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several of the slave states that had before been wavering, to join the Confederacy. Virginia (April 17th), Arkansas (May 6th), and North Carolina (May 20th), successively passed ordinances of secession; and on the 8th of June, Tennessee, despite the strong attachment to the Union in her eastern section, followed their example,-making eleven states now in open insurrection against the Federal government.

621. Several of the border states, also, were violently divided in sentiment, many of their citizens being open advocates of secession. A mob in Baltimore, on the 19th of April, attacked a body of Massachusetts and Pennsylvania troops passing through that city for the defence of Washington, and killed two Massachusetts men, the first victims of the rebellion. Missouri was saved to the Union only by the decided course of Captain (afterwards General) Lyon, who broke up an insurgent camp near St. Louis, and secured the U. S. arsenal. Kentucky, though she would not leave the Union, at first contented herself with a proclamation of neutrality, and withheld her active support from the Federal government.

622. Immediately upon the secession of Virginia, the Confederates seized the armory at Harper's Ferry (April 18th) and the navy yard at Norfolk (April 20th), the U. S. officers in charge of those posts having retired with their men after an attempt (but partially successful) to destroy the government property they contained. Large bodies of men rapidly thrown up into Virginia from the states further south, seriously threatened the national capital. The Federal government, on the other hand, was straining every nerve. It collected in and about Washington as speedily as possible, under Lt. General Scott, the hero of Chippeway, Lundy's Lane, and the Mexican War, the volunteers who flocked to their country's defence in answer to the president's call. An energetic blockade of

the attack on Sumter in several of the slave states | Name the states that now seceded. 621. What took place in Baltimore on the 19th of April? How was Missouri saved to the Union ? What position was at first taken by Kentucky! 622. What was done by the Confederates immediately after the secession of Virginia ? How was the national capital threatened? What measures were taken

1961]

BATTLE OF BIG BETHEL.

465

the ports in the rebellious states was commenced, many steamers being bought and fitted up as gunboats for that purpose. The president soon found it necessary (May 3d) to make an additional call for upwards of 82,000 men for the army and navy, to serve during the war; he was answered as promptly and heartily as before.

623. On the 24th of May. the national forces made a forward movement, crossed the Potomac into Virginia, and occupied the heights opposite Washington, and the city of Alexandria a few miles below. About 15,000 men had been concentrated at Fortress Monroe, in south-eastern Virginia, at the extremity of the peninsula between the James and the York River-a strong post which the Federal government had succeeded in retaining. Shortly after the movements just mentioned, Gen. Butler, who was in command of this position, finding the enemy in his neighborhood growing offensively bold, sent out a force to surprise their nearest post at Little Bethel. Failing to accomplish its object, it advanced to Big Bethel, and was there repulsed with loss on the 10th of June.

624. Early in June, a body of Pennsylvania volunteers, under Gen. Robert Patterson, broke camp at Chambersburg, and marched towards the Potomac, in the vicinity of Harper's Ferry, which place was occupied by the enemy in strong force. Col. (afterwards Gen.) Wallace made a dash into Virginia, and on the 11th dispersed a Confederate force at Romney. Gen. Patterson's main body crossed the Potomac soon after, and marched up the Shenando'ah Valley, while the enemy fell back to Winchester. In the mean time, Gen. George B. McClellan was successfully engaged with the Confederates in western Virginia. A Union victory was gained at Philippi on the 3d of June, and a more important one at Rich Mountain, July 11th. The retreating enemy endeavored to make a

by the Federal government? What did the president soon find it necessary to do? 623. What movement was made May 24th? Where is Fortress Monroe ? Who was in command there? How large a force had he? Give an account of the battle of Big Bethel. 624. What movements were made by Gen. Patterson's command, early in June? Where was Gen. McClellan engaged? What Uuion vic

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Manassas Junc,

stand at Carrick's Ford, on the Cheat River, but were routed with loss, their commander (Gen. Garnet) being among the killed. A detachment of 600

men,
left

unsupported and without food, surrendered to Gen. McClellan near Beverly on the 12th; and western Virginia was thus entirely wrested from the Confederates.

