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confidence and enthusiasm, when he was obliged to give way to Gen. Winchester, whom the national government had appointed to the command of the north-western army. The volunteers expressed their dissatisfaction freely; and it was found expedient to yield to their wishes, and supersede Winchester with the veteran who more than all others enjoyed the confidence of the west. With his commission Harrison received extraordinary powers, which no officer before him had enjoyed except Washington and Greene in the Revolution. He was required to defend the whole frontier from Pennsylvania to Missouri, and immediately began to reorganize the army.

October, 1812, found Harrison and his men on the march for Detroit, which post it was resolved to recover. Their route lay through a swamp that seemed interminable, and the soldiers suffered much. Their officers, however, bore every hardship with them, and they continued to advance. Their progress was necessarily slow, and the approach of winter obliged Gen. Harrison to defer the attack on Detroit till spring. He fixed his head-quarters at Franklinton, Ohio, and stationed a division of his army, under Gen. Winchester, at Fort Defiance, on the Maumee.

482. Early in January, 1813, Winchester received information that the inhabitants of Frenchtown, on the Raisin River, were in danger of attack; and, though he thereby ran the risk of disconcerting the plans of his commander, he marched forth to their help. The enemy were found and dispersed. Shortly afterwards, Winchester's camp was attacked by an army of 1,500 British and Indians, from Malden, under Proctor. After a struggle, which cost each party not far from 300 men, the surviving Americans surrendered on the

Who, by the national government? What change did the administration soon find it expedient to make ? What powers were intrusted to Gen. Harrison ! What was he required to do? Where were Harrison and his men in October, 1812? What post was it proposed to recover? Give an account of their march. What did the approach of winter compel Harrison to do? Where did he fix his head-quarters ? Where was Gen. Winchester stationed? 482. What information did Winchester receive early in January ? [See Map, p. 345.-Where is Fort Defiance ! Into what does the Maumee empty? Where is Frenchtown? Into what does the Raisin empty ?] What did Winchester do? Give an account of

1813]

SIEGE OF FORT MEIGS.

355

recommendation of their general, who had been taken, and the pledge that their lives and property should be safe. Proctor immediately returned to Malden with such of his prisoners as were able to walk, leaving the rest behind without any guard to protect them from his bloodthirsty allies. Hardly had the British departed when the savages gave free vent to their passions, robbing, torturing, and scalping their defenceless victims. The British officer left in command made no attempt to save the sufferers. To revenge the losses they had sustained in the battle, the Indians finally set fire to two houses in which most of the wounded were crowded, driving back into the flames those who attempted to escape. Such of the Americans as survived these atrocities were taken to Detroit, where they were dragged through the streets and offered for sale. The people of the place sacrificed every thing they could spare to ransom them, and remonstrated with Proctor for allowing such barbarities, but without effect.

483. The loss of this important division deranged General Harrison's plans. He was too weak to attack Detroit, and could only hope to hold the ground already occupied. Fort Meigs (megz] was commenced at the Rapids of the Maumee; and the whole American force, 1,200 strong, labored day and night to complete it before the enemy should gather for its attack. They needed all their haste. Hardly had they completed their works, and surrounded them with a ditch dug in the frozen ground, when Proctor with his British, and Tecumseh with 600 warriors from the Wabash, appeared before the fort. Their batteries opened on the 1st of May, but a high breastwork of earth protected the Americans, and little impression was made on their defences. The Indians fired into the fort from trees, which they climbed for the purpose. On one occasion, a soldier was mortally wounded at

his expedition. By whom was he attacked at Frenchtown? What was the result of the battle? How did Proctor keep his pledge? How were the prisoners that were left behind treated : 483. What was the consequence of the loss of this division ? What was the most that Harrison could hope to do? What fort was erected! Where? By whom was it soon invested! When did the enemy open their batteries? By what were the Americans protected ? How did the Indians

the side of Harrison, on another, a ball struck the bench on which the general was sitting. Still he escaped, though constantly employed in directing the defences. His example made every man a hero.

