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1815]

DECATUR HUMBLES THE BARBARY STATES.

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tional bank with $30,000,000 capital. This was vetoed by the president; but at the next session of Congress an institution was chartered with a capital of $35,000,000. It commenced operations at Philadelphia, on the 4th of March, 1817, and with its branches in other cities supplied the country with a uniform currency, redeemable at all times with gold and silver.

515. In May, 1815, Decatur was sent with a squadron to punish the Algerines, who had taken advantage of the war with England to renew their depredations on American com

On the 17th of June, he encountered, in the Mediterranean, the largest vessel in the Algerine navy, and captured her after a running fight of 25 minutes. He soon after appeared before Algiers, when the dey at once agreed to liberate the American prisoners in his hands, to make full indemnification for the losses he had occasioned, and to relinquish all claims to tribute for the future. Decatur next proceeded to Tunis and Tripoli, where he obtained similar concessions, and exacted pay for American vessels which the English had been allowed to take in their harbors. Since pursuing this decided course, the United States have had no difficulty with the pirates of Barbary.

516. Nothing remains to be noticed in Madison's eventful administration, except the admission of Indiana as a member of the confederacy in December, 1816, and the formation of the Colonization Society about the same time. The object of this association, which embraced among its members many distinguished statesmen, was to provide a happy home for free persons of color, where they could enjoy the right of self-government. A favorable position was finally selected on the coast of Africa. The name of Liberia was given to the colony, and its capital was called Monrovia, after President Monroe. To this place many emigrants have from time to time found their way, and a flourishing colony has grown up.

two attempts to establish a national bank. 515. What expedition was sent out in May, 1815? What was the first victory gained by Decatur? How did he humble the dey of Algiers ? Where did Decatur next proceed? What did he exact from the bashaws? 516. When was Indiana admitted ? Give an account of the origin and objects of the Colonization Sociсty. What has it effected ?

CHAPTER VIII.

MONROE'S ADMINISTRATION, 1817 To 1825. 517. On the 4th of March, 1817, James Monroe became president of the United States, and Daniel D. Tompkins, of New York, vice-president. Born in Virginia in 1759, Monroe served in the Revolutionary War, and after its termination was successively a member of both houses of Congress, governor of Virginia, and minister to France and England. The new president followed the same general policy as his predecessor. He called John Quincy Adams from the British court, where he had resided as minister since the war, to become his secretary of state, and Wm. H. Crawford, of Georgia, was placed at the head of the treasury department, In December, 1817, John C. Calhoun, of South Carolina, was appointed secretary of war, and William Wirt, of Maryland, attorney general. Early in his term, Monroe made a tour through New England and the north-west, and was well received by the people. The violence of party-spirit had now subsided, and the federalists no longer opposed the measures of the administration. A plan was devised in Congress for paying the public debt, which in a few years accomplished that important object. Towards the close of 1817, the attention of government was called to Amelia Island, on the Florida coast, a rendezvous for buccaneers, who, pretending to sail under the flag of the South American republics, made free with whatever they found on the ocean. In November, a body of U. S. troops took possession of their haunts; and soon after a similar establishment on Galveston Island, Texas, was also broken up.

518. The public mind began about this time to realize the necessity of internal improvements. It was obvious that

517. Who became president and vice-president on the 4th of March, 1817? What is said of Monroe's previous history? Whom did he make secretary of state? Whom, secretary of the treasury? Who were admitted to his cabinet in December, 1817? What parts of the country did Monroe visit? How was he received? What is såid of party-spirit? What plan was devised by Congress ? Give an account of the buccaneering establishments on the coast. What hecame of them? 518. To what was public attention now forcibly drawn? What were

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INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS.

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roads and canals, connecting distant portions of the Union, and bringing its remoter parts within reach of a market, would greatly augment the wealth and strength of the country. To the importance of these works Monroe was fully alive; but, like Jefferson and Madison, he believed that the Constitution gave the general government no authority to engage in them. Congress after some discussion agreed with bim, but made appropriations for a great national road across the Alleghanies, from Cumberland to Wheeling, this having been promised by the United States at the time that Ohio came into the Union. Several military roads were also opened.

