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1813]

EXPEDITION AGAINST THE CREEKS.

369

to the Indians as “the Sharp Knife”. Jackson was soon on the march. Tal-lus-hat'-chee was the first village attacked. The Red Men resisted, till nearly their whole number were killed or wounded. A severe struggle soon after took place at Tal-la-de'-ga, where a thousand Creeks were besieging some friendly Indians.

Forced marches brought Jackson, with 1,200 men, within 80 yards of their camp. The Creeks, taken at disadvantage, tried to fly, but found themselves nearly surrounded. Between two and three hundred were killed, with trifling loss on the part of the Americans; the rest made good their escape to the mountains.

The invading army now began to suffer from hunger. Supplies failed to arrive, and no food could be procured in the wilderness. A famishing soldier approached his general, and asked for something to eat. “I will divide with you,” said Jackson, and drew from his pocket a handful of acorns. When it was seen that their officers fared no better than themselves, the troops bore their hardships with all possible patience. But at last extreme suffering led them to open mutiny, and in defiance of orders they prepared to march to their homes. Then was exhibited the iron will of Gen. Jackson. He took post on horseback before the rebellious army, which had already begun to move. shortly before shattered by a ball, was still disabled, but his right grasped a musket, which he rested on his horse's neck, declaring that he would shoot down the first who advanced. The brave men, who had not feared a thousand Creeks, were awed by the determined front of their intrepid commander. No one offered to advance, and after a short consultation they agreed to postpone their departure.

494. About the middle of November, a number of hostile towns on the Tallapoosa were surprised. Towards the end

His left arm,

What did the Indians call Jackson? What was the first village attacked ? [See Map.- Where was Tallushatchee? What forts were in its vicinity ?) What is said of the resistance of the Creeks ? Where did the next severe struggle take place ? [Near what river is Talladega? Describe the Coosa. The Tallapoosa.] Relate the particulars of the battle of Talladega. How many Indians were killed ? From what did the invading army now suffer? What passed between Jackson and a hungry soldier? To what were the men at last led by their sufferings ? Tell how Jackson put down the mutiny. 494. What took place about the middle

of the month, Gen. Floyd, advancing from the east with his Georgia division, reached that part of the enemy's country called “the Beloved Ground”. Here the Indians rallied, inspired by their prophet with the belief that on the Beloved Ground” no foe could injure them. After obstinately maintaining the conflict for three hours, they gave way, leaving two of their principal chiefs and nearly 200 men

upon the field.

Jackson was for a time prevented from active operations by the return of most of his companions, who claimed that their time of enlistment had expired; but by vigorous efforts he was reënforced in time to recommence the campaign with the opening of spring (1814). A thousand warriors, with their women and children, had congregated at the Horseshoe Bend of the Tallapoosa, where they were nearly encircled by the river, the narrow isthmus in front being defended by a breastwork of logs; and, on the 27th of March, the American army appeared before their encampment. A strong detachment was stationed around the Bend to prevent the escape of the Indians, while a heavy cannonade was commenced in front. The order to storm was soon given. The log defences were scattered, and the encampment became a scene of terrible carnage. Hemmed in on all sides and disdaining to surrender, the doomed Creeks fought with the energy of despair. Not till 557 of their number, including many noted chiefs, and Man-a-hoe', their great prophet, were stretched in death upon the field, did the battle cease. Besides a few friendly Indians, Jackson lost 26 men killed and 106 wounded. This decisive victory ended the Creek War. The

power of the Muscogees was broken. A peace was soon after concluded with their few surviving chiefs, on terms dictated by the United States.

of November? From what direction was Gen. Floyd advancing ? What place did he at length reach ? [See Map.-Where was “thç Beloved Ground"?] What did the Indians believe respecting this spot ? Describe the battle that took place there. What kept Jackson for a time from active operations ? When was he reenforced ? What battle ended the Creek War? [See Map, p. 368.-In what direction was the Horse-shoe Bend from “the Beloved Ground”?] How many Creeks were congregated there? What was their position ? Give an account of the battle. How many Indians perished ? What was Jackson's loss? What

1813]

WILKINSON'S INVASIONS OF CANADA.

371

495. The reverses already experienced did not deter the Americans from again attempting the invasion of Canada. In the fall of 1813, Gen. Wilkinson, who had succeeded Dearborn in the chief command, undertook an expedition against Montreal, in conjunction with Gen. Hampton, who was to advance with the army of the north from Plattsburg. Hampton's men penetrated into the enemy's country; and Wilkinson's division descended the St. Lawrence some distance, under cover of a detachment which bravely met the enemy at Chrysler's Field; but mutual jealousy, difficulties of transportation, and the lateness of the season, finally led to the abandonment of the enterprise. The force left meanwhile on the Niagara frontier was so inadequate to its defence that it was deemed prudent to evacuate Fort George (Dec. 12th). Before this was done, the town of Newark was reduced to ashes; an act which the British soon after retaliated by burning Youngstown, Lewiston, Black Rock, and Buffalo. In March, 1814, Wilkinson attempted a second invasion with 4,000 men; but he was repulsed at the first point which he attacked, and obliged hastily to retreat. Though acquitted by a court-martial, he was shortly afterwards superseded by Gen. Iz'-ard.

