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1847]

SIEGE OF PUEBLA,

439

arms,

For twenty-four hours the victorious army were annoyed by a desultory fire from windows, by-streets, and housetops, proceeding chiefly from convicts, who to the number of 2,000 had been liberated from prison by the retiring government. But order was at length restored; the citizens who had fled, returned ; and business was resumed.

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577. Eighteen hundred sick men had been left by Gen. Scott at Puebla, under the charge of Col. Childs and a small garrison. The Mexicans embraced the opportunity to besiege the place. Childs, though hard pressed and without adequate means of defence, made a most gallant resistance; and, by dint of almost superhuman exertions on the part of his men, succeeded in keeping his besiegers at bay, even after they were joined by Santa Anna with several thousands of his fugitive troops from the capital. Fortunately, Gen

it? What took place on the 14th of September: How were the victorious army for a time annoyed ? 577. Give an account of the siege of Puebla by the Mexicans. How was it raised ? 578. Give an account of Kearney's expedition. By whom

eral Lane, on his way to the capital with recruits for the American army, heard of the critical position of Colonel Childs. Hastening to his relief, he defeated the enemy and raised the siege.

578. In June, 1846, Col. Kearney [kar'-ne] (soon made general) started from Fort Leavenworth with 1,000 men, constituting “the army of the west", to reduce the northern provinces of the enemy, and make his way to the Pacific. A march of 900 miles brought him to Santa Fé [fa], the capital of New Mexico, the army that had occupied it fleeing on his approach. Having organized a government and garrisoned Santa Fé, Kearney continued his march. He had not gone far when he was met by Kit Carson, the famous hunter and guide of the Rocky Mountains, with the intelligence that California, which constituted the north-western part of Mexico, was already conquered by Commodore Stockton and Col. Fre-mont'. We must go back, to relate the circumstances.

Fremont had been sent out by government in 1842, with a small party, to explore the Rocky Mountain region. On the 15th of August, he reached the highest ridge of that great chain, and beheld before him a snow-crowned peak which towered high above the surrounding eminences. It was determined to ascend to its summit, and plant the American flag higher than it had ever waved before. Leaving their mules, the little party clambered up the precipitous side of the mountain, holding on by its jagged projections. At length their leader reached the top. He stood on a dizzy crest but three feet wide, a sheer precipice of 500 feet yawning before him. Each man having ascended in turn, the American flag was fastened to a ramrod fixed in a crevice of the summit, and left unfurled to the mountain breeze.

Fremont, having accomplished the object of his mission, was again sent out in 1845, to explore the great basin of the Salt Lake, California, and Oregon. Having passed the win

was Kearney met? With what intelligence? For what purpose had Fremont been sent out by government in 1842 ? Give an account of the unfurling of the American flag on the Rocky Mountains. When was . Fremont sent out again !

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UNTURLING OF THE U. 8. FLAG ON THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS.

solved to erect California into a separate government. Calling together the people, particularly the American settlers in the valley of the Sacramento, he set before them the condition of the country, and recommended them to declare their independence. This was done on the 5th of July, 1846. Skirmishes ensued with different bodies of Mexicans. While pursuing one of these, Fremont was informed that Commodore Stockton had taken Monterey, on the Pacific coast, with a U. S. fleet. Immediately laying aside the flag of independent California, which bore a bear for its device, he raised the colors of the United States in its stead, and joined Commodore Stockton. By their united forces the seat of government and other places were soon afterwards taken.

579. On receiving this intelligence, Kearney sent back part of his men to Santa Fé, and proceeded with the remainder to the Pacific. After being nearly cut off by overwhelming forces of Mexicans, he succeeded in reaching his country

For what purpose? What information did he receive in the spring of 1846? Upon this, give an account of his proceedings. While pursuing a body of Mexicans, what did be learn? What did he then do? 579. What were Kearney's

men, and took part in the battle of San Gabriel [gah-bre-el'] (January 8th, 1847), which completed the establishment of American power in California. Never before was so extensive a country subjugated by so small a force.

580. Soon after Kearney left Santa Fé, Col. Doniphan by his command set out with nearly 1,000 Missourians for the country of the Navajo [nav'-ah-ho] Indians, from whom hostilities were apprehended. They were induced to make a treaty of peace; and Doniphan then turned to the southeast, traversed extensive deserts, in which his men nearly sunk from want of food and water, defeated an army of Mexicans more than four times as large as his own, entered the city of Chihuahua (che-whah'-rohah], and took formal possession of the province of which it was the capital, in the name of the United States. Towards the close of May, he effected a junction with Gen. Wool at Saltillo; and shortly afterwards, the time of his men having expired, he led them back to New Orleans. They had marched 2,000 miles, and encountered adventures and hardships which seemed almost like the inventions of romance.

581. After his defeat by Gen. Lane, Santa Anna, deserted by his troops, fled to the coast and thence to the West Indies. The Americans being everywhere victorious, the Mexican government no longer refused to come to terms. On the 2d of February, 1848, a treaty was signed at Guadalupe Hidalgo (gwah-dah-loo'-he-dahl-go]; by which Mexico relinquished to the United States the territory between the Nueces and Rio Grande, together with the whole of New Mexico and California ; the United States agreeing on its part to pay for this extensive region $15,000,000, and to assume debts due from Mexico to American citizens to the amount of $3,500,000. This treaty having been ratified by both governments, peace was proclaimed by President Polk on the 4th of July, 1848.

movements on receiving this intelligence ? In what battle did he take part ? 580. Give an account of Doniphan's expedition. Towards the close of May, whom did he join? Where did he then lead his men ? What is said of their march and adventures ? 581. What became of Santa Anna? What change took place in the feelings of the Mexican government ? When and where was a treaty

1848]

DISCOVERY OF GOLD IN CALIFORNIA,

443

582. California, from the time of its conquest, increased rapidly in population, numerous emigrants finding their way thither from the other side of the Rocky Mountains. In March, 1848, when it was formally ceded to the U.S., it was estimated to contain 33,000 inhabitants. The following June, a discovery was made, which produced momentous changes in the condition of California, and made itself felt throughout the world. A laborer in the employ of Captain Sutter, a Swiss who had settled in the valley of the Sacramento, found in the sand some glittering particles, which turned out to be gold. Similar discoveries were soon made in other places in the neighborhood. An excitement which transcends description seized on the inhabitants; forsaking their farms and shutting up their houses, they flocked to the fortunate spot.

The news soon reached the Atlantic States. Hundreds at once set out for the land of gold; and not from the United States only, but from all parts of Europe, and

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signed? What were its conditions ? When was peace proclaimed ? 582. What is said of California, from the time of its conquest ? What discovery was made in June, 1848! Describe the excitement that followed. Whence did immigrants

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