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advance in the arts of civilized life. They had a republican government, a printing-press, churches, and missionary schools in which 500 children were receiving instruction. Tired of waiting for the general government to remove them, according to its engagement, the legislature of Georgia passed laws abolishing the Cherokee republic, and extending the jurisdiction of the state over their country. The Indians claimed that the protection of the United States had been guaranteed them by numerous treaties, and appealed to the Supreme Court, before which their case was argued by Mr. Wirt. Though the court declared the acts of Georgia unconstitutional and void, the president favored the removal of the Cherokees beyond the Mississippi ; and Congress in 1834 organized “the Indian Territory”, part of which was appropriated to their use. But the Cherokees refused to leave their pleasant farms and the scenes of their childhood, and at one time war was apprehended. At length, however, in consideration of a little over $5,000,000, they agreed to cede their territory and remove to the west. Even after this, obstacles were interposed; and it was not till 1837 that they were induced by the conciliatory but determined measures of Gen. Scott, who was authorized to effect their removal by force, if necessary, to commence their march to the region assigned them on the bank of the Arkansas.

538. The tariff of 1828, as we have seen, gave general dissatisfaction to the cotton-growing states. A party was soon formed in South Carolina, which claimed for each state the right of nullifying within its limits such acts of Congress as it might deem unconstitutional. They were known as Nullifiers, and were led by Calhoun, then vicepresident, and Hayne, who in the U. S. senate measured his eloquence against that of Webster in a debate which has become celebrated in the parliamentary history of Describe the condition of the Cherokees at this time. by Georgia? How did the Cherokees seek to protect themselves? How was the case decided ? What were the president's views ? What provision did Congress make for the Cherokees? How was their consent to emigrate finally obtained ? How were they at last compelled to go! 538. Who were the Nullifiers ? By whom were they led? What celebrated debate in the U. S. senate is referred to ? What took place in 1832? Who advocated the right of nullification in the senate ?

What action was taken

1833]

NULLIFICATION.

405

America. In 1832 a new tariff was passed, but it was no less objectionable to the south than the former one. Calhoun, who had resigned the vice-presidency for a seat in the senate, defended his favorite doctrine in that body with all his powers

of

argument; and a state convention in South Carolina resolved to prevent with arms the enforcement of the new tariff. There was imminent danger of a collision; it was prevented only by the prompt and decided measures of President Jackson, which determined the nullification leaders to postpone their forcible opposition to the collection of duties till March 1st, 1833. In the mean time, Clay, ever the friend of the Union, appeared with a compromise which provided for the gradual reduction of the duties in question, until in ten years they should reach the low point demanded by South Carolina. This bill was passed by Congress, and received the president's signature, March 3d, 1833. It restored peace,

and averted evils which at one time threatened the very

existence of the Union. 539. Jackson's energetic administration of the government gave general satisfaction, and he was reëlected, with Martin Van Buren as vice-president. He entered on his second term, March 4th, 1833.

540. Opposed to the United States Bank, and apprehending an abuse of the great power it wielded, the president in 1832 vetoed a bill passed by Congress, providing for a renewal of its charter in 1836. In October, 1833, he went so far as to remove from it the public funds, then amounting to about $10,000,000, and deposit them in certain state banks selected for that purpose. So closely connected was the national bank with the commercial interests of the country, that this act, cutting it off from the support of government, created a panic, and plunged the mercantile community in distress. Numerous failures followed; the president was

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What resolution was passed by a state convention in South Carolina ? How was a collision prevented ? What did the nullification leaders finally determine to do? How was the difficulty in the mean time settled ? 539. What was the result of the election of 1832 540, How did Jackson feel towards the U. S. Bank? How did he show his hostility to it in 1832 ! How, in 1833 ? What was the effect of the removal of the deposits from the U. S. Bank? How was this act of the president

violently condemned, and was even censured by a resolution of the senate. Jackson, however, confirmed in his apprehensions by this revulsion, and supported by the house of representatives, stood firm, and, despite petitions and remonstrances, refused to restore the deposits. The state banks enlarged their operations; confidence was gradually restored, and commercial prosperity revived.

541. In 1834, Jackson was compelled to take a decided course with France. By a treaty made in 1831, the French government had agreed to pay about $5,000,000 for injuries done to American commerce during the wars of Napoleon. The Chamber of Deputies having refused for several years to appropriate the money, Jackson, in December, 1834, rea ommended Congress to authorize reprisals on French commerce, and directed the American minister to demand his passports and leave Paris. These peremptory measures had the desired effect, and the money was promptly paid. Portugal was made to pay a similar indemnity; treaties were concluded with Russia and Belgium; and the United States rapidly rose in the estimation of European powers.

