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but not till he had threatened the Austrian vessel with attack. Koszta was placed under the care of the French consul, till the United States and Austria should dispose of the question. A correspondence ensued, which resulted in the release of Koszta and his return to the United States. His life was probably saved by the decided course of Capt. Ingraham, to whom a sword was voted by Congress in acknowledgment of his gallantry.

603. During Pierce's administration, important commercial relations were opened with Japan. An expedition to this distant empire, whose jealousy of foreigners had kept it comparatively shut out from all nations, had been projected by Fillmore; and a squadron was sent thither under Commodore Perry, a brother of the honored naval hero before mentioned. In the summer of 1853, Perry entered the Bay of Jeddo, his steamers being the first that ever floated on the waters of Japan. The authorities, amazed at such boldness, warned the Americans to depart, but their order was disregarded. A Japanese officer then made his appearance; to whom the desire of the United States to make a treaty with his government for purposes of traffic, was duly unfolded. The subject was referred to the emperor, who appointed the 14th of July for a further conference. On that day, the commodore, with an imposing company of officers and marines, landed and delivered the letter of the president. He was received with great pomp, and informed that an answer would be returned the following spring. In March, 1854, the desired treaty was signed. The privilege of trading with Japan was secured to the merchants of the United States, and two ports of entry were appropriated to their use.

604. The most exciting question that arose during Pierce's term related to the territorial organization of an extensive tract reaching from the western boundary of Missouri, Iowa, and Minnesota, to the Rocky Mountains, and from below the

What course was pursued by Capt. Ingraham ? What was Koszta's fate? How was Ingraham rewarded ? 603. With what country were important commercial relations opened ? By whom was the expedition projected ? Under whose com. mand was it placed ? Give an account of Commodore Perry's proceedings. What was obtained from the Japanese? 604. Respecting what did an exciting question

sas and Nebraska, with the proviso that the Missouri Compromise should not apply to them, inasmuch as it had been Who had found their way thither? What was the thirty-third Congress called on to do? How had this region been obtained? How was it cut off from slavery?

To whom had this district been in part assigned?

What was the substance of a bill presented by Senator Douglas in January,

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RECEPTION OF THE AMERICAN OFFICERS IN JAPAN.

Arkansas River to British America. Though assigned in part to the Indians who had been removed from the other side of the Mississippi, this tract had not escaped the tide of civilized emigration from the east ; and the thirty-third Congress, which commenced its first session in December, 1853, was called upon to provide a government for the thousands of pioneers who were clearing its forests and settling its fertile plains. The whole of this region had been obtained from France in 1803, as part of the Louisiana purchase, and, lying north of latitude 36° 30', it was cut off from slavery by the Missouri Compromise. 1854, Senator Douglas presented a bill for the organization of this region into two new territories to be known as

In January,

Kan

superseded by the compromise measures of 1850. The ques.

term

tion of slavery or freedom Mr. Douglas proposed to leave its occupants to decide, when they should seek admission into the Union as sovereign states. No sooner was this bill brought forward than all the stormy scenes of former years of agitation were renewed. The country was again rent, and sections were arrayed against each other with embittered feelings. The doctrine of " Popular Sovereignty”, as it is called, was violently denounced, particularly in the Eastern States; but all efforts to defeat Mr. Douglas's bill failed; and in May, 1854, having passed both houses of Congress and received the president's signature, it became a law.

605. The doctrine of “popular sovereignty” having been thus endorsed and settled, the men of the east and of the south both strove to encourage emigration, that, when admitted as a state, Kansas might have a majority of settlers in favor of their respective views. The Massachusetts legislature incorporated a company called “The Emigrants' Aid Society", which during 1855 sent out 1,300 persons. Slavery men also hastened thither; and between these two classes of immigrants conflicting opinions soon engendered bitter hostility. The first election in Kansas was held in November, 1854, for a delegate to Congress; it resulted, like others, held in 1855, in the triumph of the pro-slavery party. A legislature elected by the latter proceeded to draw up a code of laws for the government of the territory; but the freestate men, declaring that the election had been controlled by parties who had crossed from Missouri for the purpose and were not residents of the state, called a new convention. This body assembled at To-pe'-ka, and drew up a constitution under which state officers and a new legislature were elected. Thus there were two sets of authorities, each claiming to be lawfully chosen. Civil war was the result. Outrages of every kind were committed, and neither life nor property was safe. Peace was not restored till the president,

