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very within its limits, as a condition of entrance into the confederacy; while others maintained that it was the right of every state to determine for itself, on coming into the Union, whether it would be slave or free. A bill, known as the Missouri Compromise, was at length introduced by Mr. Clay, to the effect that slavery should be allowed in Missouri, and all states that might be formed south of latitude 36 degrees 30 minutes, which parallel forms its southern boundary, but should be forbidden in the territory north of this line and west of Missouri. This compromise was generally acceptable; it was passed by Congress, and remained in force till 1856.

522. At the commencement of Monroe's term, the country had just begun to rally from the depression occasioned by the war; and, during the three years that followed, it enjoyed uninterrupted prosperity. As a natural consequence, the president stood high in the affections of the people. His popularity was increased by his endeavors to harmonize opposing parties, as well as by his urgent recommendation, promptly acted on by Congress, that provision should be made for the surviving patriots who had served in the Revolutionary War. He was accordingly reëlected almost unanimously, and commenced his second term on the 5th of March, 1821. The seventeenth Congress, which assembled in the following December, contained several new members who afterwards became distinguished; among these were Martin Van Buren, of New York, and Thomas H. Benton, of Missouri. Florida was organized as a territory, and Andrew Jackson was appointed its first governor.

523. The South American provinces, which from the time of Pizarro had remained subject to the Spanish crown, early in the present century followed the example of the North American colonies, asserting their independence and finally establishing it by force of arms. While the struggle was this subject? How was the question settled? What was the substance of the Missouri Compromise? How long did it remain in force? 522. What was the state of the country during Monroe's administration? How did the people feel towards the president? What increased his popularity? What was the result of the election in 1820 ? What new members appeared in the seventeenth Congress? What new territory was organized ? Who was the first governor of Florida ? 523. What struggle was going on meanwhile in South America ? What

1822]

THE MONROE DOCTRINE.

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pending, Clay, who sympathized deeply with the oppressed provinces, strove with his transcendent eloquence to induce Congress to recognize their independence. His efforts at first failed, as Congress distrusted their success; but his speeches were read at the head of the patriot armies, and encouraged them to persevere in their struggle for liberty. At length, in March, 1822, the bill was passed with but one dissenting voice. The president heartily joined in the recognition of their independence, and the following year went so far as to declaré in his message that the American continents were thenceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European power'. This is the famous Monroe doctrine, which has since been advocated by many

of our countrymen. 524. About the year 1820, American commerce suffered much from pirates, who infested the southern waters and made their haunts on the coast of Cuba. As the Spanish authorities made no effort to disperse them, the U. S. government took the matter in hand. The frigate Congress and eight smaller vessels were stationed about Florida, and in the course of 1822 about 20 piratical vessels were captured and destroyed. The Peacock and some more small vessels were despatched to the scene of action in December, 1822, the whole being placed under the command of Commodore Porter. With his usual energy, Porter scoured the infested waters, till he assured himself that not a single piratical craft was left afloat.

525. The people of the United States were much gratified in the summer of 1824 by the arrival of La Fayette, on a visit to the land for whose liberty he had fought and bled. He was received as the nation's guest, and warmly welcomed, not only by the honored patriots who had battled by his side, but also by a later generation that had learned from their fathers his claims to their gratitude and love. Traversing

efforts were made by Clay? What success did they at first meet with? When was the bill finally passed ? What doctrine was put forth by the president? By what name is it now known? 524. From what did American commerce suffer in 1820 ? What measures were taken against the pirates ? 525. Who visited the U. 8. in 1824 ? How was he received? What were objects of peculiar interest to La

the Union, he beheld with indescribable emotion the strength and prosperity of a country which he had left struggling for its very existence. The battle-fields hallowed by patriot blood were to him objects of peculiar interest; and on Bunker Hill, just fifty years after the conflict that made it memorable, he laid the corner-stone of the monument which still rears its head to mark that glorious spot. Everywhere the illustrious visitor received the homage of a grateful nation. Congress voted him $200,000 and a township of land in Florida, in token that his services were not forgotten.

