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field, and he received from Washington a commission as ensign. Bearing himself gallantly in the armies of St. Clair and Wayne, he was rapidly promoted, and finally became lieutenant-governor of the North-west Territory. In 1799, he was sent to Congress as its first delegate; and soon after he was appointed governor of Indiana, which then included, not only the region now so called, but also Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin. His services in this capacity, and his victories at Tippecanoe and the Thames, gained for him the hearty gratitude of the west, as well as the unreserved confidence of the whole Union.

John Tyler was the new vice-president. Born in 1790 in Virginia, he was graduated at 17 at William and Mary College, was admitted to the bar two years afterwards, and soon became distinguished in his profession. Tyler was not long in attaining political prominence. After serving successively in the legislature and in Congress, he was in 1825 elected governor of Virginia. Called to the U. S. senate, he ran an honorable career in that body, consistently carrying out state rights principles and generally voting with the democratic party. Differing from Jackson on some points, and an ardent friend of Clay, though known to be opposed to the U.S. Bank, he was placed on the same ticket with Gen. Harrison.

551. Harrison appointed Daniel Webster, of Massachusetts, secretary of state, and soon after his inauguration called an extra session of Congress, to consider sundry important matters connected with the finances of the country When Congress met, the president was no more. He died on the 4th of April, 1841, from disease brought on by fatigue and exposure. Tyler thus became president, and on the 6th of April he took the oath of office.

Congress, at its extra session, occupied itself chiefly with the financial interests of the country. The Sub-treasury Act was repealed, and a Bankrupt Law was passed, which freed

fidence of his countrymen ? Who was the new vice-president? Where was John Tyler boru ! Give an account of his early life. What course did he pursue in the senate? How did he come to be nominated by the whigs ? 551. Whom did Harrison make secretary of state? What did the president do soon after his inanguration ? Before Congress met, what melancholy event happened? Who thus be

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TYLER'S VETOES.

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those who had failed from their obligations, and enabled them to recommence business. The great question before Congress, however, was the establishment of a national bank. A bill providing for such an institution was framed by Clay and passed both houses; but, to the indignation of the whigs throughout the country, it was vetoed by the president. Another bill, similar in substance but modified in some of its details, was passed the following September; but this also received Mr. Tyler's veto. Violent abuse was lavished on the president for thus defeating the favorite measure of the party that elected him; yet he was merely carrying out the principles which he had always held on this subject. The cabinet showed their disapproval of his course by resigning, Mr. Webster alone retaining his seat on account of several important public interests which would have suffered from his resignation.

552. One of these was the settlement of a boundary line on the north-east, between the possessions of Great Britain and the United States. War was at one time threatened ; but the excitement that pervaded the country, particularly those parts of Maine and New Brunswick which bordered on the disputed line, was laid at rest by a treaty made by Lord Ashburton and Daniel Webster on the part of their respective countries, and ratified by the senate August 20th, 1842.

553. The charter of the U. S. Bank expired by limitation in 1836. President Jackson's veto, as we have seen, prevented it from receiving a new charter from the general government; but it succeeded in obtaining one from Pennsylvania, and continued its operations under the management of Nicholas Biddle. Its directors, however, abandoning the prudent policy which had marked its former movements,

came president? What occupied the attention of Congress at this extra session ? What act was repealed! What law was passed! What was the great question before Congress? What action was had on the subject of a national bank? How was it defeated ? How were these vetoes received? How did the cabinet show their disapprobation? Why did Webster retain his seat? 652. What difficulty had arisen between the United States and Great Britain ? How was it settled ? 553. What had proved fatal to the U. S. Bank? From what state did it receive a new charter? By whom was it managed? What policy did it follow? What was it

ventured into the same wild system of speculation that was ruining other institutions, and, like them, it was compelled to suspend in 1837. It resumed payment, but again speculated beyond its means; and, notwithstanding the exertions of its friends, it finally failed in October, 1841, involving

many in ruin.

554. The summer of 1842 was signalized by the return of an exploring expedition which had been sent out four years before by the government, under the command of Lieutenant Charles Wilkes, of the U.S. navy. Accompanied by a large corps of scientific men, and well provided with every thing that could assist them in their researches, Lieut. Wilkes had traversed the Pacific, visited various groups of islands before but little known, surveyed different parts of the western coast of America, and made many important discoveries in the far south, which was the particular scene of his explorations. Among other things, he discovered and coasted for a distance of 1,700 miles what is known as the Antarctic Continent. The whole distance traversed was 90,000 miles.

