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its perilous position by Lieut.-Col. Bailey, of Wisconsin, who constructed a dam across the river, and thus raised the water sufficiently for the boats to pass over the falls. Such was the disastrous termination of the Red River expedition.

Gen. Steele, who was to have coöperated in the attack on Shreveport, with a strong Union force from Arkansas, was obliged by Banks's reverse to fall back to Little Rock. He succeeded in so doing, but was harassed on the way by the enemy and experienced considerable loss.

671. Late in March, the Confederates under Gen. Forrest commenced operations against the Federal posts in western Tennessee and Kentucky. A garrison of 450 men at Union City surrendered March 24th, and the next day an attack was made on Fort Anderson, near Padu'cah, but repulsed. On the 12th of April, Fort Pillow, about 70 miles above Memphis, on the Mississippi River, was taken by assault, and 300 men of its garrison, consisting in part of colored troops, were inhumanly massacred after they had thrown down their arms.-On the 18th of April, Plymouth, N. C., with 1,600 men, was taken by a Confederate force under Gen. Hoke, assisted by the iron-clad ram Albemarle. The Albemarle was afterwards (Oct. 27th) sunk by Lieut. Cushing, who exploded a torpedo under her, and Plymouth was recaptured, Oct. 31st.

672. The grade of Lieutenant-General, the highest in the military service of the U. S., became extinct on General Scott's retirement. It was now revived by act of Congress, and in recognition of his great services to the republic was conferred (March 3d) on Gen. Gránt. Turning over the great army of nearly 100,000 men at Chattanooga to Gen. W.T. Sherman, and making his head-quarters with the army of the Potomac, Grant ordered a simultaneous advance to 1864]

it placed ? How was it extricated ? What effect had this reverse on General Steele's movements ? 671. Give an account of Forrest's operations. What followed the capture of Fort Pillow! When and by whom was Plymouth, N. C., taken? What became of the Albemarle ! When was Plymouth retaken! 672. What rank was conferred on Gen. Grant? To whom did Grant turn over the army at Chattanooga? What order did he give? When did Sherman begin What were Hood's first movements ? What did Sherman next try to do? Which of these expeditious failed ? How was Hood obliged to

SHERMAN'S ADVANCE ON ATLANTA.

495

be made by both bodies early in May-by the former upon Atlanta, Ga., and by the latter against the Confederate capital. Sherman's men were in motion on the 7th of May. The enemy, 60,000 strong, were at Dalton, Ga., and the campaign was to be carried on in a region of mountains and ridges most favorable for defensive operations,

Flanking the enemy at Dalton, Sherman obliged them to fall back to Resaca. Dislodged from this position after a desperate battle (May 13th, 14th), they continued to retreat, now stopping to give battle (at Dallas, May 28th-Lost Mountain, June 15th, 16th, 17th-Kenesaw Mountain, June 18th July 3d), now outflanked and forced from their strongholds. Constantly skirmishing and delaying as much as possible the Federal advance, the enemy were at last (July 10th) driven into their strong fortifications before Atlanta. Johnston, whose policy in thus retreating was loudly condemned by the Confederates, was now superseded by Gen. Hood, who made three furious attacks on the Federal army before Atlanta (July 20th, 220, 28th), but was defeated in each with very heavy loss.

The city was now besieged, and expeditions were sent out to cut the railroads by which its supplies were received. These were mainly successful; but the capture of General Stoneman and his force, on an expedition of this kind, left one road still uninjured in the enemy's hands. Moving with nearly his whole army to destroy this road, Sherman succeeded in getting between Atlanta and two corps of Confederates that Hood had thrown out to Jonesboro to protect it. This detachment was attacked and driven back; and, his army being thus severed, Hood had no choice but to evacuate the city. Thus, after a masterly campaign, which cost his army 30,000 and the Confederates over 40,000 men, Sherman at last (Sept. 2d) gained possession of Atlanta. to move? Where were the enemy? How were the enemy driven from Dalton ? What battles were fought? Where were the enemy at last driven ? Who super

geded Johnston ?

» well

673. The

army of the Potomac, under the immediate command of Gen. Meade, broke camp May 3d. Crossing the Rapidan, they soon reached “ the Wilderness”, called by that name, being a barren tract covered with brush and stunted trees, not far to the west of Chancellorsville (see Map, p. 466]. Here Lee, compelled to fight or retreat, gave battle May 5th, 6th, 7th. The loss was heavy on both sides. On the 7th Lee fell back to Spottsylvania, where six days' continuous fighting ensued, resulting at last in advantage to the Union arms. Again Lee fell back, and by flanking and fighting he was driven early in June to within a few miles of Richmond. Having tried the strength of the enemy's position, Grant, on the 14th and 15th of June, withdrew his army to the south side of the James, with the view of taking Petersburg, 22 miles south of Richmond, and thus necessitating the evacuation of the latter city. Lee at once threw a large part of his army into the defences of Petersburg.