CHAPTER VII. MADISON'S ADMINISTRATION (CONTINUED), 1814 to 1817.

496. At the commencement of the year 1814, the American government was informed that Great Britain, though it declined the offer of Russian mediation, was willing to enter on direct negotiations for peace; the president accordingly appointed commissioners to meet the representatives of England. Both parties, however, prepared none the less vigorwas the consequence of this victory? 495. Who, meanwhile, had succeeded Dearborn ? What attempt was made by Gen. Wilkinson in the fall of 1813? By whom was he to be aided? What was accomplished? What led to the abandonment of the enterprise ? Meanwhile, what was taking place on the Niagara frontier ? How did the British retaliate? What was done by Wilkinson in March, 1814 ? By whom was he at length superseded ?

496. What information did the American government receive early in 1814?

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ously to continue the war. Congress authorized a loan of $25,000,000; while Britain, on the abdication of Napoleon, sent over 14,000 veterans, to aid in the defence of Canada.

497. The naval operations of the United States during 1814 were neither so extensive nor so successful as in the two previous years.

In consequence of the close blockade of the coast by British cruisers, it was difficult for American vessels to leave port or bring in their prizes. The Essex, in which, during the summer of 1813, Commodore Porter ran the triumphant career already described, was attacked (March 28th) in the harbor of Valparaiso [vahl-pah-ri'-80] by the British brig Phoebe and sloop-of-war Cherub. Against such odds even Porter's skill and bravery were unavailing; and, after a gallant fight and a vain attempt to run his vessel ashore, he had to surrender. “We have been unfortunate, but not disgraced,” wrote Porter to the head of the navy department. The American vessels, Frolic, Rattlesnake, and Syren, were also taken by the enemy; while, on the other hand, the British brig Épervier (ā-pareve-ā'] struck her colors to the Peacock, and the Reindeer was captured by the Wasp. The larger American men-of-war being kept in port by the blockade, most of their crews were sent to aid Commodore Chauncey on Lake Ontario.

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ENGAGEMENT OF THE WASP AND REINDEER.

What action was taken by the president? What preparations were made by both governments ? 497. What is said of the naval operations of the United States in 1814? What was the effect of the blockade of the coast by the British ? Give an account of the capture of the Essex. What did Commodore Porter write to the secretary of the navy ? What other American vessels were taken? What British vessels were captured? Where were most of the crews of the larger vessels

1814]

BATTLE OF LUNDY'S LANE.

373

498. On the 3d of July, 1814, Gen. Brown, who had marched from Sackett's Harbor, crossed the Niagara River with 3,500 men. Fort Erie surrendered, and the Americans moved on to Chippeway (see Map, p. 351]. Here the main body of the enemy was posted, and a general action commenced. Both parties displayed great gallantry; but the unerring fire of Gen. Scott's and Major Jessup's men drove the veterans whom Wellington had often led to victory, behind their works, and the whole force of the enemy fell back on Fort George, abandoning their intermediate posts. General Brown, after pursuing them as far as Queenstown Heights, encamped at Chippeway. The American loss in this battle was about 300; that of the British was nearly twice as great.

499. On the 25th of July, Scott's brigade was detailed to watch the movements of a division of the enemy. On approaching the Falls of Niagara, the Americans suddenly found themselves in the presence of the whole British army, which was advantageously posted for a pitched battle. Hastily sending word to Gen. Brown, Scott soon had his artillery at work, and maintained his ground in the most heroic man

He was ably seconded by Jessup, who, by a masterly movement, gained the British rear, and made prisoners of Gen. Riall and his suite. Soon after dark, Ripley's brigade arrived on the field, affording timely relief to Scott's exhausted troops. A tremendous fire was till kept up by the enemy from a commanding height defended by a battery. Unless this height was carried, Gen. Ripley could see no chance of victory. The effort was almost hopeless, but he resolved that it should be made. Col. Miller was selected to lead the desperate charge. “Can you take that battery?” asked the commander. “I will try, sir," was the reply. Steadily up

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sent ? 498. What movement was made by Gen. Brown, July 30, 1814? What fort did he take? Whither did he then proceed ? [See Map, p. 351.-How is Fort Erie situated ? How is Chippeway situated? What island in the Niagara opposite to it?] What ensued ? Describe the battle of Chippeway. To what post did the enemy fall back ? How far did Gen. Brown pursue them? Where did he encamp ?

What was the loss on each side? 499. What occurred July 25th ? [See Map, p. 351.-Where did this battle take place? What river south of Lundy's Lane? What island a little above it in the Niagara River ?] What did Gen. Scott do? What achievement was performed by Major Jessup ? Who came up soon after dark to their support ? Give an account of Col. Miller's brilliant charge.

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