542. A war with the Seminoles, which was attended with much danger and suffering to the troops and officers engaged in it, broke out in 1835. It originated in an attempt to remove the Seminoles from their seats in Florida to lands

provided for them west of the Mississippi, to which a delegation of their chiefs had agreed to emigrate. Osceola [os-e-o'-la), otherwise known as Powell, a half-breed of superior cunning and bravery, was the leading spirit. among the Red Men. Preparing his people for a war of extermination on the white settlers, he deluded the U. S. agents with fair promises till he was ready to strike the intended blow. The murder of a chief who had signed the treaty, and the flight of some friendly Seminoles to the U. S. post at Tampa Bay, first revealed his

purposes.

regarded by some ? What position did Jackson maintain ? What was the ultimate result ? 541. With what country was Jackson compelled to take a decided course in 1834 ? Relate the circumstances. With what other European powers were satisfactory treaties made? What was the effect on the standing of the United States abroad? 542. What war broke out in 1835 ? What was the cause

1835]

THE SEMINOLE WAR.

407

enemy had

Troops were immediately ordered to Florida; and Major Dade set out from Tampa with 117 men, to join Gen. Clinch at Camp King, in the interior of the country. Dade's force fell into an ambuscade, and, though they defended themselves bravely, were all killed except one man, who, feigning death, was thrown on a pile of bodies. When the departed, he crept out and made his way through the woods to his countrymen, after incredible sufferings, which, with his wounds, soon proved fatal. General Thompson, while dining with some friends within sight of the garrison at Camp King, was massacred the same day that Dade's detachment was cut off. On the 31st of December, Gen. Clinch, having marched against one of the Seminole settlements, was attacked at disadvantage by Osceola, and, after a severe battle in which the Indians were three times repulsed, returned to Fort Dranė, where he had fixed his head-quarters. The whole country was now ravaged by the Indians. Plantations were devastated, houses burned, negroes carried off, families murdered. The settlers fled to the forts for refuge, but many were cut off on the way.

On the 7th of February, 1836, Gen. Scott, who had been appointed to the command in Florida, reached St. Augustine. Learning that Clinch was hard pressed at Fort Drane, he set out as soon as possible for his relief. Gen. Gaines had also taken the field from the west, with about a thousand men. An action took place with the savages near the scene of Clinch's former battle, and the Seminoles were repulsed with loss. Before Scott could cooperate with the western army and surround the enemy, they had withdrawn to the swamps and everglades in the south, where for a time they were safe from pursuit. Scott then proceeded to the country of the Creeks, some of whom had been induced by the Seminoles to commence hostilities. After the inhabitants had suffered

of the Seminole War? Who was the chief Seminole leader? Give an account of his proceedings. What action was taken by government ? Give an account of Major Dade's massacre. Relate the circumstances under which Gen. Thompson was murdered. What expedition was undertaken by Gen. Clinch? What was the result ? Describe the state of the country at this time. Who reached St. Augustine, Feb. 7th, 1836 ? What was Scott's first movement ? Give an account of Gen. Gaines's engagement with the Indians. Before the enemy could be

much from their depredations, the Creeks were finally subdued and compelled to move west of the Mississippi.

The remaining history of the Seminole War, though it belongs to Van Buren's administration, will be given here. Gen. Jessup succeeded Scott in the command of the army

in Florida. In October, 1837, Osceola presented himself with a flag of truce at the American camp. Jessup, suspecting a repetition of treachery and desiring to save unnecessary bloodshed, disregarded the flag, seized the chief, and sent him to Fort Moultrie, near Charleston, where he died the following year. The Seminoles, notwithstanding, continued hostilities. In December, 1838, Col. Taylor (afterwards a distinguished general in the Mexican War and president of the U. S.) set out with over a thousand men for the almost inaccessible haunts to which the enemy had retreated. The sufferings this army encountered from fatiguing marches through tangled deserts and swamps filled with poisonous insects and reptiles, can hardly be conceived. On the 25th of December, 1838, they found the enemy prepared to receive them near O-kee-cho'-bee [Big Water] Lake. After a hard-fought battle, in which Taylor lost 139 men, the enemy, who had also suffered severely, were obliged to retreat. For more than a year longer the U. S. army underwent terrible privations, in their endeavors to bring this harassing war to an end. A treaty was signed in 1839; but the Seminoles did not entirely desist from their ravages till 1842, when peace was firmly established. Since then, numbers of them have been removed to the west.

543. Two destructive conflagrations, which were regarded as national calamities, occurred about this time. On the 16th of December, 1835, a fire broke out in the lower part of the city of New York, which was occupied by large mercantile houses. The night being so cold that the water froze as it was drawn from the hydrants, over thirty acres were surrounded, what did they do? Whither did Scott then proceed? What did he soon compel the Creeks to do? Who succeeded Scott in Florida ! How did Jessup obtain possession of Osceola ? What became of this chief? In Dec., 1838, who set out on an expedition against the Seminoles ? From what did his army suffer severely! Give an account of the battle of Okeechobee. How much longer did the war continue ? When were peace and security finally restored ? 543.

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