625. The main body of the Confederates was concentrated under Beauregard, near Manassas Junction, 27 miles from Alexandria. Under orders from Gen. Scott, General Irvin McDowell advanced by way of Centreville to dislodge the enemy from this position. After

Fairfax C.H. reconnoissance

LBULLA certreville in force south

by Fairfax St. ward from Centre Warrenton ville (July 18th), which resulted in

°Dumfrieso the loss of 100 men, an advance was made on the 21st

Acquiach of July. The Confeder

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Wilderness ates were found

Fredericksburg strongly posted on Bull Run, a considerable mill-stream, and a desperate battle ensued. At first the national forces had the advantage. The enemy were driven two miles, and were on the point of giving way, when Gen. Johnston arrived with reënforcements from the army of the Shenandoah. Eluding Patterson, who had been sent expressly to hold this division in check and prevent it from effecting a junction with Beauregard, they reached the field just in time to turn the tide of battle. The Union forces, exhausted and dismayed, tories were gained in western Virginia ? 625. Where was the main body of the Confederates ? What movement was made against them? Give an account of the battle of Bull Run. (See Map.--Of what is Bull Run a branch ? In what direction is it from Manassas Junction ? From Alexandria?) State the loss on each

RAPPAHANN OCKR

chancellorsville

1861]

MOVEMENTS IN MISSOURI,

467

gave way before the fresh columns of the foe, and a general panic and rout ensued.

Thus this first great battle of the rebellion terminated most disastrously to the Union cause. The Federal loss was 481 killed, 1,011 wounded, and 1,460 prisoners; that of the Confederates, 269 killed, 1,533 wounded, and between two and three hundred prisoners. The victors were too much exhausted to press the pursuit, but their cause was immensely strengthened, particularly in the border states. Confident of their ability to hold Virginia, they had already made Richmond their capital, the Confederate Congress meeting there for the first time on the 20th of July.

626. Though the convention and legislature of Missouri had refused to withdraw their state from the Union, her governor was determined to force her into the Confederacy.

From the commencement of hostilities, partisan warfare and violence of every kind had been rife within her borders. The gallant Gen. Lyon, with the forces at his disposal, had made every effort to restore peace and break up secession camps in different quarters. The Confederates, however, determined to gain the state if possible, pushed up troops from Arkansas and Texas. On the 5th of July an engagement took place near Carthage, in the south-western part of the state, between a body of these insurgents and some national forces under Col. (afterwards Gen.) Sigel [se'-gel]. The advantage was on the side of the latter, though Sigel, by the arrival of reënforcements for the enemy, was obliged to fall back. South-western Missouri was soon overrun by the Confederates.

Gen. Lyon, waiting in vain at Springfield for reënforcements, which, after the disaster at Bull Run, the government was unable to send, at length found it necessary either wholly to abandon that section of the state, or at

side. What was the effect of the battle? What was now the Confederate capital ? 626. What was the state of things in Missouri ? Give an account of the battle near Carthage. Where was Gen. Lyon at this time? What led him to attack the

tack the camp of the enemy, now 23,000 strong, at Wilson's Creek. He chose the latter alternative. A severe action took place on the 10th of August, in which Gen. Lyon fell.

His men, though fighting against four times their number, drove the Confederates from the field, but were not strong enough to hold the position, and effected a successful retreat under Col. Sigel. On the 20th of September, Lexington, on the south bank of the Missouri River, was taken by the Confederate Gen. Price at the head of more than 20,000 men. It had been held by Col. Mulligan and 2,640 national troops, who made a brave resistance, but were obliged to surrender to superior numbers. After striking this blow, Gen. Price turned southward, and Lexington was retaken by a Federal force, Oct. 16th. Skirmishes with varied success were constantly taking place in this department, which, from July 26th to November 2d, was under the command of Gen. John C. Fremont.

627. Several naval expeditions were fitted out by government during the year, for the purpose of taking some of the principal ports in the insurgent states as a base for future operations. The first of these, under Commodore Stringham and Gen. Butler, on the 29th of August took the forts at Hatteras Inlet, on the North Carolina coast, with their munitions of war. A second, under Commodore Dupont and Gen. Thomas W. Sherman, was equally successful at Port Royal, South Carolina (Nov. 7th), thus securing the finest harbor on the south Atlantic coast, and a position at Hilton Head equally favorable for operating against Charleston or Savannah.

628. Meanwhile the Confederates reåppeared in western Virginia, under Governor Wise and Gen. Floyd, who had been Pres. Buchanan's secretary of war.

On the 10th of September, Gen. Rosecrans with a superior force defeated

enemy at Wilson's Creek? Give an account of the battle. Give an account of the capture and recapture of Lexington, Mo. Who was in command of this department from July 26th to Nov. 2d? 627. What two naval expeditions were fitted out during the year, and with what success ? 628. What Confederate leaders now appeared in western Virginia ? What took place Sept. 10th! Who held most of

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