674. Gen. Grant had also set other movements on foot. The Virginia and Tennessee Railroad was cut by Gen. Crook, who was then to join a cavalry force under Averill and Sigel's army of the Shenandoah, for an attack on Lynchburg. But Averill was turned back at Wytheville (May 10th), and Sigel was defeated near New Market (May 15th), and so the attack on Lynchburg had to be given up.-A more important movement was made May 5th, from Fortress Monroe, by Gen. Butler, who landed a strong force on the south side of the James River, at the mouth of the Appomattox, threatening at once Petersburg and Richmond. He was prevented from taking Petersburg by a force under Beauregard, on its way from Carolina to join Lee; and after a good deal of hard fighting he intrenched himself strongly, and was soon joined, as we have seen, by

Grant's army.

evacuate Atlanta ? 673. When did the army of the Potomac break camp ? Give an account of its movements and the battles that followed. Where was Lee finally driven ? What was Grant's next movement? What did Lee now do? 674. What was effected by Gen. Crook? What was he then to do? How was the attack on Lynchburg prevented ? Give an account of Gen. Butler's move

1864

EARLY'S INVASION OF MARYLAND.

497

675. Three English-built Confederate privateers, that had been roaming the seas, pillaging and burning U. S. merchantmen,—the Alabama, Florida, and Georgia,-terminated their career in 1864. The first of these, commanded by Capt. Semmes and manned mostly by British seamen, had captured sixty-six American vessels. She was sunk June 15th, after a short contest, by the Kearsarge, Capt. Winslow, off Cherbourg (sher'-boorg] harbor, France.

676. An attack on Lynchburg was again undertaken, in June, by Gen. Hunter, who had now superseded Sigel in western Virginia. After defeating several detachments of the enemy, Hunter on the 17th of June reached a point within two miles of Lynchburg; but there finding that reënforcements had arrived from Richmond, and running short of ammunition, he retreated into West Virginia, hotly pursued by Gen. Early. The valley of the Shenandoah was thus left undefended, and Early with a division of 20,000 men seized the opportunity to invade Maryland the third time. Hagerstown was occupied July 5th, and saved from destruction only by the payment of $20,000. The country on all sides was scoured for plunder. Gen. Wallace with a greatly inferior force withstood the invaders for a time at the Monoc'acy River [see Map, p. 480], July 9th, but was driven back with a loss of 1,200 men. Washington was now in danger, and men were hurried forward for its defence from Grant's army and the loyal states. A body of plunderers penetrated to within six miles of Baltimore, and then turning southward made their appearance in the suburbs of Washington, before Fort Stevens. They were driven off by Gen. Augur, and the whole force soon afterwards crossed the Potomac loaded with booty.

A Federal column started in pursuit, and several engagements took place with varied success. Gen. Averill

675. What three Confederate privateers ended their career in 1864 ? How many American vessels had the Alabama captured? What became of her ? 676. What was undertaken by Gen. Hunter? Give an account of his operations. What followed on the part of Gen. Early? How was Hagerstown saved ? By whom was Early for a time opposed ? What was the result? How were Balti. more and Washington threatened ? Who drove the raiders from Washington ? What movements followed ? Give an account of the second invasion. What

ments.

gained a victory at Winchester, July 20th; but on the 24th the Federal force was driven back, and on the 29th, Early, following up his advantage, threw a detachment of his army again across the Potomac. They advanced to Chambersburg, Pan, and demanded $500,000 of the inhabitants. This sum not being paid, they burned two-thirds of the place. On the return of the raiders, several sharp engagements were fought, in one of which Gen. Averill captured some guns, wagons, and 500 prisoners.

Gen, Sheridan, with about 45,000 men, was finally intrusted with the defence of the Shenandoah Valley. Early, largely reënforced, undertook to dispute its possession, but was defeated by Sheridan at Winchester on the 19th of September, and routed with great loss at Fisher's Hill on the 22d. To make the valley untenable to the enemy, Sheridan, as he passed through, drove off the stock, and destroyed over 2,000 barns with their contents, 70 mills, and other property valued in all at $25,000,000. The Federal army now fell back to Cedar Creek, near Middletown, where it was suddenly attacked before day on the 19th of October, driven back four miles, and thrown into confusion with every prospect of serious disaster. Sheridan was at Winchester, twenty miles away. Throwing himself into the saddle on receiving the news, he spurred to the field, and by his personal exertions and the confidence inspired by his presence stopped the rout and turned defeat into a signal victory, taking many guns and prisoners. Badly beaten in all his encounters with Sheridan, Early now moved up the valley, and there were no important movements in this quarter during the rest of the year.

677. Grant was all this time vigorously pushing the siege of Petersburg. Expeditions were sent out to cut the railroads by which it received supplies, and assaults were

took place on the return of the raiders? Who was finally intrusted with the defence of the Shenandoah Valley? What engagements took place between Early and Sheridan! How did Sheridan make the valley untenable to the enemy? What took place October 19th ? What was the result of all these battles ? 677. Meanwhile, what was Grant doing? On the 30th of July what was done?

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