1854? What followed the presentation of this bill? What was its final fate ? 605. What efforts were now made in the east and south with respect to Kansas ? What feelings were engendered between these two classes of settlers ? When was the first election held in Kansas ? Which party triumphed ? Recount the circumstances which brought two sets of authorities into the field. What was the

1856]

SUBMARINE TELEGRAPH.

457

on the 3d of September, 1856, issued an order for the suppression of disturbances, and appointed John W. Geary, of Pennsylvania, governor of Kansas, with full military powers for the accomplishment of this object. With Gov. Geary's arrival the war ceased, and order was gradually restored.

606. In the summer of 1856, it was proposed by an enterprising company to connect Europe and America with a submarine telegraph, by means of a wire sunk in the ocean. Communication having been thus established between Newfoundland and Nova Scotia, surveys were made with the view of extending the line to the south-western point of Ireland. The scheme was reported perfectly practicable, the line proposed being 1,640 miles long, and extending over a comparatively level surface at the bottom of the sea, in no part more than 27 miles in depth. After several unsuccessful attempts, a gutta-percha cable, enclosing the telegraph wire, was finally laid from Trinity Bay, Newfoundland, to Valentia Bay, on the coast of Ireland. This crowning triumph of human ingenuity was completed August 5th, 1858, and was celebrated with rejoicings on both sides of the Atlantic.

60%. After the death of the great party leaders already noticed, the old dividing line between whigs and democrats gradually became less and less distinct; and, as new issues arose, new parties were formed. In 1853, the “Knownothings”, or “ Americans”, first appeared in the field, their cardinal principle being opposition to foreign influence, and their motto that America should be ruled by Americans. This order rapidly spread, and in 1854 they were successful in most of the state elections. Many of the whigs joined them; while others, uniting with the free-soil democrats, organized a new party under the name of " Republicans". Three candidates thus appeared in the field at the presidential election of 1856. The democrats, who were in favor of letting slavery extend wherever it found its way by the voice of the

consequence? When and by what means was peace restored ? 606. Give an account of the Atlantic Telegraph enterprise. When was it completed ? How was the intelligence received ? 607. What caused the formation of new political parties? When did the “Know-nothings " first appear? What was their cardinal principle! With what success did they meet? What became of the whig party?

people, nominated James Buchanan, of Pennsylvania ; the republicans and a section of the American party supported John C. Fremont, of California; the rest of the Americans voted for Ex-president Fillmore, of New York. The campaign, which was a most exciting one, resulted in the election of Mr. Buchanan to the presidency, and John C. Breckinridge, of Kentucky, his fellow-candidate on the democratic ticket, as vice-president.

CHAPTER XVI.

BUCHANAN'S ADMINISTRATION, 1857-1861. 608. JAMES BUCHANAN was born April 13th, 1791, in Franklin County, Pennsylvania. He was educated for the law, and began his public career in the legislature of his native state at the age of twenty-three. In 1821 he was elected to the house of representatives. He remained a member of that body till 1831, when he was appointed minister to Russia by President Jackson. On his return, he was sent to the U. S. senate, where he retained his seat till President Polk invited him into his cabinet as secretary of state. In 1853 he was appointed by General Pierce minister to Great Britain, in which capacity he resided at London till 1856.-Mr. Buchanan was inaugurated March 4th, 1857, and appointed Gen. Lewis Cass, of Michigan, secretary of state.

609. In the fall following Buchanan's inauguration, a disastrous revulsion took place in the mercantile world. Banks suspended, factories closed, many merchants failed, and a general panic prevailed. It was some months before business revived and the country recovered its wonted prosperity.

How many candidates for the presidency appeared in the field in 1856 ? Name them. Which was successful ? Who was elected vice-president!

608. Give a sketch of Buchanan's previous history. When was he inangurated? Whom did he appoint secretary of state? 609. What took place in the

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