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-1826]

EXCITEMENT AGAINST THE FREE-MASONS.

399

Jefferson did live, but it was beyond the grave;

he had died at an earlier hour the same day. For some time before, his strength had been failing; but the wish which he had earnestly expressed to see another 4th of July was gratified. His last words were, “I resign my soul to my God, and my daughter to my country.” A bereaved nation received the tidings of these blows with every evidence of sorrow. Tears fell in all parts of the Union. “It is right," said Webster, " that it should be thus; the tears which flow, and the honors that are paid, when the friends of the Republic die, give hope that the Republic itself may be immortal.”

529. Adams renewed a proposition which had been made by his predecessor, to purchase the lands of the Indians still left in the several states, and remove them west of the Mississippi. Some of the tribes objected to parting with their territory; but in February, 1826, a deputation from the Creeks ceded all their lands in Georgia to the United States, except a million of acres; and these also were afterwards purchased.

530. A new element was introduced into the political contests of the country, by an occurrence which took place about this time in the state of New York. Free-masonry, an ancient institution of Europe, originating with architects and builders, but afterwards extended to all and supported by many of high rank, found its way to America in 1730. Lodges were multiplied; and Washington, De Witt Clinton, and other distinguished men became “free and accepted masons”. In September, 1826, William Morgan, a member of the fraternity residing in western New York, having threatened to publish a work which would reveal the secrets of the order, was suddenly abducted from home, and never afterwards seen by his friends. He was traced to Lewiston, and thence to Fort Niagara; but no further clew to his fate could be obtained. A committee of the legislature, appoint

John Adams's death. Of Jefferson's. What did Webster say in allusion to these events? 529. What did Adams propose with respect to the Indians ? What was done by the Creeks ? 530. How was a new element introduced into the political contests of the country? What is said of free-masonry? Give an account of the occurrence in New York. What report was made by a committee of the legisla

ed to investigate the matter, reported that he had been murdered, and such was the belief of many, though no positive evidence to that effect could ever be obtained. An intense excitement arose against the masons, on whom the crime was charged; and a party was formed with the avowed object of suppressing their secret organization in the United States, as dangerous to freedom of government and the safety of the community. Masonry was too strong to be thus put down; but feeling ran high against it, and for several years at the north the anti-masons exercised a powerful influence, which they used freely for political purposes.

531. De Witt Clinton, one of the most prominent members of the fraternity at the time of this event, shared in the obloquy it occasioned; and, before the excitement had subsided, he died suddenly of disease of the heart, on the 11th of February, 1828. He had filled many high offices DE WITT CLINTON'S RESIDENCE, MASPETH, L. I. with great ability; had been mayor of the city of New York and

governor of the state; had served in the U. S. senate; had done much for literature, science, and art, and worked with equal energy in the great cause of internal improvements. To none of her distinguished sons is the commonwealth of New York more largely indebted.

532. The two principal subjects which engaged the president's attention, were internal improvements and domestic manufactures. He was in favor of opening national roads ture? What was the consequence? What is said of the anti-masons ? Who was one of the most prominent masons? When did De Witt Clinton die ?

532. What were the two principal subjects that en

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531.

What is said of his career ?

1828]

INCREASE OF THE TARIFF.

401

and canals, improving harbors and the channels of rivers, erecting light-houses, and making other provision for the safety of coast navigation. To advance the manufacturing interests, which had become important in the northern and eastern states, lre recommended increasing the duties on imported goods. The necessity of such duties had been generally acknowledged, and in 1816, Lowndes and Calhoun, both of South Carolina, advocated a high protective tariff, or list of imposts. In 1828, in accordance with the views of the president, increased duties were laid on cotton, woollen, and linen fabrics, silk, iron, lead, &c. The north, largely engaged in the manufacture of some of these articles, was of course benefited by this new tariff, because it prevented foreign goods from selling lower than those produced at home; but southern statesmen, including Calhoun, violently opposed it, inasmuch as the south, an agricultural and not a manufacturing country, had to pay higher prices for articles it was obliged to use. Especially in South Carolina was this feeling exhibited; and the people of Charleston showed their disapprobation by placing their flags at half-mast.

