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The next day, he fell back to the Rodriguez [ro-dre'-gāth] Canal, where he determined to make a final stand. Extending his line from the river to an impassable swamp on the

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BATTERIES ERECTED

LEVEE

JAN.

NEW ORLEANS

BATTERY
DEC. 28.

left, he threw up strong intrenchments, sent for the rest of his men from New Orleans, and ordered a detachment across the Mississippi, to prevent the enemy from reaching the city in that direction.

Packenham having joined the army, and his preparations being completed, the invaders, on the 28th of December, made a vigorous attack on the American lines, but were repulsed with a loss of nearly 200 men. A supply of heavy cannon was sent for from the fleet; and on the 1st of January, 1815, having the night before planted batteries within 400 yards of the American works, they opened a tremendous cannonade. A thick fog concealed their movements, till a terrific crash of balls from thirty guns of heavy calibre, together with hissing shells and glaring rockets, announced

was the attack opened on the 233 ? Give an account of Gen, Jackson's attack. What was the result? What position did Jackson take the next day? [See Map. -What was on Jackson's left? Who commanded there? What was on Jackson's right?] How did he strengthen his position? What took place Dec. 28th ? What did the British then send for? What took place on the 1st of January,

1815]

BATTLE OF NEW ORLEANS.

385

a

that a severe struggle was at hand. The Americans had only ten cannon; but these were handled with such spirit that they were more than a match for those of the enemy. Both parties had made a mistake in constructing their works. The British had used hogsheads full of sugar, supposing that they would act like sand-bags; but the well-aimed balls of the Americans shattered them to fragments, and spread destruction around and behind. Jackson, in his breastwork, had used cotton-bales, which seemed to answer the purpose, till a red-hot shot from the British set one of them on fire and scattered its blazing fragments among the barrels of powder which stood ready for use. The flames were extinguished without accident; but the cotton-bales were taken out, and a breastwork of earth about five feet high, with trusty rifles behind it, was the only defence employed in the conflicts that followed. The British, after a loss of 70 men to 34 on the part of the Americans, drew off their guns and fell back. 511. Preparations were now made on both sides for a de

a cisive battle. Gen. Lambert brought up a fresh division of British troops, which increased their number to 10,000 ; while Jackson, also reënforced, found himself in command of 6,000 men, 3,200 of whom defended the breastwork. Before daylight on the 8th of January, a detachment was sent against the Americans on the right bank of the Mississippi, while the main body, led by Packenham in person, advanced to storm Jackson's position. As soon as they came within reach of the American cannon, a terrible fire thinned their ranks, but still they moved on in good order.

66 Stand to your guns," shouted Jackson, as they approached; "don't waste your ammunition, see that every shot tells.” In another moment, the order to fire was given. Under the murderous discharge that followed, the advancing column wavered. A fresh regiment, with Packenham at its head,

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1815? How many cannon had the Americans ? How were they handled ? What mistake was made by the British in constructing their works? What, by the Americans ? What was the result of the cannonade? 511. For what did both parties now prepare? What was the force of each ? What was the first movement of the British on the 8th of January? Who led the main body? Give an

hastened to their support.

All that brave men and experienced leaders could do, was done; but before those fatal rifles no foe could stand. Packenham had his right arm shattered, and his horse killed under him; his broken ranks retired in confusion.

The sun was now rising, and his early beams fell on the gleaming arms of a fresh division of British advancing to the attack. Again a cloud of smoke curled up from the breastwork, and again fearful havoc was made in the ranks

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of the assailants. Packenham, struck by a grape-shot, fell back into the arms of the same officer, who, under similar circumstances, received the body of Gen. Ross at Baltimore.

account of the first assault. How did it result? Give an acconnt of the second assault. What did Gen. Lambert now find? What was he obliged to do? What

1815]

RETREAT OF THE BRITISH.

387

Though nearly every officer was disabled, the troops still pressed on. A few crossed the canal and ascended the

parapet, but fell before its vigilant defenders, most of them to rise no more. Gen. Lambert, who succeeded to the command, finding his army hopelessly defeated with the loss of more than 2,000 men, hastened to retreat. He recalled the detachment on the opposite side of the Mississippi, which had driven back the Americans, and gained a position that would have been of great service in dislodging Jackson. The whole enterprise was abandoned, and the invading host returned to their shipping by a road which they cut along the bayou to Lake Borgne. On both sides of the river, the American loss was but 27 in killed and wounded. On the 20th of January, Jackson returned to New Orleans in triumph, where he was received with every possible demonstration of joy and gratitude.

512. When the brave deeds performed at New Orleans are mentioned, the intrepid conduct of a young British bugler should not be forgotten. The enemy's left, at the commencement of the engagement, advanced along the river, captured a redoubt, and moved steadily on towards the canal. Their bugler, a boy of only fourteen years, preceding the line to within 200 yards of the breastwork, climbed a tree and sounded “ the charge” while his comrades stormed the intrenchments. A sheet of flame drove back the assailants. Men were mowed down; bullets and cannon-balls rained around, tearing off the branches of the very tree on which the young musician was seated; yet, paying no attention to the

messengers of death, he continued to cheer on his countrymen with his wild music as calmly as if he were in

camp. After they had retreated, an American soldier came forth from the lines and captured the boy, whose intrepidity had attracted general attention. Officers and men crowded around him to express their hearty admiration.

513. The battle of New Orleans closed the war. Negotiations had been going on for some months at Ghent in Bel

was the loss on each side? What did Jackson do on the 20th of January? 512. Tell the story of the brave little bugler. 513. What had been going on for some

gium, between John Quincy Adams (son of John Adams), Bayard, Russell, Clay, and Gallatin, on the part of the United States, and commissioners appointed by Great Britain ; but the latter were so extravagant in their demands that for some time little progress was made. News of the defeats at Plattsburg and Baltimore at length altered their tone; and on the 24th of December a satisfactory treaty of peace was signed. It said nothing about the aggressions on American commerce and impressment of sailors on the high seas, which had caused the war; but it was tacitly understood that there would be no further difficulty on these points. The news reached America on the 11th of February, 1815; had it come a little sooner, it would have saved the British the disastrous repulse at New Orleans. On the day the intelligence arrived at Washington, Madison and his cabinet had separated in great despondency, unable to devise any effective measures for the relief of their country,—no money in the treasury, a debt of $100,000,000, commerce destroyed, all kinds of industry depressed. Late at night a horseman was heard galloping through the streets of Washington, and the joyful cry of “Peace! peace !” resounded on all sides. The treaty had been brought by a British vessel to New York, and the joyful news was soon circulated throughout the country. It was everywhere hailed with delight. Bells were rung, flags were hoisted, schools had holiday, and towns were illuminated. On the 18th of February, the treaty was ratified by the U. S. senate, and peace was proclaimed.

514. The pecuniary affairs of the country were in a deplorable state. The banks generally had stopped payment. Specie was scarce, and there was no currency that commanded the confidence of the people. For the convenience of government, Congress passed a bill incorporating a na

months ? Name the American commissioners. What tone was at first assumed hy the British? What altered their views ? When was peace concluded! What difficulties had caused the war: How were thay settled by the treaty ? When did the news of peace reach America ? Under what circumstances had the cabinet last separated ? How was the news announced in Washington: How was it received throughout the country? When was the treaty ratified ? 514. Describe the pecuniary condition of the United States. Give an account of the

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