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1864]

ACHIEVEMENTS IN MOBILE BAY.

499

made on the Confederate lines on both sides of the James River. On the 30th of July, a mine was exploded under one of the enemy's forts in the defences of Petersburg, destroying 200 men; but the assault that followed through the breach thus made was repulsed, with the loss of 5,000 men to the Union army. On the 18th of August the Weldon Railroad was seized, and, despite the most desperate efforts on the part of the enemy, costing many lives on both sides, it was held by the Union troops. On the 28th of September an attack was made on the north side of the James, and on the 27th of October at Hatcher's Run; but, while they showed the unflinching courage of the troops, owing to the vigilance and firmness of the enemy, they resulted in little material advantage.

678. Not the least among the successes of the year were Admiral Farragut's glorious achievements in Mobile Bay. Steaming over the bar (August 5th) with four monitors, and his wooden vessels lashed together in pairs (himself lashed to the main-top of his flag-ship, the Hartford), he ran past Forts Morgan and Gaines, which defended the entrance, receiving and returning their fire. The monitor Tecumseh was sunk by one of the torpedoes with which the channel was obstructed; but the other vessels got through in safety and made for the Confederate fleet, consisting of three gun-boats and the formidable iron-clad ram Tennessee. The Tennessee, after a short encounter, surrendered; one of the gun-boats was taken, a second disabled, and the third succeeded in escaping to Mobile. With the aid of a coöperating land force, Fort Gaines was taken on the 8th, and Fort Morgan on the 23d, after a terrible bombardment, during which 3,000 shells were thrown into the fort. Fort Powell had been blown up by its garrison, and the way was thus opened to Mobile whenever its capture should be deemed necessary.

What movement was made August 18th? What was done Sept. 28th! What, on the 27th of October? 678. Give an account of Farragut's achievements in Mobile

What was done to Fort Bay. When were Forts Gaines and Morgan taken? Powell ? 679. Name the candidates at the presidential election of 1864.

Which

679. At the presidential election of 1864 two candidates were presented—Pres. Lincoln, for a second term, by the republicans, and Gen. McClellan by the democrats. The former was elected by a large majority, with Andrew Johnson, of Tennessee, as vice-president.—Nevada was admitted into the Union on the 31st of October, in time to cast her vote at this election.

680. We left Sherman at Atlanta. With his forces once more concentrated, Hood tried to break the Federal communications, but was baffled in the attempt and withdrew into northern Alabama. Here he lay for a time, threatening an invasion of Tennessee, and closely watched by Gen. Thomas, who had assumed command in that state. Sherman now determined on one of the boldest military movements on record. Sending two corps to Thomas's aid, on the 15th of November he applied the torch to the public buildings of Atlanta, and, abandoning his base in the interior, resolved to find a new one on the coast. moved in two columns towards the south-east, traversing a tract from twenty to sixty miles wide, subsisting from the country, destroying the railroads, and followed by a host of slaves who seized the opportunity to gain their freedom. The movement was a perfect success. emy could offer no resistance, and on the 10th of December the Federal army arrived within a few miles of Savannah. On the 13th, Fort McAllister was carried by assault, and communication opened with the fleet. Gen. Hardee, the Confederate commander in Savannah, seeing that the case was bopeless, evacuated the city on the night of the 20th, and the next day it was occupied by the Federal forces.

681. While Sherman was thus engaged, Hood was invading Tennessee. Driving back the Union forces from

The army

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of these was elected ? What state was admitted, Oct. 31st! 680. After the loss of Atlanta, what attempt was made by Hood ? How did he succeed? Where did he then go? By whom was he watched? What bold movement was now made by Sherman! Give an account of his march to the coast. What was done on the 13th of December? What followed the capture of Fort McAllister? 681, Meanwhile, what was Hood doing? Where did Thomas's army make a stand ?

1864]

CAPTURE OF FORT FISHER.

501

point to point, after a severe engagement at Franklin, Nov. 30th, he finally found Thomas's army drawn up for a determined stand, in its intrenchments, three miles south of Nashville. While Hood was preparing to blockade the river and cut the railroads leading to the city, Thomas on the 15th of December moved from his works, attacked the enemy, and the next day drove them from their posi

, tion in great disorder, with a loss of over 13,000 prisoners and many pieces of artillery. Hood, with his army completely demoralized, withdrew into northern Alabama.