533. Mr. Adams ran a second time for the presidency, but was defeated by Gen. Jackson. Calhoun was reëlected vice-president. On the 4th of March, 1829, Adams resigned the country, at peace with all the world, and still blessed with internal prosperity, into the hands of his successor.

CHAPTER X.

JACKSON'S ADMINISTRATION, 1829–1837. 534. Jackson's journey from his home near Nashville, known as “the Hermitage”, to the federal capital, was a gaged the

resi nt's attention! Of what internal improvements was he in favor? What measure did he advocate for the advancement of manufacturing interests ? By whom was a high protective tariff recommended in 1816 ? What action was taken on this subject by Congress in 1828? How did the north feel towards the new tariff : How, the south ? How did the people of Charleston show their disapprobation ? 533. Who were the next candidates for the presi. dency? Who was elected ? Who was chosen vice-president ! On what day was Jackson inaugurated ?

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ANDREW JACKSON.

succession of triumphs. He appointed Martin Van Buren, of New York, secretary of state, and proceeded to fill the principal offices in his gift with men professing the same political principles as himself. To do this, he removed nearly 700 office-holders; and the practice of thus rewarding political friends has been followed by every succeeding president. Jackson was a man of determined will, and his administration of the government was marked by the same energy and self-reliance that humbled the Creeks and drove the flower of the British army from New Orleans.

535. In 1832, the United States was devastated by the Asiatic cholera, a destructive epidemic which originated in 1817 in the marshes at the mouth of the Ganges. After confining its ravages for some years to India, it gradually spread, till it reached London in 1831, creating a consternation like that occasioned by the plague. Crossing the Atlantic the following year, it appeared first in Canada, and thence quickly traversed the Union in a south-westerly direction, setting medical skill at defiance, and hurrying thousands into eternity. Since then, a few cases of cholera have occurred every summer, and the disease seems to have lost much of its original virulence.

536. About this time, the north-western frontier suffered

534. What is said of Jackson's journey from his home to the capital ? Whom did he make secretary of state ? With whom did he fill the principal offices ? How many office-holders did he remove for this purpose ? By whom has this practice been followed ? What was the character of Jackson's administration ? 535. By what was the United States devastated in 1832? Where did the cholera

1832]

BLACK HAWK'S WAR.

403

from what is known in history as Black Hawk's War. The Sacs and Foxes, occupying the Rock River country in Illinois, a quarter of a century before had sold their lands to the United States, but continued to inhabit them; and now that the march of civilization had reached their borders, and

government was disposing of their territory to settlers, they refused to leave it, on the ground that the original sale was illegal. The governor of Illinois took the field with 1,600 mounted men, and induced some of the chiefs to sign a new treaty and cross the Mississippi ; but Black Hawk still held out, and with such of his countrymen as he could raise determined to defend the graves of his fathers. Several skirmishes took place, and the war finally assumed so dangerous an aspect that Gen. Scott was sent from the Atlantic coast with nine companies of artillery. Moving with his usual despatch, Scott reached Chicago, a distance of 1,800 miles, in 18 days; but there his force was overtaken by the cholera, and before he could proceed on his march he lost more men by the epidemic than all that were killed in the war. Thus detained, and exposed to greater danger and suffering than he had ever encountered on the field of battle, Scott was unable to reach the scene of action; and Gen. Atkinson, in several decisive battles, the last of which took place August 2d, 1832, defeated the Sac chief, and gained possession of his person. After being confined for a time in one of the western forts, Black Hawk was taken to the Atlantic cities, where he was well received, and saw much that excited his curiosity. Convinced by his tour that resistance against so powerful a nation was useless, he was at length allowed to rejoin his people. With regret he abandoned to the pale-faces the ancient hunting-grounds of his tribe, and retired to Iowa, where he died in 1838.

537. Difficulties also arose with the Cherokees. This nation now numbered 15,000 souls, and had made no little

originate? Give an account of its successive ravages. What is said of this disease since 1832 ? 536. From what did the north-western frontier suffer about this time? Relate the circumstances that led to Black Hawk's War. What was effected by the governor of Illinois ? Who was finally sent to the seat of war? What became of Black Hawk! 537. With what other tribe did difficulties arise ?

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