans at the loss of Detroit relieved! How large was the naval force of America and Great Britain at the commencement of the war? What frigate was commanded by Capt. Isaac Hull? What befell him in July? What, on the 19th of August ? What flags did the Guerriere carry? Give an account of the engagement between the Constitution and the Guerriere. What was the

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