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PLATTOBURC BATT

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the hill toiled the fearless leader at the head of his regiment. A hot fire was poured upon them; but they closed their ranks, and gallantly moved on. In a few moments the battery was in their hands, and the retreating enemy were fired upon with their own guns. Three times the British rallied for their recapture, and three times were they repulsed. At midnight they gave up their efforts, and left the Americans in possession of the field. This battle of Lundy's Lane, or Bridgewater, was one of the most hotly contested actions ever fought in the new world. Three thousand Americans and 4,500 British took part in it. The former lost 743 in killed and wounded; the latter, 878.

500. After gaining this victory, the Americans retired to Fort Erie, where in a few days they were besieged by the British army, now reënforced to 4,000 men, A heavy bombardment and midnight assault, in which the enemy lost nearly a thousand men, were successfully resisted;

St Joseph and finally the beleaguered

St.Philipo garrison, making a bold sortie, destroyed the hostile batteries, and drove the enemy towards Chippeway. Thus successfully closing a campaign, which, though productive of no permanent advantages, was every way glorious to America, and led his men into winter-quarters at Buffalo.

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501. Gen. Brown was not alone in his success.

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PLATTSBURG AND THE VICINITY.

How often did the British attempt to recapture this battery? Who remained masters of the field ? What is said of the battle of Lundy's Lane? How many on each side were engaged in it? What was the loss? 500. Whither did the Americans retire? What befell them at Fort Erie? Give an account of the siege and its termination. Where did the Americans winter ? 501. What enterprise

1814].

PREVOST'S INVASION OF NEW YORK.

375

About the 1st of September, Sir George Prevost, taking advantage of the absence of Gen. Izard and his army, who had moved towards Sackett's Harbor, crossed the northern boundary of the state of New York, with the view of penetrating to the Hudson by way of Lake Champlain. Gen. Macomb [ma-koom'], who was in command at Plattsburg, hastily collected the militia of the vicinity, enrolling even boys who were large enough to handle a musket. He was too weak, however, to prevent the advance of the enemy; and, as they approached, he crossed the Sar'-a-nac, taking up the planks of the bridges behind him. Prevost entered Plattsburg on the 10th, and there waited to be joined by a naval force under Commodore Down'-ie, consisting of 17 vessels carrying 95 guns, which was advancing into the lake by the Sor'-el River.

Commodore McDonough [macdon'-o), a native of Delaware, now

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about 30 years of

BIRTHPLACE OF COMMODORE MODONOUGH.

age,

commanded for the U. S. on Lake Champlain. By incredible 'exertions he had got together 14 vessels, mounting 86 guns; one of which, a brig, he built in twenty days from timber growing on the bank of the lake. On the 11th of September, Downie, who had boasted that with his flag-vessel alone he could destroy the whole American squadron, was seen advancing towards Plattsburg. The shore of the lake and the roof-tops of the town were crowded was undertaken by Prevost? When? What was his design? [See Map, p. 374.How is Plattsburg situated ? What river near it? What was the direction of Prevost's route ?] Who was in command at Plattsburg ? What steps did he take? When did Prevost enter Plattsburg ? For what did he then wait? Who commanded for the U. S. on Lake Champlain? How large a force had McDonough raised? When did Downie make his appearance? What boast had he made? How had McDonough posted his vessels? How did the two fleets com

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with spectators, who awaited with palpitating hearts the issue of the engagement. McDonough, who had drawn up his little fleet in a favorable position across the mouth of the harbor, and had publicly asked the blessing of God on his efforts in defence of his country, opened a fire as the enemy approached. The British had heavier cannon than the Americans; but their gunners, though taken in part from men-of-war at Quebec, were neither as quick in their movements nor as accurate in their aim as McDonough's. The hottest fire was maintained between the vessels which bore the two commanders; and the American flag-ship, the Saratoga, was at length completely disabled on the side presented

McDonough then had recourse to the ingenious expedient of wearing his vessel round, to bring the other side into play. The

enemy,

who had also suffered severely, attempted the same movement, but without success; and, within two hours and a half after the action commenced, the whole British fleet struck. The American loss was 158 in killed and wounded; that of the British, about 200, including Downie himself.