555. Rhode Island and New York were each the seat of internal disturbances during Tyler's administration. In Rhode Island, the difficulties originated in attempts to change the constitution granted by Charles II., under which the government had been administered for nearly two hundred years. According to this instrument, no citizen could vote unless he had a certain amount of property. This provision and others it was deemed best to alter; but a difference of opinion on some of the points involved gave rise to two parties, known as the “suffrage” and the “law and order” party, each of which elected a governor, and prepared to support its claims with arms. The suffrage party, whose proceedings had not been in accordance with existing laws, elected Thomas W. Dorr. He made an attack on the state arsenal, May 18th, 1842, but was soon compelled to flee before the militia, who

compelled to do? What was its final fate? 554. What signalized the summer of 1312 ? What was accomplished by Wilkes's expedition? How long a voyage did he make? 555. What states were the scene of disturbances during Tyler's administration! Give an account of the difficulties in Rhode Island. Whom did “the suffrage party" elect governor? What was done by Dorr? How were his

1842]

ANTI-RENT DISTURBANCES.

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were called out by his opponents. A second attempt of the suffrage men was defeated by the troops of the United States. Dorr was apprehended, convicted of treason, and sentenced to imprisonment for life; but he was afterwards pardoned. A new constitution, formed according to provisions of the legislature, went into effect in May, 1843.

The disturbances in New York originated in Rensselaer county. In the early history of this state, as we have seen, large tracts were granted to certain persons called patroons, for their services in bringing over colonists from the old world. Among these was Van Rensselaer, whose successors divided the land thus obtained into farms, and invited settlers by leasing them out on very favorable terms. This arrangement had been in force for generations; but in 1840, the farms having by this time increased greatly in value, Van Rensselaer's tenants began to murmur, and even refused to pay their rent, which was in most cases but a few bushels of wheat, three or four fat fowls, and a day's service with wagon and horses, each year. The legislature having tried in vain to settle the difficulty, in 1844, the Anti-renters, as they were called, assumed a bolder tone; disguised as Indians, they tarred and feathered such of their fellow-tenants as paid their rent, and resisted and even killed the officers sent to serve warrants on them. Similar disturbances broke out in Columbia and Delaware counties, where lands were held on a like tenure. In 1846, Silas Wright, governor of New York, declared Delaware county in a state of insurrection, and supported the civil officers with a military force. The leading Anti-renters were taken, tried, condemned, and sentenced to imprisonment, some of them for life. Peace was thus restored; but in 1847 Governor Young pardoned the offenders, and for some years there was danger that the anti-rent difficulties would break out anew.

556. About this time, excitement ran high in Illinois in

attempts defeated ? What was done to Dorr ? When did a new constitution go into effect? What was the cause of the difficulties in New York ? Describe the proceedings of the Anti-renters in 1844. To what counties did these dieturbances spread ? In 1846, what measures were taken by the governor for their suppression? How did the Anti-renters finally escape punishment? 556. What occa

consequence of the proceedings of a body of men calling themselves Mormons, or Latter-day Saints. This sect was founded by Joseph Smith, a native of Vermont. Having removed to central New York, and received an imperfect education, Smith, at the age of 15, asserted that he saw visions; and, seven years afterwards, he declared that he had received a revelation from on high in the form of records, which had been buried in the earth for centuries. They were engraved, according to the account of a Mormon writer, on plates having the appearance of gold and the thickness of tin, which were covered with Egyptian characters, and united by means of rings. Smith pretended to understand and translate this famous “ Book of Mormon", and set it forth as a new gospel for men. It contains sundry wonderful stories about events in America over 2,000 years ago; and it is said to have been written by a man named Spaulding as a

romance.

The immorality of the Mormon doctrines, among which that of polygamy, or the allowing of a plurality of wives, was prominent, recommended them to some; and in 1833 Smith found himself at the head of 1,200 followers. Jackson county, Missouri, became their head-quarters; but, as they declared that the whole western country was destined for their inheritance, and as various thefts were committed in their neighborhood, the Missourians naturally desired to get rid of them. The first opportunity was seized to call out the militia ; and the Mormons, offering no resistance, were driven from the state. They crossed to Illinois, and in the spring of 1840 founded, on a bluff overlooking the Mississippi, the city of Nauvoo (a word which they say signifies beautiful). Here they erected a magnificent temple, and received a large addition of members, some of whom were men of property.

sioned violent excitement in Illinois ? By whom was the sect of Mormons founded? What is said of Smith's early history? How does a Mormon writer describe the plates Smith pretended to have found? What does the "Book of Mormon " contain ? By whom is it said to have been written ? What was the character of the Mormon doctrines ? What one is specially mentioned ? How many followers had Smith in 1833: Where were their head-quarters ? Recount the circumstances that led to their expulsion from Missouri. Where did they then go? What city did they build? What happened next? What finally befell Joseph Smith

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