This constitutional difficulty, however, did not apply to the individual states, which vigorously undertook the work of improvement. Surveys were made, roads were constructed in all directions, and facilities for travel and transportation were increased. In carrying on these enterprises, New York was among the foremost. Under the auspices of De Witt Clinton and other public-spirited men, a bill was passed by the legislature of that state, authorizing the construction of a canal, 363 miles long, to connect Lake Erie, at Buffalo, with the Hudson, at Albany. The work was commenced in July, 1817, and was not completed till the summer of 1825. The Erie Canal was 40 feet wide, contained 83 locks built of solid masonry, to raise or lower the boats as required by the face of the country, crossed the Genesee once and the Mohawk twice by means of aqueducts, and originally cost $7,602,000. About the same time, a canal connecting Lake Champlain with the Hudson was finished; and in November, 1825, the completion of these works was celebrated by the firing of cannon and public rejoicings. They gave an impetus to trade, which was felt throughout the whole northern and western country. Monroe's views on the subject of internal improvements ? What was done by Congress ? How was it with the individual states? What state was among the foremost in carrying on these works ? What bill was passed by the N. Y. legislature ? Under whose auspices ? When was the Erie Canal commenced ? When was it completed ? Describe the Erie Canal. about the same time? How was their completion celebrated ? effect? 519. By whom was the southern frontier harassed in 1817? How did

What other canal was finished

What was their

519. In the summer of 1817, the Seminoles, a powerful tribe living within the Spanish territory on the borders of Georgia and Alabama, joined by some runaway negroes and refugee Creeks, commenced a series of depredations on the frontier settlements. Gen. Gaines, who commanded a post on the Flint River, destroyed several of their villages; but he encountered so fierce a resistance that Jackson was ordered into service, with volunteers from Tennessee, who were always ready to follow this favorite leader. In March, 1818, having spent several months in organizing his forces and securing provisions, Jackson took the field with his brave Tennesseeans, some friendly Creeks, and the regulars already at the seat of war. He burned a number of Seminole towns, drove the enemy before him, and seized on their corn and cattle. It was obvious to Jackson that the Indians had been instigated by the Spaniards of Florida, and two British subjects who had supplied them with arms and ammunition. The former he punished by seizing their forts at St. Mark's and Pensacola, and sending the officers in command to Havana. The latter were tried by a court-martial, found guilty, and executed. Two refugee Creek chiefs and a pretended prophet, who had helped to stir up the war, were also taken and hanged. Though the American army was unable to penetrate to the more southerly villages, hostilities were for a time suppressed.

The course of Gen. Jackson in invading the territory of a nation with which the United States was at peace, was condemned by some, and at first even the cabinet were disposed to pronounce it arbitrary and unauthorized. The secretary of state, however, convinced them that Jackson had done no more than was necessary to carry out the orders of government. A committee of Congress, which investigated the transactions in question, absolved the hero of New Orleans from all blame. The British government, on hearing of the

Gen. Gaines punish the Indians ? Who was sent to his assistance ? Give an account of Jackson's operations. By whom did it appear that the Seminoles were instigated ? How did Jackson punish the Spaniards? How, the two British subjects? Who else were hanged ? How was Jackson's invasion of Florida regarded by some? By whom was it defended? What was the result of the in

1818] CESSION OF FLORIDA TO THE UNITED STATES.

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summary execution of two of their subjects, were at first loud in their demands for satisfaction; but Mr. Adams's arguments convinced them also of the propriety of what had been done. On the close of the Congressional investigation, Jackson visited the principal cities of the Union, and was received with an enthusiasm which showed that the people heartily approved of his conduct.

520. Two important treaties were made in the early part of Monroe's administration: one with England (Oct., 1818), which settled part of the boundary between the British Possessions and the U. S., and secured to the citizens of the latter the privilege of taking fish on the coast of Newfoundland; the other with Spain (February 22d, 1819), which disposed of still more important questions. Difficulties had been anticipated in this quarter, in consequence of the seizure of the posts in Florida; but, through the skilful management of the secretary of state, not only was good feeling restored, but the Spanish government was induced to cede East and West Florida to the U. S., the latter, on its part, relinquishing all claim to Texas and agreeing to meet the demands of American citizens on Spain, for commercial depredations, to the amount of $5,000,000. This treaty was considered highly advantageous, and unanimously ratified by the senate.

521. During Monroe's administration, five new states were admitted into the Union: Mississippi, in 1817; Illinois, which since the war had become rapidly settled, in 1818; Alabama, originally embraced in Mississippi Territory, in 1819; Maine, before included in the commonwealth of Massachusetts, in 1820; and Missouri, part of the territory of Louisiana, purchased from Napoleon, in 1821. The admission of Missouri was preceded by violent debates in Congress, which agitated the whole country. Some insisted on the prohibition of sla

vestigation by Congress ? How was the intelligence received by the British government? How was it shown that the people approved of Jackson's course ? 520. What important treaties were made in the early part of Monroe's administration? What had been apprehended? Who conducted the negotiations with Spain? What did Mr. Adams induce the Spanish government to do? On what terms was Florida obtained ? How was this treaty regarded : 521. Name the new states admitted during Monroe's administration, and the dates. By what was the admission of Missouri preceded? What different views were taken on

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