After spending several weeks with President Adams, La Fayette, in September, 1825, bade a mournful adieu to the nation, and set sail in the frigate Brandywine, which had been so named in honor of his first battle for freedom, and was now placed at his disposal to convey him to France. Before leaving, he paid a parting visit to Mount Vernon, and the

grave which contained all that remained of his beloved friend. Overcome by tender recollections, the great patriot

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Fayette? Of what did he lay the corner-stone? How did Congress show its gratitude to La Fayette ? With whom did La Fayette spend several weeks? When did he leave? How was he conveyed to France ? Describe his visit to

1825]

CLOSE OF HIS TERM.

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of France wept long over the dust of the great patriot of America.-La Fayette lived till 1834, prominent in the political history of his country, and to the last the consistent friend of virtue and freedom.

526. The close of Monroe's second term found the country still more prosperous than its commencement. Military and naval defences had been constructed; the rights and character of the nation had been sustained abroad; the dominion of the U. S. had extended on the south and west; civilization had spread among the Indians, and $60,000,000 of the national debt had been paid. It now became necessary to choose a successor to the presidency. Four candidates appeared in the field : Gen. Jackson, of Tenn.; John Quincy Adams, of Mass.; William H. Crawford, of Ga.; and Henry Clay, of Kentucky. The first received 99 electoral votes; but, this not being a majority, the choice devolved on the house of representatives. This body conferred the presidency on Mr. Adams, who was inaugurated March 4th, 1825. John C. Calhoun, of S. C., had been chosen vice-president by the electoral college.

CHAPTER IX.

JOHN QUINCY ADAMS'S ADMINISTRATION, 1825–9.

527. JOHN QUINCY ADAMS was born at Braintree, Mass., on the 11th of July, 1767. At the age of nine, he heard the Declaration of Independence read from the state-house in Boston. Two years afterwards he started for the old world with his father, John Adams, whose patriotic career we have already traced. Accompanying his father to France and Holland, thence traversing the continent to St. Petersburg, where he acted as secretary to the American minister, Mount Vernon. How long did La Fayette live? 526. What was the state of the country at the close of Monroe's second term? What bad been effected ? Name the candidates for the presidency in 1824. Who received the most votes ? On whom did the choice devolve? Who was elected president? Who, vice-president?

527. Give a sketch of John Quincy Adams's early life.

What did he do on the

and on his return passing through Sweden and Denmark, the young Adams, though his education was thus irregular, enjoyed unusual opportunities of becoming acquainted with men and manners, and learning the routine of diplomatic business. On the appointment of his father as minister to England, he returned to his native country, and entered Harvard University, where he was graduated with distinction in 1787. The study and practice of law next engaged his attention; but, improving his leisure to publish some political papers, he became known as a statesman, was appointed by Washington minister to Netherlands and Portugal, was transferred by his father to Prussia, was sent to the senate of Massachusetts and afterwards to the U. S. senate, was made minister to Russia by Madison, and afterwards, as we have seen, served as minister at the court of St. James, and secretary of state under Monroe. By this extended experience was Mr. Adams qualified for the high office to which he was called; and though, soon after his inauguration, the friends of Crawford and Jackson combined to oppose the administration, and party-spirit once more became violent, yet the country enjoyed undiminished prosperity. Henry Clay served as secretary of state throughout the whole of Mr. Adams's term.

528. On the 4th of July, 1826, the fiftieth anniversary of the declaration of that independence which they had helped to establish, among the rejoicings of their countrymen, and while their own names were on every tongue, expired two of the truest benefactors of America, John Adams and Thomas Jefferson,—the former at the age of 90; the latter, 82. Adams had been invited to participate in the celebration at Quincy; but his weakness would not permit, and he could only send as a toast his own words uttered half a century before, “Independence forever!” Before the day was over, he had ceased to breathe, his last words being “Jefferson survives !”

appointment of his father to the court of St. James ? What profession did he study? Give an account of his diplomatic career. By whom was his administration opposed ? Who was his secretary of state? 528. What took place July 4th, 1826 What were the ages of the two ex-presidents? Give an account of

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