On the 4th of May, news reached the beleaguered garrison that Gen. Clay, who had come by rapid marches with a reënforcement of 1,200 Kentuckians, was within a few miles of the fort. Harrison sent orders that a detachment from this force should land on the left side of the river and destroy the British batteries, while a sortie was made from the fort against those on the right side. The latter movement succeeded, and 45 prisoners were taken. On the left side, Col. Dudley was less fortunate. His men gallantly drove the British from their batteries; but the joy of Gen. Harrison, who was watching them with his glass, was turned into consternation, when, instead of retreating to their boats, according to his orders, he saw them preparing to maintain their position. Already the main body of the enemy was in motion to intercept them. Foreseeing their fate unless they saved themselves by an immediate retreat, Harrison offered $1,000 to any one who would cross the river and warn Col. Dudley of his danger. The mission was undertaken; but, before the messenger could get across, the Americans were cut off. About 80 were killed, and 550 taken prisoners; 150 escaped to their boats.

The prisoners were treated with the usual barbarity. Gen. Proctor took no pains to save them. The savages, while glutting their thirst for blood, were suddenly startled by terrible shouts in their own tongue, and the next moment Tecumseh dashed into the circle. Two Indians were in the act of killing a helpless American who had surrendered. Hurling the murderers to the earth, he drew his knife and tomahawk, and dared any of the affrighted throng to take the life of an unresisting prisoner. Even Proctor escaped not

try to pick off the garrison! What narrow escapes had Gen. Harrison? What news reached the garrison of Fort Meigs, on the 4th of May? What orders were sent by Harrison? What was the success of the sally? What was Col. Dudley's success on the other side? What fatal mistake did he make? What did Harri. son soon see? How did he try to save them? What was the result? How were

1813]

FALL OF CAPTAIN LAWRENCE.

357

the rebuke of the indignant chief, who on various occasions displayed a more Christian spirit than his Christian ally. “Your Indians can not be restrained,” was Proctor's answer. “Go put on petticoats,” indignantly interrupted Tecumseh;

you are not fit to command men.” Finding that he could neither frighten Harrison into a surrender, nor make any impression on his defences, the British general soon abandoned the siege.

484. The gallantry of American seamen, though not marked by the same uniform success as in the preceding year, continued to be the theme of admiration. On the 23d of February, Capt. James Lawrence, in the Hornet, after having shortly before captured a brig containing $20,000, encountered off the coast of South America the Peacock, a vessel about equal in size to his own. After an action of fifteen minutes, the Peacock struck, and raised signals of distress. She was found to be sinking rapidly, and, despite the efforts of both victors and vanquished, went down, carrying some of her own crew, and three of the Hornet's. Captain Lawrence, on his return to port, was greeted with the usual honors, and appointed to the command of the frigate Chesapeake. Sailing out of Boston, with imperfect equipments and an ill-assorted crew, he met the British frigate Shannon. Early in the action, the brave Lawrence was wounded. His last order as he was carried below,“ Don't give up the ship!has ever since served as a watchword for American sailors. In a few moments, a band grenade thrown from the deck of the Shannon fell in the Chesapeake's arm-chest and exploded with disastrous effect. The enemy immediately boarded, and the Chesapeake was soon theirs. In killed and wounded she had lost nearly 150 men, to 79 on the part of the British. Capt. Lawrence expired after four days' suffering (at the age of 31), and was buried at Halifax with the honors of war, His remains were afterwards removed to New York.

the prisoners treated ? Describe Tecumseh's noble conduct. What passed between him and Proctor? 484. What is said of the gallantry of American seamen during the year 1813! Give an account of the engagement between the Hornet and the Peacock. To what vessel was Capt. Lawrence appointed on his return?

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FALL OF CAPTAIN LAWRENCE.-"DON'T GIVE UP THE SHIP."

This reverse was followed by another in August. The sloop Argus, after carrying the American minister to France, had cruised in the British Channel, committing great havoc among the enemy's shipping. Several vessels started in pursuit, one of which discovered her by the light of a ship that she had taken and fired. A well-contested action followed, which resulted in the capture of the Argus and the destruction of a great part of her crew.

Commodore Porter, in the Essex, had selected the Pacific for his sphere of action. In a five months' cruise, extending over the summer of 1813, he captured twelve armed whalers, of which he fitted up several as tenders, and despatched others to the United States with valuable cargoes of oil. — On the 5th of September, Lieut. Burrows, in the Enterprise, a few days' sail from Portland, fell in with the English vessel

Give an account of the engagement between the Chesapeake and the Shannon. What was the loss on each side? What became of Capt. Lawrence ? What reverse followed in August ? Recount Commodore Porter's achievements. De

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