682. Hardly less important than the capture of Savannah was that of Forts Fisher and Caswell, defending the approaches to Wilmington, which had been the headquarters of blockade- runners throughout the rebellion. Towards the close of 1864, an expedition against these forts was organized by Admiral Porter and Gen. Butler. Porter commenced operations by exploding a powdervessel near Fort Fisher, on the 24th of December. But the fort received no injury, and the same day the Federal fleet stood in and delivered a tremendous fire, completely silencing the enemy's guns. The next day the troops were landed for an assault; but Gen. Butler, deeming the works too strong, relinquished the attempt and returned with his men to Hampton Roads. The same fleet, with a somewhat larger land force under Gen. Terry, resumed the attack, January 13th, 1865. After a furious bombardment, Fort Fisher was carried by assault on the 15th. - Fort Caswell and the other works of the enemy were speedily taken, and on the 22d of February, the anniversary of Washington's birthday, the Federal forces took possession of the city of Wilmington.

683. Towards the close of the year, various schemes for burning and pillaging were concerted by Confederate emissaries in Canada, and some of them were carried into

.

Give an account of the action in front of Nashville. 682. What important capture is next mentioned ? Tell the story of the first attack on Fort Fisher. When and by whom was it resumed? What was the result ? When was Wilmington occupied ? 683. Where and by whom were various schemes concerted towards

effect. On the 19th of October, a raid was made on the village of St. Albans, Vermont, about 15 miles from the frontier. The marauders robbed the banks, fired on the passers-by, killing and wounding several, and succeeded in making their escape into Canada. Another party captured and burned two small steamers on Lake Erie. On the night of November 25th, an attempt was made to burn the city of New York. Fires were simultaneously kindled in several of the large hotels, but were fortunately extinguished before much damage was done. The perpetrators of this crime also escaped into Canada; but one of them, Robert C. Kennedy, was afterwards caught, while endeavoring to return to the south, and hanged (March 25th) in N. Y. harbor.

684. Sherman allowed his army a short rest at Savannah, and then again took the field. South Carolina was now to experience the horrors of invasion. Threatening different points so as to prevent the enemy from concentrating, Sherman took possession of Columbia, the capital of the state, on the 17th of Feb., 1865, with but little resistance. Thence he directed his course to North Carolina, entering Fayetteville on the 11th of March. By this time Johnston had taken command of the army opposing Sherman, and had been reënforced by Bragg and Hardee. Accordingly, on leaving Fayetteville, the Federal forces encountered a determined resistance, first at Moore's Cross Roads (March 16th), and on the 19th and 20th at Bentonsville. In both engagements the enemy were repulsed, though at the latter place at first successful; and on the 21st Sherman entered Goldsborough, where he effected a junction with a Federal column from Newbern under Gen. Schofield, and another under Gen. Terry from Wilmington, Raleigh, the capital of the state, was occupied April 13th, Johnston falling back to the north-west.

the close of 1864 ? Give an account of the raid on St. Albans. What was done by another party? What took place Nov. 25th ? How was one of the perpetrators of this crime punished ? 684. What state was next the scene of Sherman's operations? When did he take Columbia ? Where did he next go ? Give an account of Sherman's movements in North Carolina. With whom did he effect a

1865]

CAPTURE OF CHARLESTON.

503

685. Gen. Hardee, on abandoning Savannah, had moved to Charleston and assumed command. Sherman's movements in his rear and Gillmore's batteries, now but two miles distant, soon forced him to evacuate the city and the forts in the harbor. The Confederate army on retiring set fire to every building in which cotton was stored, and a large part of the city was consumed. On the 18th of February Charleston surrendered, and the Stars and Stripes once more waved over Fort Sumter. The city had been under bombardment 542 days.

686. Sheridan, with part of his command, now started on a ride up the Shenandoah Valley. Routing the Confederates at Waynesborough, Va., and passing through Charlottesville, he moved rapidly towards the James, destroying the railroad and canal by which Richmond received a great part of its supplies. Then, crossing the river, he joined Gen. Meade's army south of Petersburg.

687. Grant's combinations were now so perfected, and his forces so overwhelming, that the Confederate leaders could no longer close their eyes to their critical situation. On the 7th of March, their Congress passed a bill to arm the slaves-a measure long urged, but opposed by many, and now adopted too late to be of service. As a last desperate effort to save the capital, Lee at daybreak, March 25th, made a sudden attack on Fort Steadman, with the view of breaking Grant's lines on the Appomattox, and cutting off part of his army. The attack was successful, and the fort taken; but it was soon recaptured by Gen. Hartranft, together with 1,800 of the enemy. The same day Grant made a successful attack, and advanced his lines at Hatcher's Run.

688. Gen. Grant now determined to push the enemy vigorously. Sheridan, after a partial repulse on the 31st of March, the next day defeated the enemy at Big Five

a

junction at Goldsborough ? When was Raleigh occupied ? 685. Give an account of the capture of Charleston. How long had the city been bombarded ! 686. Describe Sheridan's operations. 687. What bill was passed by the Confederate Congress, March 7th? What final effort did Lee make? What was the result ? Where did Grant advance his lines, the same day! 688. What victory was next

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