During the battle on the lake, Prevost's army attempted to cross the Saranac at several different points, but were repulsed by the Americans. On the surrender of the fleet, they gave up all further efforts. Prevost was seized with terror; and that same night, in the midst of a heavy rain, he made a hasty retreat, leaving his sick and wounded behind him, together with large quantities of military stores. Many of his troops deserted. One company of 400 men marched to the American camp, preceded by a band of music. It is computed that the loss of the enemy in this expedition was not far short of 3,000 men.

502. The British did not confine their operations to the northern frontier. The Atlantic coast had been blockaded throughout the year by a strong fleet under Lord Cockburn,

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pare in guns and men ? Give an account of the conflict between the two flag-vessels. What was the result of the action ? State the loss on each side. During the engagement, what attempts were made by the British army? With what success? What followed ? What is said of the desertions from Prevost's army ? 502. What was the state of affairs on the Atlantic coast throughout the year 1814?

1814]

ARRIVAL OF GENERAL ROSS.

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from which parties had been sent to various points, particularly on the Chesapeake, to plunder and devastate the country. About the middle of August, 1814, Admiral Cochrane [kok'-ran] arrived off the coast of Virginia with 21 vessels, conveying Gen. Ross and four thousand veterans, who had been trained on some of the most noted battle-fields of Europe. Before this

Rockrille overwhelming force, the small flotilla with which

Bladensburg

George Com. Barney had tried to protect the coast retreated up the Pa-tux'ent, a river emptying into Chesapeake Bay

Marlborough just north of the Poto

The British fleet divided, part ascending the Potomac, and a second division moving up the Chesapeake as if to attack Baltimore, while the remainder followed Barney into the Patuxent, and anchored on

WASHINGTON, BALTIMORE, AND THE VICINITY, the 19th of August at Benedict. Here Ross and his army disembarked. On the 21st they set out on the river-road, and the next day reached Upper Marlborough [marl'-brůh], 17 miles from Washington. Near this point Barney had moored his boats; blowing them up on the enemy's approach, he hastened with his

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mac.

About the middle of August, who arrived ? Where did Commodore Barney retire ? Describe the movements of the British fleet. Where did Ross and his army disembark? [See Map.-Describe the Patuxent. How is Benedict situated ? On their march from Benedict to Bladensburg, what places did the British pass through ?] What was done by Commodore Barney? What did the enemy find along their whole route? Where did they first encounter resistance ? What was the condition of the British soldiers ? Give an account of the battle

marines to join Gen. Win'-der, who was organizing a force for the defence of the capital.

Constemation seized on the inhabitants; and the enemy, cautiously advancing, found the whole line of their route de serted. The first resistance they encountered was (August 24th) at Bla'-dens-burg, six miles north-east of Washington, where their passage was disputed by an American army consisting mostly of militia hastily collected. The British soldiers were almost overcome by the intense heat; they charged with vigor, however, and at the first onset the American militia gave way in disorder, some without even discharging their muskets. Commodore Barney, with his eighteen-pounders, and Captain Miller's guns, double-loaded with canister, checked the enemy

for a time;

but their men, exposed on the flank by the flight of the militia, were driven back, and both of these brave officers fell into the hands of the enemy. The routed

army

carried terror with it to the capital. The city at this time contained 10,000 inhabitants, most of whom, including the president and his cabinet, hastily retired.

503. On the evening after the battle, Gen. Ross entered Washington. By the order of his government, he set fire to the capitol, the president's house, and other public buildings. Private property also suffered to a considerable extent. On the evening of the 25th the British left the city, and two days afterwards they reached their shipping in safety. Meanwhile, the division of their fleet which had ascended the Potomac passed Fort Washington, which was abandoned by its garrison and blown up, and appeared before Alexandria. To escape bombardment, the people of this place surrendered to the enemy 21 merchant-vessels, 16,000 barrels of flour, 1,000 hogsheads of tobacco, and other articles.

504. These occurrences violently excited the whole Amer

of Bladensburg. What was the population of Washington ? What did most of the inhabitants do? 503. When did Ross enter Washington? What barbarities did he commit? After this, what did the British army do? What was done by that part of the fleet which ascended the Potomac ! [Sce Map, p. 377.—How is Fort Washington situated ? How, Alexandria? What place a short distance be

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